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1.
J Affect Disord ; 266: 585-594, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is highly comorbid with other psychological disorders, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Preliminary evidence suggests that youth with comorbid OCD and ADHD may experience greater impairments than children with other comorbidities; however, there is limited research examining the clinical expression and treatment response of these youth. METHODS: Youth (7 to 17 years) with a primary diagnosis of OCD and comorbid ADHD (n = 40) were compared a sample of age and gender matched youth with OCD and other comorbidity (without ADHD, n = 40). The study investigated symptoms, severity, functioning, comorbidity, family accommodation, in addition to parental psychopathology and rearing styles. Treatment response was investigated at post-treatment and six-month follow-up. RESULTS: Youth with comorbid OCD and ADHD had fewer sexual obsessions, higher rates of comorbidity, poorer executive functioning and higher family impairment. Families of comorbid youth engaged in significantly more accommodation and reported more negative rearing. Finally, comorbid youth were significantly less likely to be responders or remitters at post-treatment. LIMITATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS: Limitations include the cross-sectional design, relatively small clinical sample, and lack of an experimental control group of youth with ADHD without OCD. Current approaches to treatment may be improved for youth with comorbid OCD and ADHD by addressing cooccurring anxiety, behavioural difficulties, and maladaptive family accommodation and rearing. Moreover, given pronounced deficits in executive function, these youth may require a stronger initial dose of CBT to achieve an adequate response.

2.
Psychol Assess ; 32(2): 140-153, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535875

RESUMO

[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 32(2) of Psychological Assessment (see record 2020-04120-001). In the article, there are two errors in the Method section for Study 2. First, in the "Body dissatisfaction" subsection, the range of total scores for the Body-Image Ideals Questionnaire was incorrectly listed as being "between 0 and 99." The correct range is from - 3 to 9. Second, in the "Dieting and bulimia" subsection, the reference for the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was incorrectly cited as "Garner et al., 1983." Garner, D. M., Olmsted, M. P., Bohr, Y., & Garfinkel, P. E. (1982). The Eating Attitudes Test: Psychometric features and clinical correlates. Psychological Medicine, 12, 871-878. http://dx.doi .org/10.1017/s0033291700049163.] Females are at risk for body image and eating disturbance when they internalize societally prescribed standards of Western beauty. With respect to messages to be thin or muscular, numerous scales are available that measure internalization. However, many women are now receiving messages about the desirability of being both thin and toned, yet no self-report measure of internalization of a fit female body ideal exists. Our aim was to develop a multidimensional tool (i.e., the Fit Ideal Internalization Test; FIIT) useful for assessing women's internalization of the fit ideal (i.e., a lean and toned body ideal). Three studies were conducted, recruiting independent groups of women attending university to complete surveys. In Study 1 (N = 300, age 16-51), women completed the FIIT items, and a 3-factor structure of fit idealization (8 items), fit overvaluation (8 items), and fit behavioral drive (4 items) was established through exploratory factor analysis. Also, items loading highly on each of the factors had good interitem correlations. In Study 2 (N = 354, age 16-63), women completed the 20-item FIIT and validation measures. The 3-factor structure of the FIIT was confirmed, and findings supported convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity of the FIIT subscale scores (and a total score). In Study 3 (N = 67, age 17-50), the 2-week test-retest reliability of the FIIT scores was high. Overall, the 3 FIIT subscales are related but also distinct domains of fit ideal internalization that conform to theory and may be used as individual subscales or potentially as a composite score. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

3.
Br J Dev Psychol ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746010

RESUMO

Guided by attachment theory of emotion regulation (ER), the current study utilized a person-centred approach to identify clusters of individuals that differed in their attachment representations and ER, and further examined individual differences in socio-emotional functioning based on these profiles. Participants included 658 emerging adults (M = 19.9, SD = 2.7, 65.5% female) who completed surveys measuring responses to rejection, friendship closeness, and emotional maladjustment. Five clusters were identified: secure regulated (19%), disorganized unregulated (21%), anxious unregulated (16%), emotive (21%), and avoidant suppressor (22%). Each group displayed unique patterns, with the secure regulated group reporting significantly less withdrawal, retribution, rumination, and emotional maladjustment, and the disorganized unregulated group reporting the poorest functioning across all indicators. Significant cluster × sex effects were also found for friendship closeness. These findings suggest the importance of considering attachment and ER, and implications for attachment theory and development are discussed. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Insecure attachment representations are a significant risk factor for poorer outcomes across development. Hyperactivating and deactivating strategies are maladaptive responses to coping with emotional threat. These strategies are an extension of the internal working model and positive correlates of poorer functioning. What does this study add? Previous studies have over-relied on variable-centred approaches to replicate findings of attachment theory. A person-centred approach allowing for the joint consideration of patterns of both attachment and ER strategies. The identification of five novel profiles revealing unique differences in three important domains of functioning.

