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1.
Curr Osteoporos Rep ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587247

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atypical femur fractures (AFFs) are rare subtrochanteric or diaphyseal fractures regarded as side effects of bisphosphonates (BPs), possibly with a genetic background. Here, we summarize the most recent knowledge about genetics of AFFs. RECENT FINDINGS: AFF has been reported in 57 patients with seven different monogenic bone disorders including hypophosphatasia and osteogenesis imperfecta; 56.1% had never used BPs, while 17.5% were diagnosed with the disorder only after the AFF. Gene mutation finding in familial and sporadic cases identified possible AFF-related variants in the GGPS1 and ATRAID genes respectively. Functional follow-up studies of mutant proteins showed possible roles in AFF. A recent small genome-wide association study on 51 AFF cases did not identify significant hits associated with AFF. Recent findings have strengthened the hypothesis that AFFs have underlying genetic components but more studies are needed in AFF families and larger cohorts of sporadic cases to confirm previous results and/or find novel gene variants involved in the pathogenesis of AFFs.

2.
Curr Osteoporos Rep ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432548

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the recently published evidence concerning vertebral fracture risk in individuals with diabetes mellitus. RECENT FINDINGS: Vertebral fracture risk is increased in individuals with T2DM. The presence of vertebral fractures in T2DM is associated with increased non-vertebral fracture risk and mortality. TBS could be helpful to estimate vertebral fracture risk in individuals with T2DM. An increased amount of bone marrow fat has been implicated in bone fragility in T2DM. Results from two recent studies show that both teriparatide and denosumab are effective in reducing vertebral fracture risk also in individuals with T2DM. Individuals with T2DM could benefit from systematic screening in the clinic for presence of vertebral fractures.

3.
Arch Osteoporos ; 16(1): 11, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415510

RESUMO

This is a survey study concerning osteoporosis care during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Netherlands. Respondents reported that osteoporosis care stagnated and lower quality of care was provided. This leads to the conclusion that standardization of osteoporosis care delivery in situations of crisis is needed. PURPOSE: During the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was no guidance of professional societies or guidelines on the organization of osteoporosis care in case of such a crisis, and treatment relied on local ad hoc strategies. Experiences from the current pandemic need to be taken into account for the near future, and therefore, a national multidisciplinary survey was carried out in the Netherlands. METHODS: A survey of 17 questions concerning the continuation of bone mineral density measurements by Dual Energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), outpatient clinic visits, and prescription of medication was sent to physicians, nurses, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants working in the field of osteoporosis. RESULTS: 77 respondents finished the questionnaire, of whom 39 (50.6%) reported a decline in DXA-scanning and 36 (46.8%) no scanning at all during the pandemic. There was an increase in remote consultations for both new and control patient visits (n = 48, 62.3%; n = 62, 81.7% respectively). Lower quality of care regarding fracture prevention was reported by more than half of the respondents (n = 44, 57.1%). Treatment with intravenous bisphosphonates and denosumab was delayed according to 35 (45.4%) and 6 (6.3%) of the respondents, respectively. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, osteoporosis care almost completely arrested, especially because of the discontinuation of DXA-scanning and closing of outpatient clinics. More than half of the respondents reported a substantial lower quality of osteoporosis care during the COVID pandemic. To prevent an increase in fracture rates and a decrease in patient motivation, adherence and satisfaction, standardization of osteoporosis care delivery in situations of crisis is needed.


Assuntos
Osteoporose , Absorciometria de Fóton , Humanos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(1): e24414, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1/2 mutation carriers are recommended to undergo risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) at 35 to 45 years of age. RRSO substantially decreases ovarian cancer risk, but at the cost of immediate menopause. Knowledge about the potential adverse effects of premenopausal RRSO, such as increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cognitive dysfunction, and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL), is limited. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the long-term health effects of premenopausal RRSO on cardiovascular disease, bone health, cognitive functioning, urological complaints, sexual functioning, and HRQoL in women with high familial risk of breast or ovarian cancer. METHODS: We will conduct a multicenter cross-sectional study with prospective follow-up, nested in a nationwide cohort of women at high familial risk of breast or ovarian cancer. A total of 500 women who have undergone RRSO before 45 years of age, with a follow-up period of at least 10 years, will be compared with 250 women (frequency matched on current age) who have not undergone RRSO or who have undergone RRSO at over 55 years of age. Participants will complete an online questionnaire on lifestyle, medical history, cardiovascular risk factors, osteoporosis, cognitive function, urological complaints, and HRQoL. A full cardiovascular assessment and assessment of bone mineral density will be performed. Blood samples will be obtained for marker analysis. Cognitive functioning will be assessed objectively with an online neuropsychological test battery. RESULTS: This study was approved by the institutional review board in July 2018. In February 2019, we included our first participant. As of November 2020, we had enrolled 364 participants in our study. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge from this study will contribute to counseling women with a high familial risk of breast/ovarian cancer about the long-term health effects of premenopausal RRSO. The results can also be used to offer health recommendations after RRSO. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03835793; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03835793. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/24414.

