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1.
Clin Imaging ; 79: 158-164, 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One possible complication after mechanical thrombectomy is hemorrhage. In conventional CT it is often difficult to differ between extravasation of iodinated contrast medium and blood. This differentiation, however, is essential for treatments with anticoagulants and antiplatelets. PURPOSE: To evaluate dual-layer spectral Computed Tomography (DLSCT) for the differentiation between intracranial hemorrhage and iodinated contrast medium in ischemic stroke patients after mechanical thrombectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, in vitro experiments were performed. Then, head CT images of 47 patients after mechanical thrombectomy were analyzed. Virtual non-contrast (VNC) images and iodine density maps (IDM) were calculated and evaluated. Region of interests (ROIs) analyses were performed. Sensitivity and specificity as well as ROC curves were calculated. RESULTS: IDM and VNC images enabled clear differentiation between blood and iodine and reliable quantification of different iodine concentrations in vitro. A total of 23 hyperdense areas were detected in 13 patients, classified as hemorrhage (n = 7), iodinated contrast medium (n = 4) and a mixture of both (n = 12). Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of blood was 100%. CONCLUSION: DLSCT enables differentiation between intracranial hemorrhage and iodinated contrast medium in patients after mechanical thrombectomy and might improve diagnostic imaging in post-interventional stroke patients.

2.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; : 1-8, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endovascular treatment of large vessel occlusion in acute ischemic stroke patients is difficult to establish in remote areas, and time dependency of treatment effect increases the urge to develop health care concepts for this population. SUMMARY: Current strategies include direct transportation of patients to a comprehensive stroke center (CSC) ("mothership model") or transportation to the nearest primary stroke center (PSC) and secondary transfer to the CSC ("drip-and-ship model"). Both have disadvantages. We propose the model "flying intervention team." Patients will be transported to the nearest PSC; if telemedically identified as eligible for thrombectomy, an intervention team will be acutely transported via helicopter to the PSC and endovascular treatment will be performed on site. Patients stay at the PSC for further stroke unit care. This model was implemented at a telestroke network in Germany. Fifteen remote hospitals participated in the project, covering 14,000 km2 and a population of 2 million. All have well established telemedically supported stroke units, an angiography suite, and a helicopter pad. Processes were defined individually for each hospital and training sessions were implemented for all stroke teams. An exclusive project helicopter was installed to be available from 8 a.m. to 10 p.m. during 26 weeks per year. Key Messages: The model of the flying intervention team is likely to reduce time delays since processes will be performed in parallel, rather than consecutively, and since it is quicker to move a medical team rather than a patient. This project is currently under evaluation (clinicaltrials NCT04270513).

3.
Stroke ; 52(5): 1570-1579, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusions impede blood flow to the noncollateralized lenticulostriate artery territory. Previous work has shown that this almost inevitably leads to infarction of the dependent gray matter territories in the striate even if perfusion is restored by mechanical thrombectomy. Purpose of this analysis was to evaluate potential sparing of neighboring fiber tracts, ie, the internal capsule. METHODS: An observational single-center study of patients with proximal MCA occlusions treated with mechanical thrombectomy and receiving postinterventional high-resolution diffusion-weighted imaging was conducted. Patients were classified according to internal capsule ischemia (IC+ versus IC-) at the postero-superior level of the MCA lenticulostriate artery territory (corticospinal tract correlate). Associations of IC+ versus IC- with baseline variables as well as its clinical impact were evaluated using multivariable logistic or linear regression analyses adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Of 92 included patients with proximal MCA territory infarctions, 45 (48.9%) had an IC+ pattern. Longer time from symptom-onset to groin-puncture (adjusted odds ratio, 2.12 [95% CI, 1.19-3.76] per hour), female sex and more severe strokes were associated with IC+. Patients with IC+ had lower rates of substantial neurological improvement and functional independence (adjusted odds ratio, 0.26 [95% CI, 0.09-0.81] and adjusted odds ratio, 0.25 [95% CI, 0.07-0.86]) after adjustment for confounders. These associations remained unchanged when confining analyses to patients without ischemia in the corona radiata or the motor cortex and here, IC+ was associated with higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale motor item scores (ß, +2.8 [95% CI, 1.5 to 4.1]) without a significant increase in nonmotor items (ß, +0.8 [95% CI, -0.2 to 1.9). CONCLUSIONS: Rapid mechanical thrombectomy with successful reperfusion of the lenticulostriate arteries often protects the internal capsule from subsequent ischemia despite early basal ganglia damage. Salvage of this eloquent white matter tract within the MCA lenticulostriate artery territory seems strongly time-dependent, which has clinical and pathophysiological implications.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8757, 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888794

