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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207579

RESUMO

Biomanufacturing processes may be optimized by storing cell culture media at room temperature, but this is currently limited by their instability and change in color upon long-term storage. This study demonstrates that one of the critical contributing factors toward media browning is tryptophan. LC-MS technology was utilized to identify tryptophan degradation products, which are likely formed primarily from oxidation reactions. Several of the identified compounds were shown to contribute significantly to color in solutions but also to exhibit toxicity against CHO cells. A cell-culture-compatible antioxidant, a-ketoglutaric acid, was found to be an efficient cell culture media additive for stabilizing components against degradation, inhibiting the browning of media formulations, and decreasing ammonia production, thus providing a viable method for developing room-temperature stable cell culture media.


Assuntos
Meios de Cultura/química , Triptofano/metabolismo , Animais , Células CHO , Cricetulus , Oxirredução , Triptofano/análise
2.
J Biotechnol ; 335: 27-38, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090949

RESUMO

For the generation of therapeutic proteins in cell culture, high producing clones are used. These clones have a high demand in amino acids to support cell growth and productivity. l-cysteine (Cys) is critical in highly concentrated feeds due to low stability of Cys and low solubility of the oxidation product cystine at neutral pH. S-sulfocysteine (SSC) was developed to substitute the Cys source and fed-batch experiments using SSC showed good cellular performance regarding viable cell density and titer, indicating uptake and metabolization of SSC by Chinese hamster ovary cells. However, the responsible transporter allowing cellular uptake remains unclear and was studied in this work. Due to the structure similarity of SSC with cystine and glutamate, it was proposed that the cystine/glutamate antiporter (xc-) allows cellular uptake of SSC. The uptake was assessed via transporter inhibition using sulfasalazine and transporter overexpression using either sulforaphane or sulforaphane-N-acetylcysteine during fed-batch experiments. Following daily addition of 50 µM and 100 µM sulfasalazine, the extracellular SSC concentration was increased by 65 % and 177 % respectively, suggesting a reduced uptake due to xc- inhibition. In contrast, enhanced transporter activity through 15 µM sulforaphane and sulforaphane-N-acetylcysteine treatment, induced a 60 % and 52 % reduced extracellular SSC concentration, respectively. These inverse uptake results strongly suggest that xc- is facilitating the transport of SSC.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Cistina , Animais , Células CHO , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Cisteína/análogos & derivados
3.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0246610, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086711

RESUMO

Animal cell culture, with single cells growing in suspension, ideally in a chemically defined environment, is a mainstay of biopharmaceutical production. The synthetic environment lacks exogenous growth factors and usually requires a time-consuming adaptation process to select cell clones that proliferate in suspension to high cell numbers. The molecular mechanisms that facilitate the adaptation and that take place inside the cell are largely unknown. Especially for cell lines that are used for virus antigen production such as baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, the restriction of virus growth through the evolution of undesired cell characteristics is highly unwanted. The comparison between adherently growing BHK cells and suspension cells with different susceptibility to foot-and-mouth disease virus revealed differences in the expression of cellular receptors such as integrins and heparan sulfates, and in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Transcriptome analyses and growth kinetics demonstrated the diversity of BHK cell lines and confirmed the importance of well-characterized parental cell clones and mindful screening to make sure that essential cellular features do not get lost during adaptation.

