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1.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 7795-7808, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576124

RESUMO

Background: Endogenously expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) have attracted attention as important regulators in post-transcriptionally controlling gene expression of various physiological processes. As miRNA dysregulation is often associated with various disease patterns, such as obesity, miRNA-27a might therefore be a promising candidate for miRNA mimic replacement therapy by inhibiting adipogenic marker genes. However, application of naked nucleic acids faces some limitations concerning poor enzymatic stability, bio-membrane permeation and cellular uptake. To overcome these obstacles, the development of appropriate drug delivery systems (DDS) for miRNAs is of paramount importance. Methods: In this work, a triple combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM), brightfield (BF) and fluorescence microscopy was used to trace the cellular adhesion of N-TER peptide-nucleic acid complexes followed by time-dependent uptake studies using confocal laser scanning microscopy (cLSM). To reveal the biological effect of miRNA-27a on adipocyte development after transfection treatment, Oil-Red-O (ORO)- staining was performed to estimate the degree of in lipid droplets accumulated ORO in mature adipocytes by using light microscopy images as well as absorbance measurements. Results: The present findings demonstrated that amphipathic N-TER peptides represent a suitable DDS for miRNAs by promoting non-covalent complexation through electrostatic interactions between both components as well as cellular adhesion of the N-TER peptide - nucleic acid complexes followed by uptake across cell membranes and intracellular release of miRNAs. The anti-adipogenic effect of miRNA-27a in 3T3-L1 cells could be detected in mature adipocytes by reduced lipid droplet formation. Conclusion: The present DDS assembled from amphipathic N-TER peptides and miRNAs is capable of inducing the anti-adipogenic effect of miRNA-27a by reducing lipid droplet accumulation in mature adipocytes. With respect to miRNA mimic replacement therapies, this approach might provide new therapeutic strategies to prevent or treat obesity and obesity-related disorders.

2.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 139: 105063, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487537

RESUMO

The development of so-called Proticles opens attractive possibilities for new drug delivery systems. Proticles are nanoparticles (NPs), which are formed by self-assembly of negatively charged oligonucleotides in combination with the positively charged peptide protamine. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a widely known pharmaceutical agent to stop particle growth and prolong circulation half-life of drug delivery systems. Therefore, two different NP formulations - one PEGylated and one non-PEGylated - were used in this work to gain information about the biological stability and half-life in circulation of Proticles. Thus, this study presents data of in vitro stability and in vivo pharmacokinetics of both, non-PEGylated and PEGylated Proticles radiolabeled with 111InCl3. The study demonstrated that successful radiolabeling of both Proticle-formulations was performed resulting in high radiochemical yields (> 85 %). Furthermore, the influence of PEGylation on the in vitro stability of 111In-radiolabeled NPs was investigated. No significant difference due to PEGylation was found. Unlike in vitro results, non-PEGylated 111In-Proticles seemed to degrade faster in vivo than PEGylated 111In-proticles, resulting in significantly higher blood values (111In-PEG-proticles: 0.23 ±â€¯0.01 % ID/g 1 h p.i.; 111In-proticles: 0.06 ±â€¯0.01 % ID/g 1 h p.i.; p < 0.05). Visualized by SPECT imaging urinary excretion represented the major pathway of elimination for both NP-formulations. In conclusion, this study provides data indicating a positive influence of PEG-derivatization on the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of Proticles. These results form the basis for further developments as drug delivery and active drug targeting devices.

3.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347739

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) belongs to a heterogeneous group of disorders of keratinization. To date, 10 genes have been identified to be causative for ARCI. NIPAL4 (Nipa-Like Domain-Containing 4) is the second most commonly mutated gene in ARCI. In this study, we present a large cohort of 101 families affected with ARCI carrying mutations in NIPAL4. We identified 16 novel mutations and increase the total number of pathogenic mutations in NIPAL4 to 34. Ultrastructural analysis of biopsies from six patients showed morphological abnormalities consistent with an ARCI EM type III. One patient with a homozygous splice site mutation, which leads to a loss of NIPAL4 mRNA, showed additional ultrastructural aberrations together with a more severe clinical phenotype. Our study gives insights into the frequency of mutations, a potential hot spot for mutations, and genotype-phenotype correlations.