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess pre- and postoperative cognitive functions in patients who underwent surgery for benign intracranial lesions. In total, 58 patients (21 men, 37 women, mean age 51.6 years [range 24-76 years]) with benign intracranial lesions (including benign tumors and vascular lesions) and neuralgia of the trigeminal nerve were included in this prospective study. Extensive cognitive testing was used to categorize attention, memory, and executive functions. Mood and pain were assessed preoperatively (t0, mean 3.7 days before surgery), immediately after surgery/during inpatient stay (t1, mean 7.6 days after surgery), and at first outpatient check-up (t2, mean 99.5 days after surgery). All 58 patients were tested at t0 and t1, but at t2 only 24 patients were available at t2. The data were categorized as improvement/stable condition or deterioration and shown as percentages. The pre- and postoperative values of BDI-II and mood were compared by the Wilcoxon test for paired samples. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed to identify parameters influencing cognition in the subgroup of meningioma patients. Immediately after surgery (t1), the percentage of patients with improvement/stable condition was > 50% in all categories in the majority of subtests (attention: 12/14 subtests, memory: 11/13 subtests, executive functions: 6/9 subtests). Similar results were shown at t2. Mood and pain did not change significantly after surgery. Factors like age, Karnofsky performance status, and tumor volume were not shown as significant influencing factors for cognitive functions in meningioma patients. The results of this study suggest that-in contrast to neuroepithelial tumors-cognitive functions do not deteriorate after surgery of benign intracranial lesions. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the results of this study.

5.
Rofo ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês, Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a very innovative, but at the same time complex and technically demanding diagnostic method in radiology. It plays an increasing role in high-quality and efficient patient management. Quality assurance in MRI is of utmost importance to avoid patient risks due to errors before and during the examination and when reporting the results. Therefore, MRI requires higher physician qualification and expertise than any other diagnostic imaging technique in medicine. This holds true for indication, performance of the examination itself, and in particular for image evaluation and writing of the report. In Germany, the radiologist is the only specialist who is systematically educated in all aspects of MRI during medical specialty training and who must document a specified, high number of examinations during this training. However, also non-radiologist physicians are increasingly endeavoring to conduct and bill MRI examinations on their own. METHOD: In this position statement, the following aspects of quality assurance for MRI examinations and billing by radiologists and non-radiologist physician specialists are examined scientifically: Requirements for specialist physician training, MRI risks and contraindications, radiation protection in the case of non-ionizing radiation, application of MR contrast agents, requirements regarding image quality, significance of image artifacts and incidental findings, image evaluation and reporting, interdisciplinary communication and multiple-eyes principle, and impact on healthcare system costs. CONCLUSION: The German Roentgen Society, German Society of Neuroradiology, and Society of German-speaking Pediatric Radiologists are critical with regard to MRI performance by non-radiologists in the interest of quality standards, patient welfare, and healthcare payers. The 24-month additional qualification in MRI as defined by the physician specialization regulations (Weiterbildungsordnung) through the German state medical associations (Landesärztekammern) is the only competence-based and quality-assured training program for board-certified specialist physicians outside radiology. This has to be required as the minimum standard for performance and reporting of MRI exams. Exclusively unstructured MRI training outside the physician specialization regulations has to be strictly rejected for reasons of patient safety. The performance and reporting of MRI examinations must be reserved for adequately trained and continuously educated specialist physicians. KEY POINTS: · MR imaging plays an increasing role due to its high diagnostic value and serves as the reference standard in many indications.. · MRI is a complex technique that implies patient risks in case of inappropriare application or lack of expertise.. · In Germany, the radiologist is the only specialist physician that has been systematically trained in all aspects of MRI such as indication, performance, and reporting of examinations in specified, high numbers.. · The only competence-based and quality-assured MRI training program for specialist physicians outside radiology is the 24-month additional qualification as defined by the regulations through the German state medical associations.. · In view of quality-assurance and patient safety, a finalized training program following the physician specialization regulations has to be required for the performance and reporting of MRI examinations.. CITATION FORMAT: · Hunold P, Bucher AM, Sandstede J et al. Statement of the German Roentgen Society, German Society of Neuroradiology, and Society of German-speaking Pediatric Radiologists on Requirements for the Performance and Reporting of MR Imaging Examinations Outside of Radiology. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2021; DOI: 10.1055/a-1463-3626.