4.
Chem Biol Interact ; 344: 109535, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051208

RESUMO

Imatinib, a specific Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is the most commonly used drug in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. However, optimal response is not achieved in up to 33% of patients. Therefore, development of novel therapeutic strategies for chronic myeloid leukemia is critical. Betulinic (1) and ursolic (2) acids are natural pentacyclic triterpenes that exhibit antileukemic activities. In this study, we evaluated the effects of pharmacomodulations at the C-3 position of the triterpene moiety of betulinic and ursolic acids on their activity against K562 leukemia cells. Six new derivatives (1a-2c) were synthesized and evaluated for pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects in mammalian and leukemic cells. 2c derivative containing an amine group at the C-3 position of ursolic acid was the most active against leukemia cells with an IC50 value of 5.2 µM after 48 h of treatment. 2c did not exhibit cytotoxic effects against VERO and HepG2 cells and human lymphocytes, showing a good selectivity index for cancer over normal cells. Induced cell death by apoptosis via caspases 3 and 8, and also caused cell cycle arrest as evidenced by accumulation of cells in the G1 phase and decreased cell population in the G2 phase. Furthermore, co-treatment of 2c with imatinib, the chemotherapy drug most commonly used to treat leukemia, resulted in a synergistic effect. Our findings provide a strong rationale for further investigation of combination therapy using the 2c derivative and imatinib in pre-clinical studies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Mesilato de Imatinib/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 8/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Triterpenos/síntese química , Células Vero
5.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 118(9): 3395-3408, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738790

RESUMO

Increasing demands for protein-based therapeutics such as monoclonal antibodies, fusion proteins, bispecific molecules, and antibody fragments require researchers to constantly find innovative solutions. To increase yields and decrease costs of next generation bioprocesses, highly concentrated cell culture media formulations are developed but often limited by the low solubility of amino acids such as tyrosine, cystine, leucine, and isoleucine, in particular at physiological pH. This study sought to investigate highly soluble and bioavailable derivatives of leucine and isoleucine that are applicable for fed-batch processes. N-lactoyl-leucine and N-lactoyl-isoleucine sodium salts were tested in cell culture media and proved to be beneficial to increase the overall solubility of cell culture media formulations. These modified amino acids proved to be bioavailable for various Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and were suitable for replacement of canonical amino acids in cell culture feeds. The quality of the final recombinant protein was studied in bioprocesses using the derivatives, and the mechanism of cleavage was investigated in CHO cells. Altogether, both N-lactoyl amino acids represent an advantageous alternative to canonical amino acids to develop highly concentrated cell culture media formulations to support next generation bioprocesses.

6.
Biotechnol Prog ; 37(4): e3148, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742789

RESUMO

Cell culture medium (CCM) composition affects cell growth and critical quality attributes (CQAs) of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and recombinant proteins. One essential compound needed within the medium is iron because of its central role in many cellular processes. However, iron is also participating in Fenton chemistry leading to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing cellular damage. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the impact of iron in CCM on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line performance, and CQAs of different recombinant proteins. Addition of either ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) or ferric citrate (FC) into CCM revealed major differences within cell line performance and glycosylation pattern, whereby ammonium was not involved in the observed differences. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis identified varying levels of impurities present within these iron sources, and manganese impurity rather than iron was proven to be the root cause for increased cell growth, titer, and prolonged viability, as well as altered glycosylation levels. Contrary effects on cell performance and protein glycosylation were observed for manganese and iron. The use of low impurity iron raw material is therefore crucial to control the effect of iron and manganese independently and to support and guarantee consistent and reproducible cell culture processes.

7.
J Chromatogr A ; 1643: 462024, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780881

RESUMO

Amyloid-ß (Aß) dysmetabolism is thought to be the main trigger for neurodegenerative events in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, soluble Aß oligomers (AßOs) are proposed as key mediators of synaptic and cognitive dysfunction in AD. Over the past few decades, AßOs prepared from synthetic Aß have been widely applied in vitro and in vivo, the so-called chemical models of AD, uncovering their multiple neurotoxic mechanisms. However, the lack of a reliable quality control (QC) for synthetic AßOs may reflect poor experimental reproducibility. In keeping with this, we optimized and validated a rapid and reproducible SECHPLC method using fluorescence detection for the QC of synthetic AßOs. Our analytical method offers an unprecedent alternative to improve the reproducibility of AD chemical models.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/análise , Cromatografia em Gel/métodos , Multimerização Proteica , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Controle de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Temperatura
8.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 118(5): 1818-1831, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501689