5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 654, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510174

RESUMO

Low muscle strength is an important heritable indicator of poor health linked to morbidity and mortality in older people. In a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 256,523 Europeans aged 60 years and over from 22 cohorts we identify 15 loci associated with muscle weakness (European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People definition: n = 48,596 cases, 18.9% of total), including 12 loci not implicated in previous analyses of continuous measures of grip strength. Loci include genes reportedly involved in autoimmune disease (HLA-DQA1 p = 4 × 10-17), arthritis (GDF5 p = 4 × 10-13), cell cycle control and cancer protection, regulation of transcription, and others involved in the development and maintenance of the musculoskeletal system. Using Mendelian randomization we report possible overlapping causal pathways, including diabetes susceptibility, haematological parameters, and the immune system. We conclude that muscle weakness in older adults has distinct mechanisms from continuous strength, including several pathways considered to be hallmarks of ageing.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Debilidade Muscular/genética , Sarcopenia/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Fator 5 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Cadeias alfa de HLA-DQ/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/genética , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Debilidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2033012, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416887

RESUMO

Importance: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) are implicated in the pathophysiological processes of dementia and potentially underlie the association of diabetes with neurodegeneration. However, longitudinal studies examining this association are lacking. Objective: To determine whether markers of the AGE-RAGE system are associated with prevalent and incident dementia and with cognition. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this population-based cohort study including participants from the prospective Rotterdam Study, extracellular newly identified RAGE binding protein (EN-RAGE) and soluble RAGE (S-RAGE) were measured in plasma collected between 1997 and 1999 in a random selection of participants, and additionally in participants with prevalent dementia. Participants without dementia were followed up for dementia until 2016. Skin AGEs, measured as skin autofluorescence, and cognition were measured between 2013 and 2016 in participants without dementia. Data analysis was performed from June 2019 to December 2019. Exposures: EN-RAGE, S-RAGE, and skin autofluorescence. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalent and incident dementia and cognition, adjusted for potential confounders, including age, sex, diabetes, educational level, APOE ε4 carrier status, smoking, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Results: Of 3889 included participants (mean [SD] age, 72.5 [8.9] years; 2187 [56.2%] women), 1021 participants had data on plasma markers (mean [SD] age 73.6 [7.8] years; 564 [55.2%] women), 73 participants had dementia at baseline, and during 10 711 person-years of follow-up, 161 participants developed incident dementia. Compared with low levels, high EN-RAGE level was associated with a higher prevalence of dementia (odds ratio [OR], 3.68 [95% CI, 1.50-8.03]; P = .003), while high S-RAGE level was associated with a lower prevalence of dementia (OR, 0.37 [95% CI, 0.17-0.78]; P = .01). These associations attenuated in a longitudinal setting, with hazard ratios of 0.65 (95% CI, 0.42-1.01) for high EN-RAGE (P = .05) and 1.22 (95% CI, 0.82-1.81) for high S-RAGE (P = .33). Among 2890 participants without dementia (mean [SD] age, 72.5 [9.4] years; 1640 [57%] women), higher skin autofluorescence was associated with lower global cognitive function (adjusted difference in z score per 1-SD higher skin autofluorescence, -0.07 [95% CI, -0.11 to -0.04]), especially among carriers of the APOE ε4 allele (adjusted difference in z score per 1-SD higher skin autofluorescence, -0.15 [95% CI, -0.22 to -0.07]). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that the AGE-RAGE system is associated with cognitive decline and dementia cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. This indicates either a short-term association or reverse causality. Findings of cross-sectional associations between higher skin autofluorescence and lower cognitive function and an association with APOE status also warrant replication and prospective studies.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103722

