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1.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608419

RESUMO

Loop diuretics (LD) may affect bone health by inhibiting renal calcium reuptake. However, whether vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake modify the association between LD and bone outcome is unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate whether vitamin D level or calcium intake modify the association between LD and various indices of bone health including bone mineral density (BMD) and Trabecular Bone Score (TBS). From The Rotterdam Study, a prospective population-based cohort study, we used data from 6990 participants aged > 45 year with a DXA scan (2002-2008), 6908 participants with femoral neck (FN)-BMD, 6677 participants with lumbar spine (LS)-BMD and 6476 participants with LS-TBS measurements. Use of LD was available from pharmacy dispensing records. Vitamin D (25(OH)D) level was measured in serum, and dietary calcium intake was measured with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Almost eight percent of the participants used LD. The association between LD (past-users compared to never-users) and LS-TBS was significantly different by 25(OH)D concentrations (P for interaction = 0.04). A significantly lower LS-TBS among LD past-users was observed for 25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/l compared to ≤ 20 and 20-50 nmol/l (ß = - 0.036, 95% CI - 0.060; - 0.013 vs. ß = - 0.012, 95% CI - 0.036; 0.013 and ß = - 0.031, 95% CI - 0.096; 0.034, respectively). However, no other significant effect modification by 25(OH)D and dietary calcium intake was found in the associations between LD use and bone health outcomes (P-interaction > 0.13). This study suggests that the association between LD use and indices of bone health is not consistently modified by vitamin D or dietary calcium intake.

2.
Diabetes Care ; 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658976

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess whether individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have increased risk of vertebral fractures (VFs) and to estimate nonvertebral fracture and mortality risk among individuals with both prevalent T2D and VFs. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A systematic PubMed search was performed to identify studies that investigated the relationship between T2D and VFs. Cohorts providing individual-participant data (IPD) were also included. Estimates from published summary data and IPD cohorts were pooled in a random-effects meta-analysis. Multivariate Cox-regression models were used to estimate nonvertebral fracture and mortality risk among individuals with T2D and VFs. RESULTS: Across 15 studies comprising 852,705 men and women, individuals with T2D had lower risk of prevalent (odds ratio [OR] 0.84 [95% CI 0.74-0.95]; I 2 = 0.0%; P het = 0.54) but increased risk of incident VFs (OR 1.35 [95% CI 1.27-1.44]; I 2 = 0.6%; P het = 0.43). In the IPD cohorts (N = 19,820), risk of nonvertebral fractures was higher in those with both T2D and VFs compared with those without T2D or VFs (hazard ratio [HR] 2.42 [95% CI 1.86-3.15]), with VFs (HR 1.73 [95% CI 1.32-2.27]), or T2D (HR 1.94 [95% CI 1.46-2.59]) alone. Individuals with both T2D and VFs had increased mortality compared with individuals without T2D and VFs (HR 2.11 [95% CI 1.72-2.59]) or with VFs alone (HR 1.84 [95% CI 1.49-2.28]) and borderline increased compared with individuals with T2D alone (HR 1.23 [95% CI 0.99-1.52]). CONCLUSIONS: Based on our findings, individuals with T2D should be systematically assessed for presence of VFs, and, as in individuals without T2D, their presence constitutes an indication to start osteoporosis treatment for the prevention of future fractures.