RESUMO

The reduction of antibody core-fucosylation is known to enhance antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). In this study, 5-Thio-l-Fucose (ThioFuc) was investigated as a media and feed supplement for modulating the fucosylation profile of therapeutic proteins and, thereby, improving the resulting effector functions. Glycan analysis of five different therapeutic proteins produced by a diverse set of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines demonstrated a clone dependent impact of ThioFuc treatment. Using rituximab as a model, an efficient dose- and time-dependent reduction of core-fucosylation up to a minimum of 5% were obtained by ThioFuc. Besides a concomitant increase in the afucosylation level up to 48%, data also revealed up to 47% incorporation of ThioFuc in place of core-fucosylation. In accordance with the glycan data, antibodies produced in the presence of ThioFuc revealed an enhanced FcγRIIIa binding up to 7.7-fold. Furthermore, modified antibodies subjected to a cell-based ADCC reporter bioassay proved to exert both a 1.5-fold enhanced ADCC efficacy and 2.6-fold enhancement in potency in comparison to their native counterparts-both of which contribute to an improvement in the ADCC activity. In conclusion, ThioFuc is a potent fucose derivative with potential applications in drug development processes.

9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 8(4)2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022922

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes the highly contagious foot-and-mouth disease, which is characterized by the appearance of vesicles in and around the mouth and feet of cloven-hoofed animals. BHK-21 cells are the cell line of choice for the propagation of FMDV for vaccine production worldwide but vary in their susceptibility for different FMDV strains. Previous studies showed that the FMDV resistance of a certain BHK cell line can be overcome by using a closely related but permissive cell line for the pre-adaptation of the virus, but the adapted strains were found to harbor several capsid mutations. In this study, these adaptive mutations were introduced into the original Asia-1 Shamir isolate individually or in combination to create a panel of 17 Asia-1 mutants by reverse genetics and examine the effects of the mutations on receptor usage, viral growth, immunogenicity and stability. A single amino acid exchange from glutamic acid to lysine at position 202 in VP1 turned out to be of major importance for productive infection of the suspension cell line BHK-2P. In consequence, two traditionally passage-derived strains and two recombinant viruses with a minimum set of mutations were tested in vivo. While the passaged-derived viruses showed a reduced particle stability, the genetically modified viruses were more stable but did not confer a protective immune response against the original virus isolate.

10.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 64(22): e2000249, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978870

RESUMO

Standardized animal models represent one of the most valuable tools available to understand the mechanism underlying the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to seek for new therapeutic strategies. However, there is considerable variability in the studies conducted with this essential purpose. This review presents an updated discussion of the most recent studies using diverse experimental conditions to induce MetS in rodents with unbalanced diets, discusses the key findings in metabolic outcomes, and critically evaluates what we have been learned from them and how to advance in the field. The study includes scientific reports sourced from the Web of Science and PubMed databases, published between January 2013 and June 2020, which used hypercaloric diets to induce metabolic disorders, and address the impact of the diet on metabolic parameters. The collected data are used as support to discuss variables such as sex, species, and age of the animals, the most favorable type of diet, and the ideal diet length to generate metabolic changes. The experimental characteristics propose herein improve the performance of a preclinical model that resembles the human MetS and will guide researchers to investigate new therapeutic alternatives with confidence and higher translational validity.

11.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 160: 696-718, 2020 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911085

RESUMO

Tryptophan is one of the essential mammalian amino acids and is thus a required component in human nutrition, animal feeds, and cell culture media. However, this aromatic amino acid is highly susceptible to oxidation and is known to degrade into multiple products during manufacturing, storage, and processing. Many physical and chemical processes contribute to the degradation of this compound, primarily via oxidation or cleavage of the highly reactive indole ring. The central contributing factors are reactive oxygen species, such as singlet oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals; light and photosensitizers; metals; and heat. In a multi-component mixture, tryptophan also commonly reacts with carbonyl-containing compounds, leading to a wide variety of products. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the degradation and interaction products of tryptophan in complex liquid solutions and in proteins. For the purposes of context, a brief summary of the key pathways in tryptophan metabolism will be included, along with common methods and issues in tryptophan manufacturing. The review will focus on the conditions that lead to tryptophan degradation, the products generated in these processes, their known biological effects, and methods which may be applied to stabilize the amino acid.