6.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807826

RESUMO

Despite the general acceptance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the gold standard for diagnostics of traumatic disco-ligamentous injuries in the subaxial cervical spine, clinical experience shows cases where no lesion is detected in MRI exams but obtained during surgery. The aim of this study was to compare intraoperative site inspection to preoperative imaging findings and to identify radiological features of patients having a risk for under- or over-estimating disco-ligamentous lesions. We performed a retrospective analysis of our clinical database, considering all patients who underwent surgical treatment of the cervical spine via an anterior approach after trauma between June 2008 and April 2018. Only patients with availability of immediate preoperative computed tomography (CT), 3-Tesla MRI scans, and information about intraoperative findings were considered. Results of preoperative imaging were set in context to intraoperative findings, and receiver operator characteristics (ROC) were calculated. Out of 144 patients receiving anterior cervical surgery after trauma, 83 patients (mean age: 59.4 ± 20.5 years, age range: 12-94 years, 63.9% males) were included in this study. Included patients underwent surgical treatment via anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF; 79 patients) or anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (4 patients) with ventral plating. Comparing preoperative imaging findings to intraoperative site inspection, a discrepancy between imaging and surgical findings was revealed in 14 patients, leading to an overall specificity/sensitivity of preoperative imaging to identify disco-ligamentous lesions of the cervical spine of 100%/77.4%. Yet, adding the existence of prevertebral hematoma and/or vertebral fractures according to preoperative imaging improved the sensitivity to 95.2%. Lack of sensitivity was most likely related to severe cervical spondylosis, rendering correct radiological reporting difficult. Thus, the risk of missing a traumatic disco-ligamentous injury of the cervical spine in imaging seems to be a particular threat in patients with preexisting degenerative cervical spondylosis. In conclusion, incorporating the existence of prevertebral hematoma and/or vertebral fractures can significantly improve diagnostic yield.

7.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 216(5): 1308-1317, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33703925

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of our study was to evaluate simulated sparse-sampled MDCT combined with statistical iterative reconstruction (SIR) for low-dose imaging of patients with spinal instrumentation. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Thirty-eight patients with implanted hardware after spinal instrumentation (24 patients with short- or long-term instrumentation-related complications [i.e., adjacent segment disease, screw loosening or implant failure, or postoperative hematoma or seroma] and 14 control subjects with no complications) underwent MDCT. Scans were simulated as if they were performed with 50% (P50), 25% (P25), 10% (P10), and 5% (P5) of the projections of the original acquisition using an in-house-developed SIR algorithm for advanced image reconstructions. Two readers performed qualitative image evaluations of overall image quality and artifacts, image contrast, inspection of the spinal canal, and diagnostic confidence (1 = high, 2 = medium, and 3 = low confidence). RESULTS. Although overall image quality decreased and artifacts increased with reductions in the number of projections, all complications were detected by both readers when 100% of the projections of the original acquisition (P100), P50, and P25 imaging data were used. For P25 data, diagnostic confidence was still high (mean score ± SD: reader 1, 1.2 ± 0.4; reader 2, 1.3 ± 0.5), and interreader agreement was substantial to almost perfect (weighted Cohen κ = 0.787-0.855). The mean volumetric CT dose index was 3.2 mGy for P25 data in comparison with 12.6 mGy for the original acquisition (P100 data). CONCLUSION. The use of sparse sampling and SIR for low-dose MDCT in patients with spinal instrumentation facilitated considerable reductions in radiation exposure. The use of P25 data with SIR resulted in no missed complications related to spinal instrumentation and allowed high diagnostic confidence, so using only 25% of the projections is probably enough for accurate and confident diagnostic detection of major instrumentation-related complications.