4.
J Clin Densitom ; 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377055

RESUMO

The 2019 International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) Position Development Conference Task Force for monitoring with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) identified detection of atypical femur fractures (AFFs) as an important topic and established this working group to answer key questions in this area. The authors conducted a systematic review of the literature and deliberated on proposed ISCD positions, which were then reviewed by an external expert panel and vetted at the 2019 ISCD Position Development Conference in Kuala Lumpur on March 23, 2019. This paper summarizes the final ISCD positions and the rationale for supporting these positions. Default-length femur imaging or extended-length femur imaging as well as full-length femur imaging (FFI), both single-energy and dual-energy scans, by DXA can detect abnormalities in the spectrum of AFF. It is important to visually inspect all DXA scans of the hip and femur, and report on findings of focal periosteal and endosteal thickening at the lateral cortex (grade: Good, A, W). FFI is the preferred DXA scan mode for detecting abnormalities in the spectrum of AFF. The FFI report should state the absence or presence of abnormalities in the spectrum of AFF. If focal thickening is present on the lateral cortex, the report should state whether a lucent line is seen (grade: Fair, C, W). The ISCD recommends considering the use of bilateral FFI in patients who are currently or have been in the past year on potent antiresorptive therapy (ie, oral or intravenous bisphosphonate or subcutaneous denosumab therapy) for a cumulative period of 3 or more years, especially those on long-term glucocorticoid therapy (grade: Fair, B, W). More research is needed to determine the role of repeat testing and the optimal time interval for follow-up DXA scans, whether an automated measuring tool would perform better than visual inspection, whether FFI would change patient management and outcomes, and the cost-effectiveness of FFI.

5.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(9): 695-706, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deficiency of the thyroid hormone transporter monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) causes severe intellectual and motor disability and high serum tri-iodothyronine (T3) concentrations (Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome). This chronic thyrotoxicosis leads to progressive deterioration in bodyweight, tachycardia, and muscle wasting, predisposing affected individuals to substantial morbidity and mortality. Treatment that safely alleviates peripheral thyrotoxicosis and reverses cerebral hypothyroidism is not yet available. We aimed to investigate the effects of treatment with the T3 analogue Triac (3,3',5-tri-iodothyroacetic acid, or tiratricol), in patients with MCT8 deficiency. METHODS: In this investigator-initiated, multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 2, pragmatic trial, we investigated the effectiveness and safety of oral Triac in male paediatric and adult patients with MCT8 deficiency in eight countries in Europe and one site in South Africa. Triac was administered in a predefined escalating dose schedule-after the initial dose of once-daily 350 µg Triac, the daily dose was increased progressively in 350 µg increments, with the goal of attaining serum total T3 concentrations within the target range of 1·4-2·5 nmol/L. We assessed changes in several clinical and biochemical signs of hyperthyroidism between baseline and 12 months of treatment. The prespecified primary endpoint was the change in serum T3 concentrations from baseline to month 12. The co-primary endpoints were changes in concentrations of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free and total thyroxine (T4), and total reverse T3 from baseline to month 12. These analyses were done in patients who received at least one dose of Triac and had at least one post-baseline evaluation of serum throid function. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02060474. FINDINGS: Between Oct 15, 2014, and June 1, 2017, we screened 50 patients, all of whom were eligible. Of these patients, four (8%) patients decided not to participate because of travel commitments. 46 (92%) patients were therefore enrolled in the trial to receive Triac (median age 7·1 years [range 0·8-66·8]). 45 (98%) participants received Triac and had at least one follow-up measurement of thyroid function and thus were included in the analyses of the primary endpoints. Of these 45 patients, five did not complete the trial (two patients withdrew [travel burden, severe pre-existing comorbidity], one was lost to follow-up, one developed of Graves disease, and one died of sepsis). Patients required a mean dose of 38.3 µg/kg of bodyweight (range 6·4-84·3) to attain T3 concentrations within the target range. Serum T3 concentration decreased from 4·97 nmol/L (SD 1·55) at baseline to 1·82 nmol/L (0·69) at month 12 (mean decrease 3·15 nmol/L, 95% CI 2·68-3·62; p<0·0001), while serum TSH concentrations decreased from 2·91 mU/L (SD 1·68) to 1·02 mU/L (1·14; mean decrease 1·89 mU/L, 1·39-2·39; p<0·0001) and serum free T4 concentrations decreased from 9·5 pmol/L (SD 2·5) to 3·4 (1·6; mean decrease 6·1 pmol/L (5·4-6·8; p<0·0001). Additionally, serum total T4 concentrations decreased by 31·6 nmol/L (28·0-35·2; p<0·0001) and reverse T3 by 0·08 nmol/L (0·05-0·10; p<0·0001). Seven treatment-related adverse events (transiently increased perspiration or irritability) occurred in six (13%) patients. 26 serious adverse events that were considered unrelated to treatment occurred in 18 (39%) patients (mostly hospital admissions because of infections). One patient died from pulmonary sepsis leading to multi-organ failure, which was unrelated to Triac treatment. INTERPRETATION: Key features of peripheral thyrotoxicosis were alleviated in paediatric and adult patients with MCT8 deficiency who were treated with Triac. Triac seems a reasonable treatment strategy to ameliorate the consequences of untreated peripheral thyrotoxicosis in patients with MCT8 deficiency. FUNDING: Dutch Scientific Organization, Sherman Foundation, NeMO Foundation, Wellcome Trust, UK National Institute for Health Research Cambridge Biomedical Centre, Toulouse University Hospital, and Una Vita Rara ONLUS.