4.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 133: 86-98, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adaptation to aortic valve stenosis leads to myocardial hypertrophy, which has been associated with inflammation, fibrosis and activation of the endocannabinoid system. Since the endocannabinoid system and the CB2 receptor provide cardioprotection and modulate immune response in experimental ischemia, we investigated the role of CB2 in a mouse model of cardiac pressure overload. METHODS: Transverse aortic constriction was performed in CB2 receptor-deficient (Cnr2-/-) mice and their wild-type littermates (Cnr2+/+). After echocardiography and Millar left heart catheter hemodynamic evaluation hearts were processed for histological, cellular and molecular analyses. RESULTS: The endocannabinoid system showed significantly higher anandamide production and CB2 receptor expression in Cnr2+/+ mice. Histology showed non-confluent, interstitial fibrosis with rare small areas of cardiomyocyte loss in Cnr2+/+ mice. In contrast, extensive cardiomyocyte loss and confluent scar formation were found in Cnr2-/- mice accompanied by significantly increased apoptosis and left ventricular dysfunction when compared with Cnr2+/+ mice. The underlying cardiac maladaptation in Cnr2-/- mice was associated with significantly reduced expression of myosin heavy chain isoform beta and less production of heme oxygenase-1. Cnr2-/- hearts presented after 7 days with stronger proinflammatory response including significantly higher TNF-alpha expression and macrophage density, but lower density of CD4+ and B220+ cells. At the same time, we found increased apoptosis of macrophages and adaptive immune cells. Higher myofibroblast accumulation and imbalance in MMP/TIMP-regulation indicated adverse remodeling in Cnr2-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides mechanistic evidence for the role of the endocannabinoid system in myocardial adaptation to pressure overload in mice. The underlying mechanisms include production of anandamide, adaptation of contractile elements and antioxidative enzymes, and selective modulation of immune cells action and apoptosis in order to prevent the loss of cardiomyocytes.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7468, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097758

RESUMO

Neuropathic pain can develop after nerve injury, leading to a chronic condition with spontaneous pain and hyperalgesia. Pain is typically restricted to the side of the injured nerve, but may occasionally spread to the contralateral side, a condition that is often referred to as mirror-image pain. Mechanisms leading to mirror-image pain are not completely understood, but cannabinoid CB2 receptors have been implicated. In this study, we use genetic mouse models to address the question if CB2 receptors on neurons or on microglia/macrophages are involved. First, we show that a GFP reporter protein under control of the CB2 promoter is induced upon partial sciatic nerve ligation in spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia, and highest in sciatic nerve macrophages, but not in neurons. Mice which lack CB2 receptors specifically on myeloid cells (microglia, macrophages) developed a mirror-image allodynia [treatment F1,48 = 45.69, p < 0.0001] similar to constitutive CB2 receptor knockout mice [treatment F1,70 = 92.41, p < 0.0001]. Such a phenotype was not observed after the deletion of CB2 from neurons [treatment F1,70 = 0.1315, p = 0.7180]. This behavioral pain phenotype was accompanied by an increased staining of microglia in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, as evidenced by an enhanced Iba 1 expression [CB2KO, p = 0.0175; CB2-LysM, p = 0.0425]. Similarly, myeloid-selective knockouts showed an increased expression of the leptin receptor in the injured ipsilateral sciatic nerve, thus further supporting the notion that leptin signaling contributes to the increased neuropathic pain responses of CB2 receptor knockout mice. We conclude that CB2 receptors on microglia and macrophages, but not on neurons, modulate neuropathic pain responses.