Assuntos
Artefatos , Fixadores Internos , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Doses de Radiação , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5403, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686187

RESUMO

Premature-born infants have impaired amygdala structure, presumably due to increased stress levels of premature birth mediated by the amygdala. However, accounting for lifelong plasticity of amygdala, it is unclear whether such structural changes persist into adulthood. To address this problem, we stated the following questions: first, are whole amygdala volumes reduced in premature-born adults? And second, as adult anxiety traits are often increased after prematurity and linked with amygdala structure, are alterations in amygdala associated with adults' anxiety traits after premature birth? We addressed these questions by automated amygdala segmentation of MRI volumes in 101 very premature-born adults (< 32 weeks of gestation and/or birth weight below 1500 g) and 108 full-term controls at 26 years of age of a prospectively and longitudinally collected cohort. We found significantly lower whole amygdala volumes in premature-born adults. While premature-born adults had significantly higher T score for avoidant personality reflecting increased social anxiety trait, this trait was not correlated with amygdala volume alterations. Results demonstrate reduced amygdala volumes in premature born adults. Data suggest lasting effects of prematurity on amygdala structure.

9.
J Clin Periodontol ; 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745132

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the correlation between standard clinical findings, radiographic (OPT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as to assess whether MRI is capable of providing additional information related to the severity and extent of periodontal disease. METHODS: 42 patients with generalized periodontitis received pre-interventional MRI scans. These were compared to MR images of a periodontal healthy control group (n = 34). The extent of the osseous oedema, detected by MRI, was set in correlation with clinical periodontitis-associated findings. RESULTS: A highly significant correlation between bone oedema and clinical testings such as probing depth (p < 0.0001) and bleeding on probing (p < 0.0001) was revealed. The oedema exceeded the extent of demineralized bone. Patients with a positive BOP test showed a 2.51-fold increase in risk of already having a bone oedema around the respective tooth even if probing depth was ≤3 mm (logistic binary regression analysis, OR 2.51; 95% CI: 1.54-4.11; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: MRI findings correlated with standard clinical findings, and MRI was able to depict intraosseous changes before any osseous defect had occurred.

10.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The first-pass effect (FPE), defined as a first-pass Expanded Treatment in Cerebral Ischaemia (eTICI) 2c/3 reperfusion, has emerged as a key metric of efficacy in mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for acute ischaemic stroke. The proximal balloon occlusion together with direct thrombus aspiration during stent retriever thrombectomy (PROTECT)-PLUS technique consists in the use of a balloon guide catheter and a combined MT approach involving contact aspiration and a stent retriever. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and safety of the PROTECT-PLUS technique using distal aspiration catheters (DACs) with different inner diameters by comparing the large-bore DAC Catalyst 7 versus the use of medium-bore DACs. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database of patients treated with PROTECT-PLUS using Catalyst 7, Catalyst 6 or Catalyst 5 with an occlusion of either the terminal carotid artery or the M1 or M2 segments of the middle cerebral artery from 2018 to 2020 in two comprehensive stroke centres. Baseline characteristics and procedural, safety and clinical outcomes were compared between groups. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed in order to find independent predictors of FPE. RESULTS: We identified 238 consecutive patients treated with PROTECT-PLUS as front-line approach using Catalyst 7 (n=86), Catalyst 6 (n=78) and Catalyst 5 (n=76). The rate of FPE was higher with Catalyst 7 (54%) than Catalyst 6 (33%, p=0.009) and Catalyst 5 (32%, p=0.005), in addition to higher final eTICI 2c/3 reperfusion rates, shorter procedural times, lower need of rescue therapy and fewer procedure-related complications. After multivariable analysis the sole independent factor associated to FPE was the use of Catalyst 7 (OR 2.34; 95% CI 1.19 to 4.58; p=0.014). CONCLUSION: Further development of combined MT by incorporating larger-bore aspiration catheters is associated with higher reperfusion rates, shorter procedure times, and lower need of rescue therapy while reducing the complication rates.

11.
Cephalalgia ; : 333102421996374, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neck pain is frequent in patients with migraine. Likewise, evidence for inflammatory processes in the trapezius muscles is accumulating. However, non-invasive and objectively assessable correlates are missing in vivo. METHODS: Twenty-one subjects with episodic migraine (mean age: 24.6 ± 3.1 years, 18 females) and 22 controls (mean age: 23.0 ± 2.2 years, 17 females) without any history of headache prospectively underwent physical examination and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of the trapezius muscles. A T2-prepared turbo spin-echo sequence was acquired for manual segmentation of the trapezius muscles and extraction of mean T2 values. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences regarding age, sex, body mass index, or number of myofascial trigger points (mTrPs) between groups. All patients with migraine presented with mTrPs in the trapezius muscles. T2 of the entire trapezius muscles was significantly higher in the migraine group when compared to controls (31.1 ± 0.8 ms vs. 30.1 ± 1.1 ms; p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated T2 values of the trapezius muscles may indicate subtle inflammatory processes within musculature among patients with migraine because T2 increase is likely to stem from edematous changes. Future work may validate this finding in larger cohorts, but muscle T2 might have potential to develop into a viable in vivo biomarker for muscular affection in migraine.