6.
Stroke ; 50(9): 2293-2298, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390971

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Recent findings suggest that vitamin D, a neuroprotective prohormone, is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. However, previous studies investigating the association between vitamin D and stroke have shown inconsistent findings. In view of these discrepancies, we determined the association of vitamin D status with stroke using data from a population-based study. Methods- Within the RS (Rotterdam Study), an ongoing prospective population-based study, we measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations between 1997 and 2008 in 9680 participants (56.8% women) aged ≥45 years. We assessed a history of stroke at baseline and subsequently followed for incident stroke until January 1, 2016. Regression models were used to investigate the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with prevalent and incident stroke separately, adjusted for age, sex, study cohort, season of blood sampling, and other cardiovascular risk factors. Results- Of 9680 participants, 339 had a history of stroke at baseline. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was associated with prevalent stroke, adjusted odds ratio per SD decrease, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.14-1.51. After excluding participants with prevalent stroke, we followed 9338 participants for a total of 98 529 person-years. During follow-up, 735 participants developed a stroke. Lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was not associated with a higher stroke risk, adjusted hazard ratio per SD decrease, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.97-1.16. However, severe vitamin D deficiency did show a significant association: hazard ratio, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.05-1.50. Conclusions- In this population-based cohort, we found an association between vitamin D and prevalent stroke. Only severe vitamin D deficiency was associated with incident stroke. This suggests that lower vitamin D levels do not lead to a higher stroke risk but are instead a consequence of stroke.

7.
Bone ; 127: 401-418, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299385

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Solid organ transplantation is an established therapy for end-stage organ failure. Both pre-transplantation bone disease and immunosuppressive regimens result in rapid bone loss and increased fracture rates. METHODS: The European Calcified Tissue Society (ECTS) formed a working group to perform a systematic review of existing literature on the consequences of end-stage kidney, liver, heart, and lung disease on bone health. Moreover, we assessed the characteristics of post-transplant bone disease and the skeletal effects of immunosuppressive agents and aimed to provide recommendations for the prevention and treatment of transplantation-related osteoporosis. RESULTS: Characteristics of bone disease may differ depending on the organ that fails, but patients awaiting solid organ transplantation frequently depict a wide spectrum of bone and mineral abnormalities. Common features are a decreased bone mass and impaired bone strength with consequent high fracture risk, all of which are aggravated in the early post-transplantation period. CONCLUSION: Both the underlying disease leading to end-stage organ failure and the immunosuppression regimens implemented after successful organ transplantation have detrimental effects on bone mass, quality and strength. Given existing ample data confirming the high frequency of bone disease in patients awaiting solid organ transplantation, we recommend that all transplant candidates should be assessed for osteoporosis and fracture risk and, if indicated, treated before and after transplantation. Since bone loss in the early post-transplantation period occurs in virtually all solid organ recipients and is associated with glucocorticoid administration, the goal should be to use the lowest possible dose and to taper and withdraw glucocorticoids as early as possible.