Assuntos
Oxigênio Singlete , Triptofano , Animais , Humanos , Radical Hidroxila , Oxirredução , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Triptofano/metabolismo
12.
Braz J Microbiol ; 51(4): 1691-1701, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737869

RESUMO

Fungal infections have emerged as a current serious global public health problem. The main problem involving these infections is the expansion of multidrug resistance. Therefore, the prospection of new compounds with efficacy antifungal becomes necessary. Thus, this study evaluated the antifungal profile and toxicological parameters of quinolines derivatives against Candida spp. and dermatophyte strains. As a result, a selective anti-dermatophytic action was demonstrated by compound 5 (geometric means (GM = 19.14 µg ml-1)). However, compounds 2 (GM = 50 µg ml-1) and 3 (GM = 47.19 µg ml-1) have presented only anti-Candida action. Compounds 3 and 5 did not present cytotoxic action. Compound 5 did not produce dermal and mucosal toxicity. In addition, this compound showed the absence of genotoxic potential, suggesting safety for topical and systemic use. Quinolines demonstrated a potent anti-dermatophytic and anti-yeast action. Moreover, compound 5 presented an excellent toxicological profile, acting as a strong candidate for the development of a new effective and safe compound against dermatophytosis of difficult treatment.

13.
J Biotechnol ; 321: 1-12, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580011

RESUMO

Highly concentrated cell culture media formulations are essential to develop next generation bioprocesses used to produce therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, fusion proteins, bispecific molecules and mAb fragments. Although cysteine/cystine and tyrosine are the first components preventing the development of highly concentrated complex cell culture media, leucine and isoleucine were identified as the next critical amino acids due to their limited solubility. This work sought to investigate highly soluble and readily bioavailable derivatives of both amino acids that may be used in batch, fed-batch or perfusion processes. The α-keto acids of Leu and Ile, keto leucine and keto isoleucine sodium salts, were tested in cell culture media and proved to be beneficial to increase the overall solubility of cell culture media formulations. These keto acids were readily bioavailable for various CHO cells and can be used in both media and feeds. The quality of the final recombinant protein was studied in processes using the precursors and the mechanism of amination was investigated in CHO cells. Altogether, both keto acids represent an alternative to their respective amino acids to develop highly concentrated cell culture media formulations to support next generation bioprocesses.


Assuntos
Isoleucina , Cetoácidos , Leucina , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Aminação , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Reatores Biológicos , Células CHO , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Meios de Cultura/química , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Isoleucina/química , Isoleucina/metabolismo , Cetoácidos/química , Cetoácidos/metabolismo , Leucina/química , Leucina/metabolismo , Solubilidade
14.
Clin Transplant ; 34(8): e13997, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484985

RESUMO

Immunosuppressive therapy is used in solid organ transplant treatment, and mycophenolic acid (MPA) is one of the immunosuppressive drugs most used worldwide. It is a potent, selective, non-competitive, and reversible inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) inhibitor that acts to inhibit guanine synthesis. To improve solubility, MPA is used as the prodrug mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or as an enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium salt (EC-MPS). It is metabolized into mycophenolic acid phenyl glucuronide (MPAG), the inactive and major metabolite, and into acyl glucuronide (AcMPAG), pharmacologically active. In kidney transplantation, combined immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporine (CsA) and tacrolimus (Tac) is widely used, showing beneficial effects. This paper aimed to review papers published in the last two decades and discuss factors that can interfere with the pharmacokinetics of MPA. Data collected confirm that MPA plasma levels should be monitored to evaluate immunosuppressive therapy since pharmacokinetics can be influenced by factors such as interpatient variability, coadministration of other immunosuppressive agents, post-transplant period, renal function, and dose. However, to perform drug monitoring, costs and facility may be limitations. Monitoring MPAG together with MPA would be a great improvement in therapy as it represents a big part of MPA levels and can be related to the increase of adverse effects.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Ácido Micofenólico , Ciclosporina , Humanos , Imunossupressores , Tacrolimo
15.
J Neurochem ; 155(4): 348-369, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320074