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Denosumab discontinuation is characterized by an increase in bone turnover overriding pre-treatment status, a rapid bone loss in the majority and multiple vertebral fractures (VFx) in some patients. METHODS: A working group of the European Calcified Tissue Society (ECTS) performed an updated systematic review of existing literature on changes of bone turnover, bone mineral density (BMD), and fracture risk after denosumab discontinuation and provided advice on management based on expert opinion. RESULTS: Important risk factors for multiple VFx following denosumab cessation are prevalent VFx, longer duration off therapy, greater gain in hip BMD during therapy, and greater loss of hip BMD after therapy according to a retrospective analysis of the FREEDOM Extension Study. Case series indicate that prior bisphosphonate therapy mitigates the biochemical rebound phenomenon after denosumab discontinuation, but it is uncertain whether this attenuation prevents BMD loss and fractures. Current evidence indicates partial efficacy of subsequent antiresorptive treatment with results seemingly dependent on duration of denosumab treatment. CONCLUSIONS: A careful assessment of indications to start denosumab treatment is advised, especially for younger patients. A case for long-term treatment with denosumab can be made for patients at high fracture risk already on denosumab treatment given the favorable efficacy and safety profile. In case of denosumab discontinuation, alternative antiresorptive treatment should be initiated 6 months after the final denosumab injection. Assessment of bone turnover markers may help define the optimal regimen, pending results of ongoing RCTs. Patients having sustained VFx should be offered prompt treatment to reduce high bone turnover.

8.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab ; 30(6): 386-395, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998111

RESUMO

Fasting enhances the beneficial metabolic outcomes of exercise; however, it is unknown whether body composition is favorably modified on the short term. A baseline-follow-up study was carried out to assess the effect of an established protocol involving short-term combined exercise with fasting on body composition. One hundred seven recreationally exercising males underwent a 10-day intervention across 15 fitness centers in the Netherlands involving a 3-day gradual decrease of food intake, a 3-day period with extremely low caloric intake, and a gradual 4-day increase to initial caloric intake, with daily 30-min submaximal cycling. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis, all subjects substantially lost total body mass (-3.9 ± 1.9 kg; p < .001) and fat mass (-3.3 ± 1.3 kg; p < .001). Average lean mass was lost (-0.6 ± 1.5 kg; p < .001), but lean mass as a percentage of total body mass was not reduced. The authors observed a loss of -3.9 ± 1.9% android fat over total fat mass (p < .001), a loss of -2.2 ± 1.9% gynoid over total fat mass (p < .001), and reduced android/gynoid ratios (-0.05 ± 0.1; p < .001). Analyzing 15 preselected single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 13 metabolism-related genes revealed trending associations for thyroid state-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs225014 (deiodinase 2) and rs35767 (insulin-like growth factor1), and rs1053049 (PPARD). In conclusion, a short period of combined fasting and exercise leads to a substantial loss of body and fat mass without a loss of lean mass as a percentage of total mass.

9.
Horm Res Paediatr ; 93(3): 182-196, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756064

RESUMO

Patients affected by pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) or related disorders are characterized by physical findings that may include brachydactyly, a short stature, a stocky build, early-onset obesity, ectopic ossifications, and neurodevelopmental deficits, as well as hormonal resistance most prominently to parathyroid hormone (PTH). In addition to these alterations, patients may develop other hormonal resistances, leading to overt or subclinical hypothyroidism, hypogonadism and growth hormone (GH) deficiency, impaired growth without measurable evidence for hormonal abnormalities, type 2 diabetes, and skeletal issues with potentially severe limitation of mobility. PHP and related disorders are primarily clinical diagnoses. Given the variability of the clinical, radiological, and biochemical presentation, establishment of the molecular diagnosis is of critical importance for patients. It facilitates management, including prevention of complications, screening and treatment of endocrine deficits, supportive measures, and appropriate genetic counselling. Based on the first international consensus statement for these disorders, this article provides an updated and ready-to-use tool to help physicians and patients outlining relevant interventions and their timing. A life-long coordinated and multidisciplinary approach is recommended, starting as far as possible in early infancy and continuing throughout adulthood with an appropriate and timely transition from pediatric to adult care.