8.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076856

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Higher folate and vitamin-B12 have been linked to lower risk of overweight. However, whether this is a causal effect of these B-vitamins on obesity risk remains unclear and evidence in older individuals is scarce. This study aimed to assess the role of B-vitamin supplementation and levels on body composition in older individuals. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial in 2919 participants aged ≥ 65 years with elevated homocysteine levels. The intervention comprised a 2-year supplementation with a combination of folic acid (400 µg) and vitamin B12 (500 µg), or with placebo. Serum folate, vitamin-B12, active vitamin-B12 (HoloTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and anthropometrics were measured at baseline and after 2 years of follow-up. Dietary intake of folate and vitamin-B12 was measured at baseline in a subsample (n = 603) using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) were assessed with Dual Energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). RESULTS: Cross-sectional analyses showed that a 1 nmol/L higher serum folate was associated with a 0.021 kg/m2 lower BMI (95% CI - 0.039; - 0.004). Higher HoloTC (per pmol/L log-transformed) was associated with a 0.955 kg/m2 higher FMI (95% CI 0.262; 1.647), and higher MMA (per µgmol/L) was associated with a 1.108 kg/m2 lower FMI (95% CI - 1.899; - 0.316). However, random allocation of B-vitamins did not have a significant effect on changes in BMI, FMI or FFMI during 2 years of intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Although observational data suggested that folate and vitamin B12 status are associated with body composition, random allocation of a supplement with both B-vitamins combined versus placebo did not confirm an effect on BMI or body composition.

9.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1632019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945822

RESUMO

A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial assessing the effect of zoledronic acid on osteopenia in 2000 women aged 65 years and older over a 6-year treatment period has revealed a statistically significant reduction of fracture incidence. Although the treatment effect seen in this study may have been somewhat overestimated due to selection, the implications for clinical practice could be considerable, as half of all women aged over 65 years are osteopenic and most fractures in the general population occur in this group. However, treatment with zoledronic acid is relatively expensive and the impact on health care costs of treating all older women with osteopenia would be dramatic. Additionally, the decision to treat should be based primarily on fracture risk, which is not only dependent on bone density, but also on other factors such as genetic susceptibility, risk of falling and previous fracture. Zoledronic acid should be reserved for osteopenic women who have an evidently high fracture risk due to these other factors.

10.
J Bone Miner Res ; 34(7): 1284-1296, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888730

RESUMO

Hip geometry is an important predictor of fracture. We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS studies in adults to identify genetic variants that are associated with proximal femur geometry phenotypes. We analyzed four phenotypes: (i) femoral neck length; (ii) neck-shaft angle; (iii) femoral neck width, and (iv) femoral neck section modulus, estimated from DXA scans using algorithms of hip structure analysis. In the Discovery stage, 10 cohort studies were included in the fixed-effect meta-analysis, with up to 18,719 men and women ages 16 to 93 years. Association analyses were performed with ∼2.5 million polymorphisms under an additive model adjusted for age, body mass index, and height. Replication analyses of meta-GWAS significant loci (at adjusted genomewide significance [GWS], threshold p ≤ 2.6 × 10-8 ) were performed in seven additional cohorts in silico. We looked up SNPs associated in our analysis, for association with height, bone mineral density (BMD), and fracture. In meta-analysis (combined Discovery and Replication stages), GWS associations were found at 5p15 (IRX1 and ADAMTS16); 5q35 near FGFR4; at 12p11 (in CCDC91); 11q13 (near LRP5 and PPP6R3 (rs7102273)). Several hip geometry signals overlapped with BMD, including LRP5 (chr. 11). Chr. 11 SNP rs7102273 was associated with any-type fracture (p = 7.5 × 10-5 ). We used bone transcriptome data and discovered several significant eQTLs, including rs7102273 and PPP6R3 expression (p = 0.0007), and rs6556301 (intergenic, chr.5 near FGFR4) and PDLIM7 expression (p = 0.005). In conclusion, we found associations between several genes and hip geometry measures that explained 12% to 22% of heritability at different sites. The results provide a defined set of genes related to biological pathways relevant to BMD and etiology of bone fragility. © 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