RESUMO

Amyloid-ß (Aß) dysmetabolism is tightly associated with pathological processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Currently, it is thought that, in addition to Aß fibrils that give rise to plaque formation, Aß aggregates into non-fibrillar soluble oligomers (AßOs). Soluble AßOs have been extensively studied for their synaptotoxic and neurotoxic properties. In this review, we discuss physicochemical properties of AßOs and their impact on different brain cell types in AD. Additionally, we summarize three decades of studies with AßOs, providing a compelling bulk of evidence regarding cell-specific mechanisms of toxicity. Cellular models may lead us to a deeper understanding of the detrimental effects of AßOs in neurons and glial cells, putatively shedding light on the development of innovative therapies for AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Amiloide/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/metabolismo , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/patologia
16.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem ; 20(5): 622-633, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31976847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer is a multifactorial disease, representing one of the leading causes of death worldwide. On a global estimate, breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer in women and cervical cancer, the fourth most common. Both types of cancer remain the major cause of cancer-related mortality in developing countries. A strategy for rational drug design is hybridization, which aims to bring together in one molecule, two or more pharmacophores in order to reach several biological targets. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work was to develop new hybrids based on natural pharmacophores: Betulinic acid (1) and brosimine b (2), active in female cancer cell lines. METHODS: The coupling reactions were carried out by Steglich esterification. Different compounds were designed for the complete and simplified structural hybridization of molecules. The anticancer activities of the compounds were evaluated in human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa), human cervical metastatic epidermoid carcinoma (ME-180), and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines. RESULTS: Hybrid 3 presented higher potency (IC50 = 9.2 ± 0.5µM) and SI (43.5) selectively in MCF-7 cells (in relation to Vero cells) with its cytotoxic effect occurring via apoptosis. In addition, compound 6 showed activity in MCF-7 and HeLa cells with intermediate potency, but with high efficacy, acting via apoptosis as well. CONCLUSION: In this context, we showed that the combination of two complex structures generated the development of hybrids with differing inhibitory profiles and apoptotic modes of action, thus representing potential alternatives in female cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Feminino , Flavonoides/síntese química , Flavonoides/química , Células HeLa , Humanos , Conformação Molecular , Moraceae/química , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/síntese química , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
17.
Int J Pharm ; 574: 118872, 2020 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812797