13.
MAGMA ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502667

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of compressed SENSE (CS), an acceleration technique combining parallel imaging and compressed sensing, on potential bias and precision of brain volumetry and evaluate it in the context of normative brain volumetry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 171 scans from scan-rescan experiments on three healthy subjects were analyzed. Each subject received 3D-T1-weighted brain MRI scans at increasing degrees of acceleration (CS-factor = 1/4/8/12/16/20/32). Single-scan acquisition times ranged from 00:41 min (CS-factor = 32) to 21:52 min (CS-factor = 1). Brain segmentation and volumetry was performed using two different software tools: md.brain, a proprietary software based on voxel-based morphometry, and FreeSurfer, an open-source software based on surface-based morphometry. Four sub-volumes were analyzed: brain parenchyma (BP), total gray matter, total white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Coefficient of variation (CoV) of the repeated measurements as a measure of intra-subject reliability was calculated. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) with regard to increasing CS-factor was calculated as another measure of reliability. Noise-to-contrast ratio as a measure of image quality was calculated for each dataset to analyze the association between acceleration factor, noise and volumetric brain measurements. RESULTS: For all sub-volumes, there is a systematic bias proportional to the CS-factor which is dependent on the utilized software and subvolume. Measured volumes deviated significantly from the reference standard (CS-factor = 1), e.g. ranging from 1 to 13% for BP. The CS-induced systematic bias is driven by increased image noise. Except for CSF, reliability of brain volumetry remains high, demonstrated by low CoV (< 1% for CS-factor up to 20) and good to excellent ICC for CS-factor up to 12. CONCLUSION: CS-acceleration has a systematic biasing effect on volumetric brain measurements.

14.
Eur Radiol ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507353

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare spinal bone measures derived from automatic and manual assessment in routine CT with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in their association with prevalent osteoporotic vertebral fractures using our fully automated framework ( https://anduin.bonescreen.de ) to assess various bone measures in clinical CT. METHODS: We included 192 patients (141 women, 51 men; age 70.2 ± 9.7 years) who had lumbar DXA and CT available (within 1 year). Automatic assessment of spinal bone measures in CT included segmentation of vertebrae using a convolutional neural network (CNN), reduction to the vertebral body, and extraction of bone mineral content (BMC), trabecular and integral volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), and CT-based areal BMD (aBMD) using asynchronous calibration. Moreover, trabecular bone was manually sampled (manual vBMD). RESULTS: A total of 148 patients (77%) had vertebral fractures and significantly lower values in all bone measures compared to patients without fractures (p ≤ 0.001). Except for BMC, all CT-based measures performed significantly better as predictors for vertebral fractures compared to DXA (e.g., AUC = 0.885 for trabecular vBMD and AUC = 0.86 for integral vBMD vs. AUC = 0.668 for DXA aBMD, respectively; both p < 0.001). Age- and sex-adjusted associations with fracture status were strongest for manual vBMD (OR = 7.3, [95%] CI 3.8-14.3) followed by automatically assessed trabecular vBMD (OR = 6.9, CI 3.5-13.4) and integral vBMD (OR = 4.3, CI 2.5-7.6). Diagnostic cutoffs of integral vBMD for osteoporosis (< 160 mg/cm3) or low bone mass (160 ≤ BMD < 190 mg/cm3) had sensitivity (84%/41%) and specificity (78%/95%) similar to trabecular vBMD. CONCLUSIONS: Fully automatic osteoporosis screening in routine CT of the spine is feasible. CT-based measures can better identify individuals with reduced bone mass who suffered from vertebral fractures than DXA. KEY POINTS: • Opportunistic osteoporosis screening of spinal bone measures derived from clinical routine CT is feasible in a fully automatic fashion using a deep learning-driven framework ( https://anduin.bonescreen.de ). • Manually sampled volumetric BMD (vBMD) and automatically assessed trabecular and integral vBMD were the best predictors for prevalent vertebral fractures. • Except for bone mineral content, all CT-based bone measures performed significantly better than DXA-based measures. • We introduce diagnostic thresholds of integral vBMD for osteoporosis (< 160 mg/cm3) and low bone mass (160 ≤ BMD < 190 mg/cm3) with almost equal sensitivity and specificity compared to conventional thresholds of quantitative CT as proposed by the American College of Radiology (osteoporosis < 80 mg/cm3).