11.
J Bone Miner Res ; 34(4): 579-604, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803025

RESUMO

An evidence-based clinical guideline for the diagnosis and management of Paget's disease of bone (PDB) was developed using GRADE methodology, by a Guideline Development Group (GDG) led by the Paget's Association (UK). A systematic review of diagnostic tests and pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment options was conducted that sought to address several key questions of clinical relevance. Twelve recommendations and five conditional recommendations were made, but there was insufficient evidence to address eight of the questions posed. The following recommendations were identified as the most important: 1) Radionuclide bone scans, in addition to targeted radiographs, are recommended as a means of fully and accurately defining the extent of metabolically active disease in patients with PDB. 2) Serum total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is recommended as a first-line biochemical screening test in combination with liver function tests in screening for the presence of metabolically active PDB. 3) Bisphosphonates are recommended for the treatment of bone pain associated with PDB. Zoledronic acid is recommended as the bisphosphonate most likely to give a favorable pain response. 4) Treatment aimed at improving symptoms is recommended over a treat-to-target strategy aimed at normalizing total ALP in PDB. 5) Total hip or knee replacements are recommended for patients with PDB who develop osteoarthritis in whom medical treatment is inadequate. There is insufficient information to recommend one type of surgical approach over another. The guideline was endorsed by the European Calcified Tissues Society, the International Osteoporosis Foundation, the American Society of Bone and Mineral Research, the Bone Research Society (UK), and the British Geriatric Society. The GDG noted that there had been a lack of research on patient-focused clinical outcomes in PDB and identified several areas where further research was needed. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(2): 276-287, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721968

RESUMO

Background: Lean body mass (LM) plays an important role in mobility and metabolic function. We previously identified five loci associated with LM adjusted for fat mass in kilograms. Such an adjustment may reduce the power to identify genetic signals having an association with both lean mass and fat mass. Objectives: To determine the impact of different fat mass adjustments on genetic architecture of LM and identify additional LM loci. Methods: We performed genome-wide association analyses for whole-body LM (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, age2, and height with or without fat mass adjustments (Model 1 no fat adjustment; Model 2 adjustment for fat mass as a percentage of body mass; Model 3 adjustment for fat mass in kilograms). Results: Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in separate loci, including one novel LM locus (TNRC6B), were successfully replicated in an additional 47,227 individuals from 29 cohorts. Based on the strengths of the associations in Model 1 vs Model 3, we divided the LM loci into those with an effect on both lean mass and fat mass in the same direction and refer to those as "sumo wrestler" loci (FTO and MC4R). In contrast, loci with an impact specifically on LM were termed "body builder" loci (VCAN and ADAMTSL3). Using existing available genome-wide association study databases, LM increasing alleles of SNPs in sumo wrestler loci were associated with an adverse metabolic profile, whereas LM increasing alleles of SNPs in "body builder" loci were associated with metabolic protection. Conclusions: In conclusion, we identified one novel LM locus (TNRC6B). Our results suggest that a genetically determined increase in lean mass might exert either harmful or protective effects on metabolic traits, depending on its relation to fat mass.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Composição Corporal/genética , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas ADAMTS/genética , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Impedância Elétrica , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/genética , Versicanas/genética , Adulto Jovem
13.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 31(10): 1491-1499, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Symptoms of apathy are common in older persons. Negative effects on physical performance and fall risk are plausible, considering the pathophysiology of apathy. However, literature is scarce. AIM: To longitudinally assess the association between apathy and (1) decline of physical performance and (2) the number of falls in older community-dwelling persons. METHODS: The 'B vitamins for the PRevention Of Osteoporotic Fractures' study provided data on 2919 older persons over a period of 2 years. Apathy was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale 3. A physical performance score (PPS) was calculated using three performance tests. Falls were registered prospectively. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (ORs), Incidence Rate Ratios (IRRs), and their 95% confidence intervals. Effect modification by age and gender was investigated. We also investigated mediation by baseline PPS for the association between apathy and the number of falls. RESULTS: Apathy and decline of PPS were independently associated. After stratification, the effect only remained in men. Age was an effect modifier; higher ORs for decreasing age. Apathy was also independently associated with the number of falls. After stratification, women had higher IRRs than men. Age modified the association in the opposite direction: higher IRRs for increasing age. Baseline PPS was a mediator in the association. CONCLUSION: The impact of apathy on physical performance and fall incidents varied with age and gender. Potentially, in older individuals with apathy, fall risk is preceded by a decline in physical performance. In clinical practice, identifying apathy in older persons might be useful to target mobility preserving interventions.