6.
Int J Pharm ; 565: 569-578, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100383

RESUMO

Solvent-free hot melt coating (HMC) provides a safer and more economic process compared to the conventional solvent coating techniques. However, drug release instability and the lack of fundamental understanding on it are limiting factors for application of HMC for industrial productions. In this work, we investigated glyceryl dibehenate, glyceryl monostearate and behenoyl polyoxyl-8 glyceride as HMC materials. The microstructure and solid state alteration of lipids were studied via polarized light microscopy, DSC and powder x-ray diffraction. Microcapsules of N-acetylcysteine particles were provided with these excipients and stored under long term and accelerated conditions for 3 months. The feasibility of selected lipids as HMC excipients was confirmed. The drug release from freshly coated microcapsules was dictated by microstructure, solid state and HLB of lipid coating. Alterations in the release profiles after storage under accelerated conditions were correlated with time-dependent structural alterations of selected lipids. The faster drug release from glyceryl dibehenate and behenoyl polyoxyl-8 glyceride microcapsules was correlated with a low-melting small fraction composed by mixed phases in glyceryl dibehenate and the amorphous region of polyoxyl part in behenoyl polyoxyl-8 glyceride, respectively. The slower drug release from glyceryl dibehenate after storage was explained by the transition of lipid crystals to the ß-form with dense crystalline structure. The gained information can be used to design effective tempering strategies for providing stable pharmaceutical products.

7.
J Invest Dermatol ; 139(10): 2154-2163.e5, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082376

RESUMO

Trichilemmal cysts are common hair follicle-derived intradermal cysts. The trait shows an autosomal dominant mode of transmission with incomplete penetrance. Here, we describe the pathogenetic mechanism for the development of hereditary trichilemmal cysts. By whole-exome sequencing of DNA from the blood samples of 5 affected individuals and subsequent Sanger sequencing of a family cohort including 35 affected individuals, this study identified a combination of the Phospholipase C Delta 1 germline variants c.903A>G, p.(Pro301Pro) and c.1379C>T, p.(Ser460Leu) as a high-risk factor for trichilemmal cyst development. Allele-specific PCRs and cloning experiments showed that these two variants are present on the same allele. The analysis of tissue from several cysts revealed that an additional somatic Phospholipase C Delta 1 mutation on the same allele is required for cyst formation. In two different functional in vitro assays, this study showed that the protein function of the cyst-specific 1-phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase delta-1 protein variant is modified. This pathologic mechanism defines a monoallelic model of the two-hit mechanism proposed for tumor development and other hereditary cyst diseases.

8.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 166: 203-211, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129049

RESUMO

Leptin is an adipokine predominantly secreted by adipocytes and has many physiological roles, including in energy homeostasis. We identified that AM630, a cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) antagonist, down-regulated leptin expression in mature adipocytes differentiated from either stromal vascular fractions isolated from inguinal fat pads of C57BL/6J mice or 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. However, the leptin-suppressive effects of AM630 preserved in CB2-deficient adipocytes indicated the off-target activity of AM630 in leptin expression. Pharmacological and genetic studies, cheminformatics, and docking simulation were applied to identify the potential protein target of AM630 that modulates leptin expression in differentiated primary preadipocytes. Screening of the reported off-targets of AM630 identified a synthetic cannabinoid WIN55212-2 exerting the same function. Target deconvolution and docking simulation suggested that AM630 and WIN55212-2 were both inhibitors of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase (L-PGDS). Further studies showed that L-PGDS positively regulates leptin expression. Although glucocorticoid and aldosterone were previously reported to induce expression of both L-PGDS and leptin, our data demonstrated that L-PGDS mediates only glucocorticoid-induced leptin expression in differentiated primary preadipocytes. No effect was observed after aldosterone treatment. This newly discovered glucocorticoid - L-PGDS - leptin pathway may provide insights into current clinical use of glucocorticoid and management of their undesired effects such as obesity.

9.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 139: 279-290, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002864