10.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784487

RESUMO

Animal studies suggest a role for dietary advanced glycation end-products (dAGEs) in bone health, but human studies on dAGEs in relation to bone are lacking. We aimed to study whether dAGEs intake is associated with the parameters of bone strength namely, bone mineral density (BMD), prevalent vertebral (VFs), and major osteoporotic fractures (MOFs = hip, wrist, proximal humerus, and clinical VFs). 3949 participants (mean age 66.7 ± 10.5 years) were included from a Rotterdam study for whom Carboxymethyllysine (CML-a dietary AGE) was estimated from food frequency questionnaires combined with dAGEs databases. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were performed adjusting for age, sex, energy intake, dietary quality, physical activity, diabetes, smoking, renal function, and cohort effect and for models on fractures, subsequently for BMD. We observed no association of CML with BMD at both femoral neck (ß = -0.006; p = 0.70) and lumbar spine (ß = -0.013; p = 0.38). A higher intake of CML was linearly associated with VFs (Odds ratio, OR = 1.16, 95% CI (1.02-1.32) and a similar but non-significant trend with MOFs (OR = 1.12 (0.98-1.27). Additional adjustment for BMD did not change the associations. Our results imply a positive association between dietary intake of CML and VFs independent of BMD. Future studies are needed in order to elucidate whether associations found are causal.

11.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: In the initial B-proof, we found inconsistent results of B vitamin supplementation. However, the debate regarding the effects of B vitamins on age-related diseases continues. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the long-term effects (5-7 years follow-up) of an intervention with folic acid and vitamin-B12 supplementation on fracture and cardiovascular disease risk. METHODS: Extended follow-up of the B-PROOF trial, a multi-center, double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial designed to assess the effect of 2-3 years daily supplementation with folic acid (400 µg) and vitamin-B12 (500 µg) versus placebo (n = 2,919). Primary outcome was verified self-reported fracture incidence and secondary outcomes were self-reported cardiovascular endpoints, which were collected through a follow-up questionnaires Proportional hazard analyses was used for the effect of the intervention on risk of fracture(s) and logistic regression for the effect of the intervention on risk of cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: A total of 1,298 individuals (44.5%) participated in the second follow-up round with median of 54 months [51-58], (n = 662 and n = 636, treatment versus placebo group). Median age at baseline was 71.0 years [68.0-76.0] for both groups. No effect was observed of the intervention on osteoporotic fracture or any fracture risk after a follow-up (HR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.62-1.59 and HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.50-1.19, respectively), nor on cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease risk (OR: 1.05; 95%CI: 0.80-1.44 and OR: 0.85; 95%CI: 0.50-1.45, respectively). Potential interaction by baseline homocysteine concentration was observed for osteoporotic- and any fracture (p = 0.10 and 0.06 respectively), which indicated a significantly lower risk of any fracture in the treatment group with higher total homocysteine concentrations (>15.1 µmol/l). No age-dependent effects were present. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports and extends previous null-findings of the B-PROOF trial and shows that supplementation of folic acid and vitamin-B12 has no effect on fracture risk, nor on cardiovascular disease in older individuals over a longer follow-up period. However, B-vitamin supplementation may be beneficial in reducing fractures in individuals with high total homocysteine concentrations, a finding which needs to be replicated.

12.
Bone ; 138: 115475, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531338

RESUMO

The decreased risk of osteoporotic fractures in thiazide diuretics (TD) users is possibly not only caused by an increase in bone mineral density (BMD), but by an increase in other determinants of bone strength as well, such as the trabecular bone score (TBS). To test this hypothesis, we studied the association between TD use and both lumbar spine BMD (LS-BMD) and lumbar spine TBS (LS-TBS) cross-sectionally in 6096 participants from the Rotterdam Study, as well as the association between TD use and bone turnover estimated by serum osteocalcin levels. We found that past and current use of TD were associated with an increase of LS-BMD (ß = 0.021 g/cm2 (95% CI: 0.006;0.036) and ß = 0.016 g/cm2 (95% CI: 0.002;0.031), respectively). Use of ≥1 defined daily dose (DDD) (ß = 0.028, 95% CI: 0.010;0.046; p for trend within DDD of use <0.001) and use of >365 days (ß = 0.033, 95% CI: 0.014;0.052; p for trend within duration of use <0.001) were positively associated with LS-BMD. No significant association between TD use and LS-TBS was observed. Mean serum osteocalcin levels were significantly different between users and non-users of TD (20.2 ng/ml (SD 8.3) and 22.5 ng/ml (SD 17.0), respectively, p < 0.001). Furthermore, linear regression analysis showed that the use of TD was associated with a 3.2 ng/l (95% CI: -4.4.; -2.0) lower serum osteocalcin level compared to non-use of TD, when adjusted for Rotterdam Study cohort, age, and sex. Our results may implicate that the decreased fracture risk in TD users is explained by increased bone mass rather than by improved bone microarchitecture. Alternatively, changes in bone microarchitecture might not be detected through TBS and more sophisticated techniques are possibly needed to study a potential effect of TD on bone microarchitecture.