15.
JBMR Plus ; 2(1): 1-11, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30283886

RESUMO

Atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) are uncommon and have been associated particularly with long-term antiresorptive therapy, including bisphosphonates. Although the pathogenesis of AFFs is unknown, their identification in bisphosphonate-naïve individuals and in monogenetic bone disorders has led to the hypothesis that genetic factors predispose to AFF. Our aim was to review and summarize the evidence for genetic factors in individuals with AFF. We conducted structured literature searches and hand-searching of conference abstracts/reference lists for key words relating to AFF and identified 2566 citations. Two individuals independently reviewed citations for (i) cases of AFF in monogenetic bone diseases and (ii) genetic studies in individuals with AFF. AFFs were reported in 23 individuals with the following 7 monogenetic bone disorders (gene): osteogenesis imperfecta (COL1A1/COL1A2), pycnodysostosis (CTSK), hypophosphatasia (ALPL), X-linked osteoporosis (PLS3), osteopetrosis, X-linked hypophosphatemia (PHEX), and osteoporosis pseudoglioma syndrome (LRP5). In 8 cases (35%), the monogenetic bone disorder was uncovered after the AFF occurred. Cases of bisphosphonate-naïve AFF were reported in pycnodysostosis, hypophosphatasia, osteopetrosis, X-linked hypophosphatemia, and osteoporosis pseudoglioma syndrome. A pilot study in 13 AFF patients and 268 controls identified a greater number of rare variants in AFF cases using exon array analysis. A whole-exome sequencing study in 3 sisters with AFFs showed, among 37 shared genetic variants, a p.Asp188Tyr mutation in the GGPS1 gene in the mevalonate pathway, critical to osteoclast function, which is also inhibited by bisphosphonates. Two studies completed targeted ALPL gene sequencing, an ALPL heterozygous mutation was found in 1 case of a cohort of 11 AFFs, whereas the second study comprising 10 AFF cases did not find mutations in ALPL. Targeted sequencing of ALPL, COL1A1, COL1A2, and SOX9 genes in 5 cases of AFF identified a variant in COL1A2 in 1 case. These findings suggest a genetic susceptibility for AFFs. A large multicenter collaborative study of well-phenotyped AFF cases and controls is needed to understand the role of genetics in this uncommon condition.

16.
Br J Nutr ; 120(10): 1159-1170, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30205856

RESUMO

The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)-pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D-pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA. For each 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) was higher by 1·1 ml in EA (95 % CI 0·9, 1·3; P<0·0001) and 1·8 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·5; P<0·0001) in AA (P race difference=0·06), and forced vital capacity (FVC) was higher by 1·3 ml in EA (95 % CI 1·0, 1·6; P<0·0001) and 1·5 ml (95 % CI 0·8, 2·3; P=0·0001) in AA (P race difference=0·56). Among EA, the 25(OH)D-FVC association was stronger in smokers: per 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, FVC was higher by 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·3) for current smokers and 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·2, 2·1) for former smokers, compared with 0·8 ml (95 % CI 0·4, 1·2) for never smokers. In summary, the 25(OH)D associations with FEV1 and FVC were positive in both ancestries. In EA, a stronger association was observed for smokers compared with never smokers, which supports the importance of vitamin D in vulnerable populations.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30199657