RESUMO

Lyotropic bulk reversed hexagonal and reversed cubic liquid crystalline phases (hexagonal and cubic phases) composed of glycerol monooleate (GM) were used to design the vancomycin hydrochloride's (VHCl) delivery systems aiming to maintain VHCl's therapeutic concentration during 24 h in the eye, locally (as an insert) and/or intravitreally (as a bulk phase injection). Bulk VHCl's hexagonal and cubic phases were successfully prepared by melted homogenization and solvent evaporation method, and then an insert was prepared. The structural characteristics of liquid crystalline phases were studied using cross polarized light microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering technique. The presence of VHCl (1-9.5% w/w VHCl solution) did not exhibit any change in the liquid crystalline phase's structure to another liquid crystalline phase, and showed little effect on the lattice parameter of the existing liquid crystalline phase structure. In order to relate the liquid crystalline phase structure to VHCl's release rate locally into the eye, in-vitro release test of an implant has been done using a simulated tear fluid. VHCl's release in the simulated tear fluid from the cubic phase obeyed Higuchi kinetics, with linear VHCl's release versus the square root of time. The hexagonal phase released VHCl in simulated tear fluid significantly slower than the cubic phase. In order to relate the liquid phase structure to VHCl's diffusion intravitreally, in vitro release test by the Sirius' Subcutaneous Injection Site Simulator (Scissor) has been performed. Comparing the release properties by a Scissor, the VHCl's cubic phase demonstrated slower permeation through extra-cellular matrix than the VHCl solution. To evaluate the efficacy of the system investigated, the release properties of VHCl's cubic phase were compared with literature data indicating that the cubic phase could be a potential matrix system in the delivery of VHCl intravitreally during 24 h after intravitreal injection. The release data in the simulated tear fluid indicated that the cubic phase should be further optimized to achieve a therapeutic VHCl concentration locally in the eye during 24 h.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Glicerídeos/química , Cristais Líquidos/química , Vancomicina/administração & dosagem , Administração Oftálmica , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Difusão , Endoftalmite/tratamento farmacológico , Endoftalmite/microbiologia , Olho/metabolismo , Injeções Intravítreas , Transição de Fase , Vancomicina/farmacocinética
10.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1865(9): 2083-2093, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557699

RESUMO

Mutations in the X chromosomal tRNA 2'­O­methyltransferase FTSJ1 cause intellectual disability (ID). Although the gene is ubiquitously expressed affected individuals present no consistent clinical features beyond ID. In order to study the pathological mechanism involved in the aetiology of FTSJ1 deficiency-related cognitive impairment, we generated and characterized an Ftsj1 deficient mouse line based on the gene trapped stem cell line RRD143. Apart from an impaired learning capacity these mice presented with several statistically significantly altered features related to behaviour, pain sensing, bone and energy metabolism, the immune and the hormone system as well as gene expression. These findings show that Ftsj1 deficiency in mammals is not phenotypically restricted to the brain but affects various organ systems. Re-examination of ID patients with FTSJ1 mutations from two previously reported families showed that several features observed in the mouse model were recapitulated in some of the patients. Though the clinical spectrum related to Ftsj1 deficiency in mouse and man is variable, we suggest that an increased pain threshold may be more common in patients with FTSJ1 deficiency. Our findings demonstrate novel roles for Ftsj1 in maintaining proper cellular and tissue functions in a mammalian organism.

11.
Life Sci ; 215: 96-105, 2018 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30403990

RESUMO

AIMS: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) leads to right ventricular (RV) adaptation and remodeling and has deleterious long-term effects on RV function. The endocannabinoid receptor CB2 has been associated with protective effects in adaptation and remodeling of the left ventricle after ischemia. Therefore, we investigated the role of CB2 receptor in RV adaptation after occlusion of the left pulmonary artery (LPA) in a murine model. MAIN METHODS: C57/Bl6 (WT)- and CB2 receptor-deficient (Cnr2-/-)-mice underwent paramedian sternotomy and LPA was occluded using a metal clip. Right heart hemodynamic study (Millar®) preceded organ harvesting for immunohistochemistry and mRNA analysis 7 and 21 days (d) post-occlusion. KEY FINDINGS: LPA occlusion led to higher RV systolic pressure in Cnr2-/--hearts, while hemodynamics were comparable with WT-hearts after 21d. Cnr2-/--hearts showed higher macrophage infiltration and lower interleukin-10 expression after 7 d, but otherwise a comparable inflammatory mediator expression profile. Cardiomyocyte-hypertrophy was stronger in Cnr2-/--mice, presenting with higher tenascin-C expression than WT-hearts. Planimetry revealed higher collagen area in Cnr2-/--hearts and small areas of cardiomyocyte-loss. Surrounding cardiomyocytes were cleaved caspase-3- and TUNEL positive in Cnr2-/--hearts. This was associated by maladaptation of myosin heavy-chain isoforms and lower reactive oxygen scavenger enzymes induction in Cnr2-/--hearts. We found comparable morphological changes in both lungs between the two genotypes. SIGNIFICANCE: LPA occlusion led to increased systolic pressure and adaptation of RV in CB2-deficient mice. CB2 receptor seems to modulate RV adaptation through expression of contractile elements, reactive oxygen scavenger enzymes, and inflammatory response in order to prevent cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(45): E10720-E10729, 2018 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30348772