4.
J Res Adolesc ; 29(3): 578-594, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573763

RESUMO

Scholars have long-called for researchers to treat coping as a process that is measured over an arc of time. Ambulatory assessment (AA) offers an appealing tool for capturing the dynamic process of adolescent coping. However, challenges in capturing the coping process are not altogether circumvented with AA designs. We conducted a scoping review of the AA literature on adolescent coping and draw from 60 studies to provide an overview of the field. We provide critiques of different AA approaches and highlight benefits and costs associated with various types of measurement within AA. We also speak to considerations of participant burden and compliance. We conclude with recommendations for developmental scholars seeking to deploy AA to capture this quintessential process among adolescents.

5.
J Adolesc ; 75: 12-21, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295560

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We examined sexual harassment, alongside other forms of peer victimization, as correlates of self-worth, depression, and anxiety (emotional adjustment). In addition, we investigated joint moderating effects of gender and age in the relationship between sexual harassment and emotional adjustment. METHODS: Participants were 277 high school and 492 university students (12-24 years, 60% female) residing in Australia. All completed a survey to report sexual harassment experiences, as well as in-person and online/social media appearance-related peer victimization, global self-worth, and social anxiety and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Age was positively associated with sexual harassment, as well as with general and social media victimization; males and females did not differ. Participants who reported more sexual harassment reported poorer adjustment, but only the association with depressive symptoms remained significant after controlling for other forms of peer victimization. When gender and age were tested as moderators, the positive association between sexual harassment and depression was significant for all groups but younger males and there was a positive association between harassment and anxiety among only younger females and older males. CONCLUSION: Sexual harassment was commonly reported, but rather weakly and intermittently associated with emotional health, after controlling for appearance-related peer victimization. Future research should examine when and why youth seem fairly resilient to negative emotional effects that could follow sexual harassment. It is possible that messages about the cause of sexual harassment are being heard and this aids youth to avoid self-blame and emotional maladjustment.

6.
J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 47(11): 1821-1840, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073880

RESUMO

Many children experience anxiety but have limited access to empirically-supported interventions. School-based interventions using brief, computer-assisted training provide a viable way of reaching children. Recent evidence suggests that computer-delivered 'positive search training' (PST) reduces anxiety in children. This multi-informant, randomised controlled trial compared classroom-based, computer-delivered PST (N = 116) to a classroom-based, therapist-delivered cognitive-behavioural intervention (CBI) (N = 127) and a curriculum-as-usual control condition (CAU) (N = 60) in 7-11 year old children. Primary outcomes were child and parent report of child anxiety symptoms. Secondary outcomes were child and parent report of child depressive symptoms and child attention biases. Outcomes were assessed before and after the interventions, and six- and 12-months post-intervention. Teacher report of children's social-emotional functioning was assessed at pre- and post-intervention. As expected, compared to CAU, children receiving PST and the CBI reported greater anxiety reductions by post-intervention and six-month follow-up but, unexpectedly, not at 12-month follow-up. Partially consistent with hypotheses, compared to CAU, parents reported greater anxiety reductions in children receiving PST, but not the CBI, at 12-month follow-up. Contrary to expectation, there was a pre- to post-intervention increase in threat attention bias in PST compared to the other conditions, with no significant differences at follow-up. In support of hypotheses, teachers reported higher post-intervention social-emotional functioning in Year 5 students receiving the CBI but, unexpectedly, lower post-intervention functioning in students receiving PST. There were no effects on depressive symptoms. Further research is needed on strategies to maintain long-term benefits and determine preventative versus early intervention effects.