RESUMO

Medical devices (indwelling) have greatly improved healthcare. Nevertheless, infections related to the use of these apparatuses continue to be a major clinical concern. Biofilms form on surfaces after bacterial adhesion, and they function as bacterial reservoirs and as resistance and tolerance factors against antibiotics and the host immune response. Technological strategies to control biofilms and bacterial adhesion, such as the use of surface coatings, are being explored more frequently, and natural peptides may promote their development. In this study, we purified and identified antibiofilm peptides from Capsicum baccatum (red pepper) using chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, MALDI-MS, MS/MS and bioinformatics. These peptides strongly controlled biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis, the most prevalent pathogen in device-related infections, without any antibiotic activity. Furthermore, natural peptide-coated surfaces dislayed effective antiadhesive proprieties and showed no cytotoxic effects against different representative human cell lines. Finally, we determined the lead peptide predicted by Mascot and identified CSP37, which may be useful as a prime structure for the design of new antibiofilm agents. Together, these results shed light on natural Capsicum peptides as a possible antiadhesive coat to prevent medical device colonization.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Capsicum/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Células PC-3 , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
18.
Mycoses ; 63(2): 197-211, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fungal infections are highly prevalent and are responsible for high rates of morbidity and mortality. In this context, the search for new treatment alternatives is very relevant. OBJECTIVES: Analyse chemical compounds for antifungal potential against dermatomycosis fungi. METHODS: The antifungal activity of 121 compounds, intermediates or derivatives of 1,3-bis(aryloxy)propane substituted at C-2 (111 compounds) and isothiouronium derivatives (10 compounds) was investigated through susceptibility tests, mechanism of action, toxicity and hydrogel incorporation. RESULTS: The compound 1,3-bis(3,4-dichlorophenoxy)propan-2-aminium chloride (2j) was the most active fungicide against dermatophytes and Candida spp., at very low concentrations (0.39-3.12 µg/mL), including action on resistant and multidrug-resistant clinical strains. Compound 2j has presented a promising toxicity profile, showing selectivity index >10, relative to human lymphocytes. The compound was classified as non-irritant by the HET-CAM test and did not cause histopathological alterations in pig ear skin, thus presenting an excellent perspective for topical application. 2j targets the fungal cell wall, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, which also indicated the additional ability of 2j to inhibit the Candida albicans pseudohyphae formation and biofilm of Microsporum canis. Compound 2j was incorporated in a hydrogel with bioadhesive potential. The results of the human skin permeation showed that 2j remained significantly in the epidermis, ideally for the dermatomycosis treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, the compound 2j demonstrated the potential for antifungal drug development, with a action mechanism elucidated and already applied in a semisolid formulation as a new therapeutic option for fungal skin infections.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Propano/análogos & derivados , Animais , Antifúngicos/química , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Galinhas , Membrana Corioalantoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Orelha Externa/efeitos dos fármacos , Epiderme/efeitos dos fármacos , Ergosterol/metabolismo , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Hidrogéis , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Propano/química , Propano/farmacologia , Reologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Suínos
19.
Antibodies (Basel) ; 8(1)2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544815

RESUMO

The biological activity of therapeutic antibodies is highly influenced by their glycosylation profile. A valuable method for increasing the cytotoxic efficacy of antibodies, which are used, for example, in cancer treatment, is the reduction of core fucosylation, as this enhances the elimination of target cells through antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Development of fucose analogues is currently the most promising strategy to reduce core fucosylation without cell line engineering. Since peracetylated sugars display enhanced cell permeability over the highly polar free hydroxy sugars, this work sought to compare the efficacy of peracetylated sugars to their unprotected forms. Two potent fucose analogues, 2-deoxy-2-fluorofucose and 5-alkynylfucose, and their acetylated forms were compared for their effects on fucosylation. 5-alkynylfucose proved to be more potent than 2-deoxy-2-fluorofucose at reducing core fucosylation but was associated with a significant higher incorporation of the alkynylated fucose analogue. Acetylation of the sugar yielded only slightly lower fucosylation levels suggesting that acetylation has a minor impact on cellular entry. Even though the efficacy of all tested components was confirmed, results presented in this study also show a significant incorporation of unnatural fucose analogues into the glycosylation pattern of the produced IgG, with unknown effect on safety and potency of the monoclonal antibody.

20.
Viruses ; 11(6)2019 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167384

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is endemic in many parts of the world. Vaccination is an important control measure, limits viral spread, and can help to eradicate the disease. However, vaccination programs are cost-intensive because of the short shelf life of vaccines and the need for frequent re-vaccination. Animal-component-free (ACF) or chemically defined media (CDM) at high cell densities are a promising approach for the production of inexpensive high-quality vaccines, but the occurrence of cell density effects has been reported for various virus-cell systems in vaccine production. For FMDV, the use of CDM or ACF media for vaccine production has not been studied and no information about cell density effects is available. This work describes the propagation of FMDV in ACF or in CDM. Cells were grown at increasing cell densities and either 100% media exchange or addition of 30% fresh media was performed before infection with FMDV. Increasing cell densities reduced the viral titer and increased yield variability in all media except BHK300G. This effect can be mitigated by performing a 100% media exchange before infection or when using the controlled environment of a bioreactor. The media composition and also a fragile relationship between virus and cell metabolism seem to be causal for that phenomenon.


Assuntos
Contagem de Células , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Meios de Cultura , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/metabolismo , Replicação Viral
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