RESUMO

Adequate pain management remains an unmet medical need. We previously revealed an opioid-independent analgesic mechanism mediated by orexin 1 receptor (OX1R)-initiated 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) signaling in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG). Here, we found that low-frequency median nerve stimulation (MNS) through acupuncture needles at the PC6 (Neiguan) acupoint (MNS-PC6) induced an antinociceptive effect that engaged this mechanism. In mice, MNS-PC6 reduced acute thermal nociceptive responses and neuropathy-induced mechanical allodynia, increased the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive hypothalamic orexin neurons, and led to higher orexin A and lower GABA levels in the vlPAG. Such responses were not seen in mice with PC6 needle insertion only or electrical stimulation of the lateral deltoid, a nonmedian nerve-innervated location. Directly stimulating the surgically exposed median nerve also increased vlPAG orexin A levels. MNS-PC6-induced antinociception (MNS-PC6-IA) was prevented by proximal block of the median nerve with lidocaine as well as by systemic or intravlPAG injection of an antagonist of OX1Rs or cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1Rs) but not by opioid receptor antagonists. Systemic blockade of OX1Rs or CB1Rs also restored vlPAG GABA levels after MNS-PC6. A cannabinoid (2-AG)-dependent mechanism was also implicated by the observations that MNS-PC6-IA was prevented by intravlPAG inhibition of 2-AG synthesis and was attenuated in Cnr1 -/- mice. These findings suggest that PC6-targeting low-frequency MNS activates hypothalamic orexin neurons, releasing orexins to induce analgesia through a CB1R-dependent cascade mediated by OX1R-initiated 2-AG retrograde disinhibition in the vlPAG. The opioid-independent characteristic of MNS-PC6-induced analgesia may provide a strategy for pain management in opioid-tolerant patients.

13.
Eur J Neurosci ; 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218618

RESUMO

Nicotine dependence and schizophrenia are two mental health disorders with remarkably high comorbidity. Cigarette smoking is particularly prevalent amongst schizophrenic patients and it is hypothesised to comprise a form of self-medication for relieving cognitive deficits in these patients. Emerging evidence suggests a role of the neurohypophysial peptide oxytocin in the modulation of drug addiction, as well as schizophrenia symptomology; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, we sought to investigate the effects of chronic nicotine administration on oxytocin receptor (OTR) binding in the brain of a transgenic mouse model of schizophrenia that carries a bacterial artificial chromosome of the human G72/G30 locus (G72Tg). Female wild-type (WT) and heterozygous G72 transgenic CD-1 mice were treated with a chronic nicotine regimen (24 mg/kg/day, osmotic minipumps for 14 days) and quantitative autoradiographic mapping of oxytocin receptors was carried out in brains of these animals. OTR binding levels were higher in the cingulate cortex (CgCx), nucleus accumbens (Acb), and central amygdala (CeA) of saline treated G72Tg mice compared to WT control mice. Chronic nicotine administration reversed this upregulation in the CgCx and CeA. Interestingly, chronic nicotine administration induced an increase in OTR binding in the CeA of solely WT mice. These results indicate that nicotine administration normalises the dysregulated central oxytocinergic system of this mouse model of schizophrenia and may contribute towards nicotine's ability to modulate cognitive deficits which are common symptoms of schizophrenia.