7.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 50(6): 927-939, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065951

RESUMO

A new measure specifically designed for adolescents to assess body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) symptoms is needed to identify youth who could benefit from intervention to reduce their BDD-related symptomology. To address this gap, the Multidimensional Youth Body Dysmorphic Inventory (MY BODI) was developed and the psychometric properties were evaluated. Following development and expert assessment, Australian secondary school students (N = 582; 55% female; Mage = 13.62, SD = 1.59, aged 11 to 18 years, grades 7 to 12) completed a survey with the new items and validation measures. Results from the factor analysis supported a 3-factor, 21-items measure, which aligned with the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria of Impairment/avoidance, Preoccupation/repetitive behaviours, and Insight/distress. Supporting the convergent validity of the measure, the MY BODI total score and sub-scale scores correlated with measures of BDD symptoms, including the Appearance Anxiety Inventory (AAI) and Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire-Adolescent Version (BDDQ-A). This study provides preliminary validation of the MY BODI, a self-report measure of BDD symptoms and symptom severity, using a response set aimed to facilitate more reliable reporting, which may identify risk for BDD, and symptoms of BDD.

8.
Behav Ther ; 50(2): 340-352, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824250

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to test whether Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), a widely used effective therapy for children's externalizing behaviors and parenting problems, was associated with improvements in parents' emotion regulation and reflective functioning. We also investigated whether these improvements had unique associations with children's improvements in externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Participants were 139 Australian children aged 29 to 83 months and their caregivers; all were referred for child externalizing behavior problems coupled with parenting skill deficits or high parent stress. All data were gathered via a questionnaire completed prior to and after completion of PCIT. Significant improvements were found in parents' self-reported emotion dysregulation and capacity to use cognitive reappraisal for emotion regulation. There was also improvement in parents' self-report of children's symptoms, parenting practices, and reflective functioning in the form of prementalizing, which measured a low capacity to understand the emotional world of the child. Multiple regression showed that improvements in cognitive reappraisal, prementalizing, and negative parenting practices were associated with improvement in children's symptoms. The findings extend the existing evidence for PCIT as an effective parenting intervention, adding parents' perceived emotion regulation and reflective functioning to the list of positive outcomes from PCIT. Improved emotion regulation and reflective functioning, unique from changes in parenting practices, could be mechanisms that help explain why PCIT has been associated with improvements in children's externalizing behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Emoções , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Percepção , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/terapia , Educação Infantil/psicologia , Educação Infantil/tendências , Pré-Escolar , Emoções/fisiologia , Terapia Familiar/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Poder Familiar/tendências , Percepção/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Fam Psychol ; 33(4): 476-486, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30869916

RESUMO

There has been wide application of Self-Determination Theory (SDT) to understanding motivation and regulation of eating and weight. Yet, there are no measures of the socioemotional-contextual family conditions in the eating domain, which are identified in SDT and should influence development of eating behavior in young children. Two studies were conducted to develop and validate a measure to assess the SDT socioemotional-contextual dimensions of food-related parenting. These dimensions were derived from extensions of SDT, which argue that autonomy support, warmth, and appropriate structure (as well as low coercion, hostility, and chaos) are the conditions that will fulfill children's psychological needs for autonomy, relatedness and competence, resulting in more intrinsic motivation and better self-regulation of behavior. In the first study, 230 parents completed the food-related parenting items in reference to their 4- to 8-year-old children, and the factor structure and construct and convergent validity of the items were examined. Generally consistent with SDT, factors suggested 4 food-related socioemotional parenting contexts of supportiveness (autonomy support/warmth), coerciveness (coercion/hostility), structure, and chaos. In a second study of 221 parents, a 24-item Parent Socioemotional Context of Feeding Questionnaire (PSCFQ) was confirmed to have a 4-factor structure. In each study, good reliability was found for each subscale. Construct, convergent, and divergent validity were supported by small to moderate correlations with aspects of child feeding (e.g., restriction) and general parenting styles. PSCFQ subscales were not associated with child BMI, family income or parent education. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Autonomia Pessoal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Emoções , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Child Maltreat ; 24(2): 193-202, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526001

RESUMO

In this study, the effectiveness of the Observed Protective Behaviors behaviors test, a single-session, disclosure-focused, in situ skills training (IST), was evaluated as a standalone program (IST only) or as a booster to the child protective education program, Learn to be safe with Emmy and friends ™ (program + IST). Participants included 281 Year 1 children (5-7 years; 52% male), randomly assigned to IST only, program + IST, program only or waitlist, and followed across 6 months. At each assessment, children completed interviews to assess their intention and confidence to disclose unsafe situations (disclosure intentions and confidence) and their ability to identify unsafe situations (safety identification skills). Children also reported their anxiety symptoms to assess for a possible iatrogenic effect. The IST-only condition was effective, with children showing increased disclosure intentions relative to waitlist children. The program + IST condition was also effective, with children showing increased disclosure intentions relative to children in the waitlist or program-only conditions as well as greater increases in disclosure confidence relative to waitlist children. No differences were observed between conditions in children's safety identification skills, and no iatrogenic effect on anxiety was found. Future research may seek to develop an IST that will also boost children's safety identification skills.