16.
J Neuroimaging ; 31(2): 341-347, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Iterative model reconstruction (IMR) has shown to improve computed tomography (CT) image quality compared to hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR). Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) assessment in early stroke is particularly dependent on high-image quality. Purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of ASPECTS assessed by humans and software based on HIR and IMR, respectively. METHODS: Forty-seven consecutive patients with acute anterior circulation large vessel occlusions (LVOs) and successful endovascular thrombectomy were included. ASPECTS was assessed by three neuroradiologists (one attending, two residents) and by automated software in noncontrast axial CT with HIR (iDose4; 5 mm) and IMR (5 and 0.9 mm). Two expert neuroradiologists determined consensus ASPECTS reading using all available image data including MRI. Agreement between four raters (three humans, one software) and consensus were compared using square-weighted kappa (κ). RESULTS: Human raters achieved moderate to almost perfect agreement (κ = .557-.845) with consensus reading. The attending showed almost perfect agreement for 5 mm HIR (κHIR  = .845), while residents had mostly substantial agreements without clear trends across reconstructions. Software had substantial to almost perfect agreement with consensus, increasing with IMR 5 and 0.9 mm slice thickness (κHIR  = .751, κIMR  = .777, and κIMR0.9  = .814). Agreements inversely declined for these reconstructions for the attending (κHIR  = .845, κIMR  = .763, and κIMR0.9  = .681). CONCLUSIONS: Human and software rating showed good reliability of ASPECTS across different CT reconstructions. Human raters performed best with the reconstruction algorithms they had most experience with (HIR for the attending). Automated software benefits from higher resolution with better contrasts in IMR with 0.9 mm slice thickness.

17.
Radiat Oncol ; 15(1): 276, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Local hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HFSRT) of the resection cavity is emerging as the standard of care in the treatment of patients with a limited number of brain metastases as it warrants less neurological impairment compared to whole brain radiotherapy. In periventricular metastases surgical resection can lead to an opening of the ventricles and subsequently carries a potential risk of cerebrospinal tumour cell dissemination. The aim of this study was to assess whether local radiotherapy of the resection cavity is viable in these cases. METHODS: From our institutional database we analyzed the data of 125 consecutive patients with resected brain metastases treated in our institution with HFSRT between 2009 and 2017. The incidence of LMD, overall survival (OS), local recurrence (LC) and distant recurrence were evaluated depending on ventricular opening (VO) during surgery. RESULTS: From all 125 patients, the ventricles were opened during surgery in 14 cases (11.2%). None of the patients with VO and 7 patients without VO during surgery developed LMD (p = 0.371). OS (p = 0.817), LC (p = 0.524) and distant recurrence (p = 0.488) did not differ in relation to VO during surgical resection. However, the incidence of distant intraventricular recurrence was slightly increased in patients with VO (14.3% vs. 2.7%, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: VO during neurosurgical resection did not affect the outcome after HFSRT of the resection cavity in patients with brain metastases. Particularly, the incidence of LMD was not increased in patients receiving local HFSRT after VO. HFSRT can therefore be offered independently of VO as a local treatment of tumor bed after resection of brain metastases.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216209