13.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIM: Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to an increased risk of dementia. To strengthen this evidence and establish whether vitamin D can indeed play a role in early prevention of neurodegeneration, knowledge on underlying pathways is crucial. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association of vitamin D status with brain tissue volumes, hippocampus volume, white matter integrity, and markers of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) in a dementia-free population. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis, 2,716 participants free of dementia from the population-based Rotterdam Study underwent serum 25(OH)D concentration assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning between 2006 and 2009. Outcomes of interest included brain tissue volume (total, white matter, grey matter and hippocampus volume), white matter integrity (fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD)), and markers of CSVD (white matter hyper intensity (WMH) volume, presence of lacunes and microbleeds). Associations between vitamin D status, both in categories and continuous, and these brain measurements were assessed using multivariable linear and logistic regression models, adjusting for lifestyle and other disease risk factors. RESULTS: We observed that vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L) was independently associated with smaller brain tissue volume, smaller white matter volume and smaller hippocampus volume as compared to a sufficient vitamin D status (≥50 nmol/L). Vitamin D per 10 nmol/L increment and an insufficient (30-50 nmol/L) as compared to sufficient vitamin D status were not associated with the brain measures of interest. Moreover, vitamin D status was not associated with grey matter volume, white matter integrity or CSVD markers. CONCLUSIONS: In this dementia-free population, vitamin D deficiency was associated with a smaller brain tissue volume and hippocampus volume. More research, in particular with a longitudinal design, is needed to further elucidate the role of vitamin D in neurodegeneration.

14.
J Bone Miner Res ; 35(10): 1904-1913, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463533

RESUMO

Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), which bind to type 1 collagen in bone and skin, have been implicated in reduced bone quality. The AGE reader™ measures skin autofluorescence (SAF), which might be regarded as a marker of long-term accumulation of AGEs in tissues. We investigated the association of SAF with bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures in the general population. We studied 2853 individuals from the Rotterdam Study with available SAF measurements (median age, 74.1 years) and with data on prevalent major osteoporotic (MOFs: hip, humerus, wrist, clinical vertebral) and vertebral fractures (VFs: clinical + radiographic Genant's grade 2 and 3). Radiographs were assessed 4 to 5 years before SAF. Multivariate regression models were performed adjusted for age, sex, BMI, creatinine, smoking status, and presence of diabetes and additionally for BMD with interaction terms to test for effect modification. Prevalence of MOFs was 8.5% and of VFs 7%. SAF had a curvilinear association with prevalent MOFs and VFs and therefore, age-adjusted, sex stratified SAF quartiles were used. The odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of the second, third and fourth quartiles of SAF for MOFs were as follows: OR 1.60 (95% CI, 1.08-2.35; p = .02); OR 1.30 (95% CI, 0.89-1.97; p = .20), and OR 1.40 (95% CI, 0.95-2.10; p = .09), respectively, with first (lowest) quartile as reference. For VFs the ORs were as follows: OR 1.69 (95% CI, 1.08-2.64; p = .02), OR 1.74(95% CI, 1.11-2.71; p = .01), and OR 1.73 (95% CI, 1.12-2.73; p = .02) for second, third, and fourth quartiles, respectively. When comparing the top three quartiles combined with the first quartile, the OR (95% CI) for MOFs was 1.43 (95% CI, 1.04-2.00; p = .03) and for VFs was 1.72 (95% CI, 1.18-2.53; p = .005). Additional adjustment for BMD did not change the associations. In conclusion, there is evidence of presence of a threshold of skin AGEs below which there is distinctly lower prevalence of fractures. Longitudinal analyses are needed to confirm our cross-sectional findings. © 2020 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(1): 129-137, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in tissues with age and in conditions such as diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease (CKD), and they may be involved in age-related diseases. Skin AGEs measured as skin autofluorescence (SAF) are a noninvasive reflection of long-term AGE accumulation in tissues. Whether AGEs present in the diet (dAGEs) contribute to tissue AGEs is unclear. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to investigate the association between dietary and skin AGEs in the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort of mainly European ancestry. METHODS: In 2515 participants, intake of 3 dAGEs [carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), N-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MGH1), and carboxyethyl-lysine (CEL)] was estimated using FFQs and the content of AGEs measured in commonly consumed foods. SAF was measured 5 y (median value) later using an AGE Reader. The association of dAGEs with SAF was analyzed in linear regression models and stratified for diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD, defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤60 mL/min) status. RESULTS: Mean ± SD intake was 3.40 ±0.89 mg/d for CML, 28.98 ±7.87 mg/d for MGH1, and 3.11 ±0.89 mg/d for CEL. None of them was associated with SAF in the total study population. However, in stratified analyses, CML was positively associated with SAF after excluding both individuals with diabetes and individuals with CKD: 1 SD higher daily CML intake was associated with a 0.03 (95% CI: 0.009, 0.05) arbitrary units higher SAF. MGH1 and CEL intake were not significantly associated with SAF. Nevertheless, the associations were stronger when the time difference between dAGEs and SAF measurements was shorter. CONCLUSIONS: Higher dietary CML intake was associated with higher SAF only among participants with neither diabetes nor CKD, which may be explained by high AGE formation in diabetes and decreased excretion in CKD or by dietary modifications in these disease groups. The dAGE-SAF associations were also modified by the time difference between measurements. Our results suggest that dAGEs can influence tissue AGE accumulation and possibly thereby age-related diseases. This trial was registered at the Netherlands National Trial Register as NTR6831 (http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=6831) and at the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform as NTR6831 (http://www.who.int/ictrp/network/primary/en/).