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have anti-inflammatory properties that could benefit adults with comprised pulmonary health. OBJECTIVE: To investigate n-3 PUFA associations with spirometric measures of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and determine underlying genetic susceptibility. METHODS: Associations of n-3 PUFA biomarkers (alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid [DPA], and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) were evaluated with PFTs (forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], and [FEV1/FVC]) in meta-analyses across seven cohorts from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium (N=16,134 of European or African ancestry). PFT-associated n-3 PUFAs were carried forward to genome-wide interaction analyses in the four largest cohorts (N=11,962) and replicated in one cohort (N=1,687). Cohort-specific results were combined using joint 2 degree-of-freedom (2df) meta-analyses of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations and their interactions with n-3 PUFAs. RESULTS: DPA and DHA were positively associated with FEV1 and FVC (P<0.025), with evidence for effect modification by smoking and by sex. Genome-wide analyses identified a novel association of rs11693320-an intronic DPP10 SNP-with FVC when incorporating an interaction with DHA, and the finding was replicated (P2df=9.4×10-9 across discovery and replication cohorts). The rs11693320-A allele (frequency~80%) was associated with lower FVC (PSNP=2.1×10-9; ßSNP= -161.0mL), and the association was attenuated by higher DHA levels (PSNP×DHA interaction=2.1×10-7; ßSNP×DHA interaction=36.2mL). CONCLUSIONS: We corroborated beneficial effects of n-3 PUFAs on pulmonary function. By modeling genome-wide n-3 PUFA interactions, we identified a novel DPP10 SNP association with FVC that was not detectable in much larger studies ignoring this interaction.

18.
Nat Rev Endocrinol ; 14(8): 476-500, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29959430

RESUMO

This Consensus Statement covers recommendations for the diagnosis and management of patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) and related disorders, which comprise metabolic disorders characterized by physical findings that variably include short bones, short stature, a stocky build, early-onset obesity and ectopic ossifications, as well as endocrine defects that often include resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH) and TSH. The presentation and severity of PHP and its related disorders vary between affected individuals with considerable clinical and molecular overlap between the different types. A specific diagnosis is often delayed owing to lack of recognition of the syndrome and associated features. The participants in this Consensus Statement agreed that the diagnosis of PHP should be based on major criteria, including resistance to PTH, ectopic ossifications, brachydactyly and early-onset obesity. The clinical and laboratory diagnosis should be confirmed by a molecular genetic analysis. Patients should be screened at diagnosis and during follow-up for specific features, such as PTH resistance, TSH resistance, growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadism, skeletal deformities, oral health, weight gain, glucose intolerance or type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension, as well as subcutaneous and/or deeper ectopic ossifications and neurocognitive impairment. Overall, a coordinated and multidisciplinary approach from infancy through adulthood, including a transition programme, should help us to improve the care of patients affected by these disorders.

19.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 6(8): 647-658, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30017799

RESUMO

During ageing, the secretory patterns of the hormones produced by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis change, as does the sensitivity of the axis to negative feedback by end hormones. Additionally, glucose homoeostasis tends towards disequilibrium with increasing age. Along with these endocrine alterations, a loss of bone and muscle mass and strength occurs, coupled with an increase in fat mass. In addition, ageing-induced effects are difficult to disentangle from the influence of other factors that are common in older people, such as chronic diseases, inflammation, and low nutritional status, all of which can also affect endocrine systems. Traditionally, the decrease in hormone activity during the ageing process has been considered to be detrimental because of the related decline in bodily functions. The concept of hormone replacement therapy was suggested as a therapeutic intervention to stop or reverse this decline. However, clearly some of these changes are a beneficial adaptation to ageing, whereas hormonal intervention often causes important adverse effects. In this paper, we discuss the effects of age on the different hypothalamic-pituitary-hormonal organ axes, as well as age-related changes in calcium and bone metabolism and glucose homoeostasis.

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