11.
Appetite ; 132: 139-146, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312739

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to identify the interrelations between, and the core components of, adaptive and maladaptive measures of eating behaviours. Participants were 2018 females (Mage = 23.14 years) who completed measures of intuitive eating, mindful eating, overeating regulation, dietary restraint, emotional eating, external eating, and overeating dysregulation in contexts of leisure and discomfort. Most associations between eating measures were significant, with the largest association between eating for physical rather than emotional reasons (intuitive eating) and emotional eating, and the smallest and nonsignificant associations usually involving the mindful eating subscales. Principle component analysis of the composite scores for all measured eating subscales revealed a 4-component structure. Component 1, labelled attuned eating, reflected positive loadings for eating for physical rather than emotional reasons (intuitive eating); act with awareness, present eating, and non-reactivity (mindful eating); and overeating regulation. Attuned eating also had negative loadings for emotional eating, external eating, and leisure and discomfort overeating dysregulation. Component 2, labelled unrestrained eating, reflected positive loadings for unconditional permission to eat (intuitive eating) and acceptance (mindful eating), but also a negative loading for dietary restraint. Component 3, labelled eating and hunger awareness, had positive loadings for reliance on hunger/satiety cues (intuitive eating) and awareness (mindful eating). Component 4, labelled casual eating attitudes, was represented by positive loadings for non-reactivity and flexibility (mindful eating). These findings highlight the complexity of eating behaviour by revealing that although many adaptive and maladaptive eating concepts appear to tap opposite ends of a continuum of attuned versus disinhibited eating, several other adaptive and maladaptive eating concepts are better described as tapping somewhat unique attitudes, beliefs, motivations, and behaviours regarding food and eating.

12.
Behav Res Ther ; 112: 42-62, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502721

RESUMO

Fear extinction studies in youth have yielded mixed results due to developmental processes and variations in design, methodology and dependent measures. This systematic review focused on studies with healthy youth between 2 and 17 years of age to identify experimental parameters of studies documenting extinction effects. Thirty-five studies met inclusion criteria and the following themes emerged (a) some studies employed parameters and task demands that are complex and require active participant involvement whereas others involved simple stimulus configurations and passive participant involvement, and (b) variation exists among dependent measures in units of measurement, timing and type of measurement. The review identified that studies using geometric shape conditioned stimuli (CS) paired with a tone unconditioned stimulus (US) (e.g., metal scraping on slate), as well as face CSs with a scream US produced the most reliable extinction effects, although the latter combination may be associated with higher drop-out than shape CSs and a tone US. The most commonly used and effective dependent measures for revealing extinction effects were skin conductance responses (SCR) and subjective ratings (SR) of CS valence, fearfulness and arousal. Fear potentiated startle (FPS) blink reflexes were also an effective but less commonly used measure. It is recommended that future studies use shape CSs and the metal scraping on slate US in studies involving children and either shape CSs and the metal scraping on slate US or face CSs paired with a scream US with adolescents. It is also recommended that US expectancy ratings and CS evaluations are assessed trial-by-trial and between-phase, and that startle-eliciting stimuli to measure startle blink reflexes are delivered on every second trial per CS so that SCR and FPS can be examined. However, further research is required to determine whether increased participant involvement due to providing trial-by-trial and between-phase ratings of the CSs and US differentially influences responding, particularly in children relative to adolescents and adults.

13.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(4): 703-716, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30251015

RESUMO

The task of identity development, which involves distinguishing who one is, and defining and articulating this to others, is a challenging developmental task for most youth. This is made even more challenging when one considers that there are multiple domains of identity development. In the current study, Australia adolescents (N = 336; aged 12-15 years, 46% male) reported their identity status commitment, exploration and reconsideration across two different domains (education and friendship). Cluster analysis was used to evaluate patterns of identity formation within and across domains, and the internalizing symptoms (low self-worth, emotion dysregulation, depressive and anxiety symptoms) and identity disturbance of clusters of youth with different identity status patterns were compared. Results revealed five clusters of committed explorers, committed non-explorers, committed reconsiders, uninvolved, and friend identifiers. Cluster comparisons revealed that, across self-worth, emotion dysregulation and identity disturbance, adolescents in the friend identifiers cluster, who reported high commitment to friendship identity and lower commitment to educational identity relative to their peers, fared worse than adolescents reporting higher than average commitment across both domains, and those reporting high reconsideration in both domains. These findings suggest that the benefit of identity commitment for emotional adjustment may depend somewhat on the domain under investigation, and that evaluating the junction and divergence of different identity domains might identify additional adolescents who are experiencing symptoms of maladjustment.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Amigos/psicologia , Identificação Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Austrália , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Depressão/psicologia , Ajustamento Emocional , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Psicologia do Adolescente , Autoimagem
14.
Child Abuse Negl ; 85: 28-38, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30180986