Assuntos
Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fluorescência , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Pele/química
16.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453819

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Consensus regarding diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in premenopausal women (PW) is still lacking due to few studies carried out in this population. DESIGN: The European Calcified Tissue Society and the International Osteoporosis Foundation convened a working group to produce an updated review of literature published after 2017 on this topic. RESULTS: Fragility fractures in PW are rare and mostly due to secondary osteoporosis (ie, in presence of an underlying disease such as hormonal, inflammatory, or digestive disorders). In absence of another disorder, low bone mineral density (BMD) together with fragility fractures qualifies as idiopathic osteoporosis. In contrast, low BMD alone does not necessarily represent osteoporosis in absence of bone microarchitectural abnormalities. BMD increases in PW with osteoporosis when the underlying disease is treated. For example, in celiac disease, an increase of 9% in radius trabecular volumetric density was achieved after 1 year of gluten-free diet, while anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha improved BMD in PW with inflammatory bowel diseases. In amenorrhea, including anorexia nervosa, appropriately delivered estrogen replacement therapy can also improve BMD. Alternatively, antiresorptive or anabolic therapy has been shown to improve BMD in a variety of conditions, the range of improvement (3%-16%) depending on skeletal site and the nature of the secondary cause. No studies were powered to demonstrate fracture reduction. The effects of bisphosphonates in childbearing women have been scantly studied and caution is needed. CONCLUSION: The majority of PW with osteoporosis have an underlying disease. Specific therapy of these diseases, as well as antiresorptive and anabolic drugs, improve BMD, but without evidence of fracture reduction.