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Aneurysm residuals after clipping are a well-known problem, but the course of aneurysm remnants in follow-up is not well studied. No standards or follow-up guidelines exist for treatment of aneurysm remnants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for postoperative aneurysm remnants and their changes during follow-up. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 666 aneurysms treated via clipping in our hospital from 2006 to 2016. Postoperative and follow-up angiographic data were analyzed for aneurysm remnants and regrowth. Clinical parameters and aneurysm-specific characteristics were correlated with radiological results. RESULTS: The frequency of aneurysm residuals was 12% (78/666). Aneurysms located in the middle cerebral artery (p = 0.02) showed a significantly lower risk for incomplete aneurysm occlusion. Larger aneurysms with a diameter of 11-25 mm (p = 0.005) showed a significantly higher risk for incomplete aneurysm occlusion. Five patients underwent re-clipping during the same hospital stay. Remnants were stratified based on morphological characteristics into "dog ears" (n = 60) and "broad based" (n = 13). The majority of the "dog ears" stayed stable, decreased in size, or vanished during follow-up. Broad-based remnants showed a higher risk of regrowth. CONCLUSIONS: A middle cerebral artery location seems to lower the risk for the incomplete clip occlusion of an aneurysm. Greater aneurysm size (11-25 mm) is associated with a postoperative aneurysm remnant. The majority of "dog-ear" remnants appear to remain stable during follow-up. In these cases, unnecessarily frequent angiographic checks could be avoided. By contrast, broad-based residuals show a higher risk of regrowth that requires close imaging controls if retreatment cannot be performed immediately.

19.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 11: 586352, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33240220

RESUMO

Purpose: To assess whether volumetric vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) measured with opportunistic quantitative computed tomography (QCT) (i.e., CT acquired for other reasons) can predict osteoporotic fracture occurrence in a prospective clinical cohort and how this performs in comparison to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements. Methods: In the database of our fracture liaison service, 58 patients (73 ± 11 years, 72% women) were identified that had at least one prevalent low-energy fracture and had undergone CT of the spine. BMD was determined by converting HU using scanner-specific conversion equations. Baseline DXA was available for 31 patients. During a 3-year follow-up, new fractures were diagnosed either by (i) recent in-house imaging or (ii) clinical follow-up with validated external reports. Associations were assessed using logistic regression models, and cut-off values were determined with ROC/Youden analyses. Results: Within 3 years, 20 of 58 patients presented new low-energy fractures (34%). Mean QCT BMD of patients with fractures was significantly lower (56 ± 20 vs. 91 ± 38 mg/cm3; p = 0.003) and age was higher (77 ± 10 vs. 71 ± 11 years; p = 0.037). QCT BMD was significantly associated with the occurrence of new fractures, and the OR for developing a new fracture during follow-up was 1.034 (95% CI, 1.010-1.058, p = 0.005), suggesting 3% higher odds for every unit of BMD decrease (1 mg/cm3). Age and sex showed no association. For the differentiation between patients with and without new fractures, ROC showed an AUC of 0.76 and a Youden's Index of J = 0.48, suggesting an optimal cut-off value of 82 mg/cm3. DXA T-scores showed no significant association with fracture occurrence in analogous regression models. Conclusion: In this use case, opportunistic BMD measurements attained through QCT predicted fractures during a 3-year follow-up. This suggests that opportunistic measurements are useful to reduce the diagnostic gap and evaluate the fracture risk in osteoporotic patients.

20.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147827

RESUMO

Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is increasingly used for mapping of motor function prior to surgery in patients harboring motor-eloquent brain lesions. To date, single-pulse nTMS (sp-nTMS) has been predominantly used for this purpose, but novel paired-pulse nTMS (pp-nTMS) with biphasic pulse application has been made available recently. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate pp-nTMS with biphasic pulses in comparison to conventionally used sp-nTMS for preoperative motor mapping of lower extremity (lE) muscle representations. Thirty-nine patients (mean age: 56.3 ± 13.5 years, 69.2% males) harboring motor-eloquent brain lesions of different entity underwent motor mapping of lE muscle representations in lesion-affected hemispheres and nTMS-based tractography of the corticospinal tract (CST) using data from sp-nTMS and pp-nTMS with biphasic pulses, respectively. Compared to sp-nTMS, pp-nTMS enabled motor mapping with lower stimulation intensities (61.8 ± 13.8% versus 50.7 ± 11.6% of maximum stimulator output, p < 0.0001), and it provided reliable motor maps even in the most demanding cases where sp-nTMS failed (pp-nTMS was able to provide a motor map in five patients in whom sp-nTMS did not provide any motor-positive points, and pp-nTMS was the only modality to provide a motor map in one patient who also did not show motor-positive points during intraoperative stimulation). Fiber volumes of the tracked CST were slightly higher when motor maps of pp-nTMS were used, and CST tracking using pp-nTMS data was also possible in the five patients in whom sp-nTMS failed. In conclusion, application of pp-nTMS with biphasic pulses enables preoperative motor mapping of lE muscle representations even in the most challenging patients in whom the motor system is at high risk due to lesion location or resection.

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