RESUMO

Although parents are essential to child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention efforts, their views on prevention and protection are not always represented in the research literature. In this qualitative study of 24 Australian parents, beliefs about CSA, its risk factors, prevention methods, and parents' role in CSA protection, and parents' approaches to protection of their own children, are examined. Findings were condensed into five themes: (a) parents' understanding of child sexual abuse, grooming and risk; (b) parent-led CSA education; (c) parents' beliefs about CSA education; (d) children recognizing and resisting CSA; and (e) parent responsibility for protection. Findings suggest that parents have a good knowledge of CSA and its risks. However, they do not provide their children with the comprehensive prevention messages recommended by prevention campaigns and many concentrate on abduction dangers. This gap between knowledge and parental communication with children could be due to parents' beliefs that there may be harms associated with education of children about CSA (e.g., such as inciting new fears and worries or reducing trust in others) and that the method may not be effective in protecting children from CSA. This study adds to the existing literature by presenting information that could be useful in designing programs to include parents in CSA protection and by approaching CSA research with parents as the key agents in the protection of children.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância/prevenção & controle , Poder Familiar , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Austrália , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual
15.
Child Abuse Negl ; 82: 134-143, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902696

RESUMO

Despite being a key target outcome to prevent child maltreatment, little research has been conducted to examine the prevalence and predictors of interpersonal safety skills in a standardised manner. In this study, interpersonal safety skills were measured in a Year 1-2 student sample through use of a standardised simulated risk scenario, with three primary skills examined: withdrawal from an unknown confederate (motor safety response), verbal refusal of an abduction lure (verbal safety response) and disclosure of confederate presence. Children who participated in this study had not completed any prior behavioural skills training or child protective education programs. Overall, the prevalence of interpersonal safety skills varied, with 27% children withdrawing from the confederate, 48% refusing the lure and 83% disclosing the confederate's presence. For correlates, motor and verbal safety responses were positively associated with each other. However, the only other correlate of interpersonal safety skills was anxiety, with children who had greater anxiety disclosing earlier but also being more likely to agree to leave with the confederate. Future research may seek to examine whether these correlates remain present with different types of interpersonal safety risk (e.g., bullying) and to identify other potential predictors of interpersonal safety skill use.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Revelação , Adulto , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Bullying/psicologia , Criança , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comunicação Persuasiva , Prevalência , Queensland , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Child Abuse Negl ; 82: 144-155, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902697

RESUMO

Promoting young children's interpersonal safety knowledge, intentions confidence and skills is the goal of many child maltreatment prevention programs; however, evaluation of their effectiveness has been limited. In this study, a randomized controlled trial was conducted examining the effectiveness of the Australian protective behaviors program, Learn to be safe with Emmy and friends™ compared to a waitlist condition. In total, 611 Australian children in Grade 1 (5-7 years; 50% male) participated, with assessments at Pre-intervention, Post-intervention and a 6-month follow-up. This study also included a novel assessment of interpersonal safety skills through the Observed Protective Behaviors Test (OPBT). Analyses showed participating in Learn to be safe with Emmy and friends™ was effective post-program in improving interpersonal safety knowledge (child and parent-rated) and parent-rated interpersonal safety skills. These benefits were retained at the 6-month follow-up, with participating children also reporting increased disclosure confidence. However, Learn to be safe with Emmy and friends™ participation did not significantly impact children's disclosure intentions, safety identification skills, or interpersonal safety skills as measured by the OPBT. Future research may seek to evaluate the effect of further parent and teacher integration into training methods and increased use of behavioral rehearsal and modelling to more effectively target specific disclosure intentions and skills.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância/prevenção & controle , Intenção , Relações Interpessoais , Segurança , Autoimagem , Criança , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Queensland
17.
J Child Sex Abus ; 27(2): 195-216, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29494794