14.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 11: 295, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30210289

RESUMO

Microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, play important roles in defending the brain against pathogens and supporting neuronal circuit plasticity. Chronic or excessive pro-inflammatory responses of microglia damage neurons, therefore their activity is tightly regulated. Pharmacological and genetic studies revealed that cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor activity influences microglial activity, although microglial CB1 receptor expression is very low and activity-dependent. The CB1 receptor is mainly expressed on neurons in the central nervous system (CNS)-with an especially high level on GABAergic interneurons. Here, we determined whether CB1 signaling on this neuronal cell type plays a role in regulating microglial activity. We compared microglia density, morphology and cytokine expression in wild-type (WT) and GABAergic neuron-specific CB1 knockout mice (GABA/CB1-/-) under control conditions (saline-treatment) and after 3 h, 24 h or repeated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treatment. Our results revealed that hippocampal microglia from saline-treated GABA/CB1-/- mice resembled those of LPS-treated WT mice: enhanced density and larger cell bodies, while the size and complexity of their processes was reduced. No further reduction in the size or complexity of microglia branching was detected after LPS-treatment in GABA/CB1-/- mice, suggesting that microglia in naïve GABA/CB1-/- mice were already in an activated state. This result was further supported by correlating the level of microglial tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) with their size. Acute LPS-treatment elicited in both genotypes similar changes in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß)). However, TNFα expression was still significantly elevated after repeated LPS-treatment in WT, but not in GABA/CB1-/- mice, indicating a faster development of tolerance to LPS. We also tested the possibility that the altered microglia activity in GABA/CB1-/- mice was due to an altered expression of neuron-glia interaction proteins. Indeed, the level of fractalkine (CX3CL1), a neuronal protein involved in the regulation of microglia, was reduced in hippocampal GABAergic neurons in GABA/CB1-/- mice, suggesting a disturbed neuronal control of microglial activity. Our result suggests that CB1 receptor agonists can modulate microglial activity indirectly, through CB1 receptors on GABAergic neurons. Altogether, we demonstrated that GABAergic neurons, despite their relatively low density in the hippocampus, have a specific role in the regulation of microglial activity and cannabinoid signaling plays an important role in this arrangement.

15.
Genes Brain Behav ; 17(8): e12516, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30133126

RESUMO

Adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) are essential for neuronal synapse development across evolution and control various aspects of synapse formation and maturation. Neph2, also known as Kirrel3, is an IgSF adhesion molecule implicated in synapse formation, synaptic transmission and ultrastructure. In humans, defects in the NEPH2 gene have been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as Jacobsen syndrome, intellectual disability, and autism-spectrum disorders. However, the precise role in development and function of the nervous system is still unclear. Here, we present the histomorphological and phenotypical analysis of a constitutive Neph2-knockout mouse line. Knockout mice display defects in auditory sensory processing, motor skills, and hyperactivity in the home-cage analysis. Olfactory, memory and metabolic testing did not differ from controls. Despite the wide-spread expression of Neph2 in various brain areas, no gross anatomic defects could be observed. Neph2 protein could be located at the cerebellar pinceaux. It interacted with the pinceau core component neurofascin and other synaptic proteins thus suggesting a possible role in cerebellar synapse formation and circuit assembly. Our results suggest that Neph2/Kirrel3 acts on the synaptic ultrastructural level and neuronal wiring rather than on ontogenetic events affecting macroscopic structure. Neph2-knockout mice may provide a valuable rodent model for research on autism spectrum diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders.

17.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0202566, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30114280

RESUMO

Astrocytes, key regulators of brain homeostasis, interact with neighboring glial cells, neurons and the vasculature through complex processes involving different signaling pathways. It is not entirely clear how these interactions change in the ageing brain and which factors influence astrocyte ageing. Here, we investigate the role of endocannabinoid signaling, because it is an important modulator of neuron and astrocyte functions, as well as brain ageing. We demonstrate that mice with a specific deletion of CB1 receptors on GABAergic neurons (GABA-Cnr1-/- mice), which show a phenotype of accelerated brain ageing, affects age-related changes in the morphology of astrocytes in the hippocampus. Thus, GABA-Cnr1-/- mice showed a much more pronounced age-related and layer-specific increase in GFAP-positive areas in the hippocampus compared to wild-type animals. The number of astrocytes, in contrast, was similar between the two genotypes. Astrocytes in the hippocampus of old GABA-Cnr1-/- mice also showed a different morphology with enhanced GFAP-positive process branching and a less polarized intrahippocampal distribution. Furthermore, astrocytic TNFα levels were higher in GABA-Cnr1-/- mice, indicating that these morphological changes were accompanied by a more pro-inflammatory function. These findings demonstrate that the disruption of endocannabinoid signaling on GABAergic neurons is accompanied by functional changes in astrocyte activity, which are relevant to brain ageing.