17.
Bone ; 137: 115406, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387835

RESUMO

Melorheostosis is a very rare sclerosing bone dysplasia characterized by asymmetrical and progressive cortical hyperostosis, usually with involvement of soft tissues surrounding the lesions. Recently Kang et al. identified somatic mosaicism for variants (p.Gln56Pro, p.Lys57Asn, or p.Lys57Glu) in the negative regulatory domain of MAP2K1, resulting in increased ERK1/2 signalling in affected tissues. In our study, we employed several sequencing technologies to unravel genetic variants (only present in affected tissues) from four sporadic melorheostosis patients. In the exome of two patients, we identified the same variants (p.K57N and p.K57E) as previously described by Kang et al. WGS and RNAseq analysis in a third patient demonstrated the presence of a novel variant (p.Cys121Ser) in the catalytic domain of MAP2K1. In addition, gene set enrichment analysis of the transcriptome data demonstrated upregulation of proliferative pathways. Interestingly, increased proliferation of MAP2K1 p.Lys57Asn-positive osteoblasts has been reported by Kang et al. The variants located in the hotspot region of the negative regulatory domain as well as this newly identified p.Cys121Ser variant have all been classified as MAP2K1 variants that can constitutively activate the downstream effector Erk. Finally, in a fourth patient with classical radiographic features of melorheostosis, no pathogenic variants could be identified in MAP2K1 or the other candidate genes for melorheostosis (SMAD3; LEMD3; KRAS). In conclusion, our study strongly suggests that not only somatic variants in the regulatory domain of MAP2K1 but also in the catalytic domain can cause melorheostosis. Our observations confirm that mutations in MAP2K1 are a major cause of melorheostosis and also suggest further locus heterogeneity for this disorder.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32117063

RESUMO

A 24-year old man was referred to the Erasmus MC Bone Center because of an asymptomatic increasing skull defect of the left parietal bone. The defect was first noticed at the age of six, and gradually increased over the years. His medical history was unremarkable, without any known trauma and a negative family history for bone diseases. Laboratory tests showed a low vitamin D level without other abnormalities. Particularly, there was no increase in markers of inflammation or bone turnover. CT-scans of the skull showed an osteolytic region of the parietal skull bone, with a two-centimeter increase in diameter over 9 years. Contrast enhanced MRI showed lymphangiogenic invasion, which was compatible with our suspicion of Gorham-Stout disease. The patient was referred to the neurosurgeon for treatment with a bone graft while considering additional drug treatment. Gorham-Stout or vanishing bone disease is a rare entity characterized by progressive osteolysis with lymphangiogenic bone invasion. Although already reported in 1838, currently the diagnosis and treatment of Gorham-Stout disease is still challenging. The underlying pathophysiology is not clarified yet and several theories exist. The disease usually affects persons younger than 40 years and the majority present with bone disease of the maxillofacial region, the upper extremities or the torso. The clinical presentation includes most frequently pain, swelling, and functional impairment of the affected region, but the disease can also be asymptomatic. Laboratory investigations are usually normal, and diagnosis is based upon imaging and sometimes pathology examination of affected bone tissue. Treatment is experimental and there is no general consensus about the best option due to lack of randomized controlled trials. Case reports showed patients treated with bisphosphonates, interferon-alpha, anti-VEGF therapy, mTOR inhibitors, and radiotherapy. There are some reports of surgery with prosthetic or bone grafts but no long-term follow-up data exist. This paper describes a unique case of Gorham-Stout disease of the parietal skull bone and discusses the current state of knowledge about this rare bone disease.

20.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 106(2): 104-114, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608419

RESUMO

Loop diuretics (LD) may affect bone health by inhibiting renal calcium reuptake. However, whether vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake modify the association between LD and bone outcome is unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate whether vitamin D level or calcium intake modify the association between LD and various indices of bone health including bone mineral density (BMD) and Trabecular Bone Score (TBS). From The Rotterdam Study, a prospective population-based cohort study, we used data from 6990 participants aged > 45 year with a DXA scan (2002-2008), 6908 participants with femoral neck (FN)-BMD, 6677 participants with lumbar spine (LS)-BMD and 6476 participants with LS-TBS measurements. Use of LD was available from pharmacy dispensing records. Vitamin D (25(OH)D) level was measured in serum, and dietary calcium intake was measured with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Almost eight percent of the participants used LD. The association between LD (past-users compared to never-users) and LS-TBS was significantly different by 25(OH)D concentrations (P for interaction = 0.04). A significantly lower LS-TBS among LD past-users was observed for 25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/l compared to ≤ 20 and 20-50 nmol/l (ß = - 0.036, 95% CI - 0.060; - 0.013 vs. ß = - 0.012, 95% CI - 0.036; 0.013 and ß = - 0.031, 95% CI - 0.096; 0.034, respectively). However, no other significant effect modification by 25(OH)D and dietary calcium intake was found in the associations between LD use and bone health outcomes (P-interaction > 0.13). This study suggests that the association between LD use and indices of bone health is not consistently modified by vitamin D or dietary calcium intake.

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