RESUMO

We investigated whether parents who reported more positive parenting practices (i.e., monitoring, involvement, and communication) reported more discussion of child sexual abuse (CSA) with their children. Parents from Australia and the UK (N = 248), with children aged 6 to 11 years, completed an online survey. About half of parents reported directly discussing CSA, whereas 35% reported telling their children that CSA perpetrators may be family members. Rates of discussion were higher for other CSA-related topics such as body integrity and abduction. Correlational analyses showed that parents who reported speaking to their children about CSA also reported more positive parenting practices, more discussion of other sensitive topics, and assessed CSA risk for children (in general) to be higher. Discussion of CSA risk was not associated with parents' CSA knowledge, confidence or appraisal of own-child risk. Parents higher in positive parenting believed their children to be at less CSA risk. Parents who appraised higher own-child risk reported less positive parenting practices and were less confident about their parenting and their ability to protect their children from CSA. The findings are the first to report on the associations of parenting practices with parents' CSA discussion with their children.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Austrália , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
J Anxiety Disord ; 55: 22-30, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29554643

RESUMO

Prior research indicates that positive search training (PST) may be a promising home-based computerised treatment for childhood anxiety disorders. It explicitly trains anxious individuals in adaptive, goal-directed attention-search strategies to search for positive and calm information and ignore goal-irrelevant negative cues. Although PST reduces anxiety symptoms, its neural effects are unknown. The main aim of this study was to examine changes in neural activation associated with changes in attention processing of positive and negative stimuli from pre- to post-treatment with PST in children with anxiety disorders. Children's neural activation was assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a visual-probe task indexing attention allocation to threat-neutral and positive-neutral pairs. Results showed pre- to post-treatment reductions in anxiety symptoms and neural reactivity to emotional faces (angry and happy faces, relative to neutral faces) within a broad neural network linking frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital regions. Changes in neural reactivity were highly inter-correlated across regions. Neural reactivity to the threat-bias contrast reduced from pre- to post-treatment in the mid/posterior cingulate cortex. Results are considered in relation to prior research linking anxiety disorders and treatment effects with functioning of a broad limbic-cortical network involved in emotion reactivity and regulation, and integrative functions linking emotion, memory, sensory and motor processes and attention control.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico por imagem , Ansiedade/diagnóstico por imagem , Atenção/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Ira/fisiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Sinais (Psicologia) , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Psicoterapia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Adolesc ; 65: 111-122, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29573644

RESUMO

The present longitudinal study tested for the role of perceived parental autonomy-support and late adolescents' self-worth in their intimacy development. A sample of 497 Belgian late adolescents (Mage = 17.9, 43.5% girls) participated in this two-wave study. Results indicated that perceived autonomy-supportive parenting did not relate significantly to change in adolescents' experienced intimacy (in terms of closeness and mutuality), but was associated with a decrease in unmitigated agency (an excessive focus on the self) and unmitigated communion (an excessive focus on the other) across time. Adolescents' self-worth predicted an increase in experienced intimacy and a decrease in unmitigated agency and communion, and the initial level of experienced intimacy predicted an increase in self-worth. Finally, results suggested that adolescents' self-worth may mediate some of the longitudinal relations between perceived parental autonomy-support and adolescents' intimate functioning. No evidence was found for moderation by romantic involvement, gender or age.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Percepção , Psicologia do Adolescente
20.
Body Image ; 25: 23-30, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29428333

RESUMO

Anecdotal testimony suggests the 'fit' female body ideal is 'healthier' than the thin ideal, because it simultaneously focuses on muscularity. However, statistical investigation into the outcomes associated with fit ideal internalisation is absent. Moderation analyses were used to investigate whether concurrent muscular internalisation mitigated the relationship between thin internalisation and; negative affect, body dissatisfaction, bulimic symptoms, and dieting. Further analyses were used to investigate whether concurrent thin internalisation amplified the relationship between muscular internalisation, compulsive exercise, and supplement use. No significant interaction was found on any of the outcome variables. Thus, the results suggest that incorporating muscularity into an ideal of thinness does not mitigate the detrimental eating and affective outcomes commonly associated with pursuing thinness. Equally, incorporating an ideal of thinness into one of muscularity does not appear to alter the detrimental behavioural outcomes commonly associated with pursuing muscularity. Such findings do not suggest fit internalisation is healthy for women.


Assuntos
Beleza , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Magreza/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Satisfação Pessoal , Adulto Jovem
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