18.
J Leukoc Biol ; 104(5): 969-985, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30040142

RESUMO

Interleukin-27 (IL27) is a type-I cytokine of the IL6/IL12 family and is predominantly secreted by activated macrophages and dendritic cells. We show that IL27 induces STAT factor phosphorylation in cancerous cell lines of different tissue origin. IL27 leads to STAT1 phosphorylation and recapitulates an IFN-γ-like response in the microarray analyses, with up-regulation of genes involved in antiviral defense, antigen presentation, and immune suppression. Like IFN-γ, IL27 leads to an up-regulation of TAP2 and MHC-I proteins, which mediate increased tumor immune clearance. However, both cytokines also upregulate proteins such as PD-L1 (CD274) and IDO-1, which are associated with immune escape of cancer. Interestingly, differential expression of these genes was observed within the different cell lines and when comparing IL27 to IFN-γ. In coculture experiments of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells with peripheral blood mononuclear cells, pre-treatment of the HCC cells with IL27 resulted in lowered IL2 production by anti-CD3/-CD28 activated T-lymphocytes. Addition of anti-PD-L1 antibody, however, restored IL2 secretion. The levels of other TH 1 cytokines were also enhanced or restored upon administration of anti-PD-L1. In addition, we show that the suppression of IL27 signaling by IL6-type cytokine pre-stimulation-mimicking a situation occurring, for example, in IL6-secreting tumors or in tumor inflammation-induced cachexia-can be antagonized by antibodies against IL6-type cytokines or their receptors. Therapeutically, the antitumor effects of IL27 (mediated, e.g., by increased antigen presentation) might thus be increased by combining IL27 with blocking antibodies against PD-L1 or/and IL6-type cytokines.

19.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 10827, 2018 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30018366

RESUMO

Neuropathic pain typically appears in a region innervated by an injured or diseased nerve and, in some instances, also on the contralateral side. This so-called mirror image pain is often observed in mice lacking CB2 receptors after sciatic nerve injury, but the underlying mechanisms for this phenotype largely remain unclear. Here we focused on peripheral leptin signaling, which modulates neuropathic pain development and interacts with the endocannabinoid system. Leptin production is induced at the site of nerve injury in CB2-deficient mice (CB2-KO) mice and wild type controls (WT). However, induction of leptin receptor expression was only observed in the injured nerve of CB2-KO mice. This was paralleled by a stimulation of the leptin receptor-downstream STAT3 signaling and an infiltration of F4/80-positive macrophages. Interestingly, an upregulation of leptin receptor expression STAT3 activity and macrophage infiltration was also observed on the non-injured nerve of CB2-KO mice thus reflecting the mirror image pain in CB2-KO animals. Importantly, perineurally-administered leptin-neutralizing antibodies reduced mechanical hyperalgesia, blocked mirror image pain and inhibited the recruitment of F4/80-positive macrophages. These results identify peripheral leptin signaling as an important modulator of CB2 signaling in neuropathic pain.

20.
Hum Mutat ; 39(10): 1305-1313, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30011118

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a heterogeneous group of rare disorders of keratinization characterized by generalized abnormal scaling of the skin. Ten genes are currently known to be associated with ARCI: TGM1, ALOXE3, ALOX12B, NIPAL4 (ICHTHYIN), ABCA12, CYP4F22, PNPLA1, CERS3, SDR9C7, and SULT2B1. Over a period of 22 years, we have studied a large patient cohort from 770 families with a clinical diagnosis of ARCI. Since the first report that mutations in the gene CYP4F22 are causative for ARCI in 2006, we have identified 54 families with pathogenic mutations in CYP4F22 including 23 previously unreported mutations. In this report, we provide an up-to-date overview of all published and novel CYP4F22 mutations and point out possible mutation hot spots. We discuss the molecular and clinical findings, the genotype-phenotype correlations and consequences on genetic testing.

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