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1.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; : 1-12, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opioid use after surgery is associated with increased health care utilization and costs. Although some studies show that surgical patients may later become persistent opioid users, data on the association between new persistent opioid use after surgery and health care utilization and costs are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To compare health care utilization and costs after major inpatient or METHODS: The IBM MarketScan Research databases were used to identify opioid-naive patients with major inpatient or outpatient surgeries and at least 1 year of continuous enrollment before and after this index surgery. Cohorts were stratified by new persistent opioid utilization status, setting of surgery (inpatient, outpatient), and payer (commercial, Medicare, Medicaid). Patients were considered new persistent opioid users if they had at least 1 opioid claim 4-90 days after index surgery and at least 1 opioid claim 91-180 days after index surgery. Patients with opioid prescription claims between 1 year and 15 days before their index event were excluded. Health care utilization and costs (excluding index surgery) were measured in the 1-year period after surgery. Predicted costs and cost ratios were estimated using multivariable log-linked gamma-family generalized linear models. RESULTS: In the inpatient cohorts, 827,583 commercial, 186,154 Medicare, and 104,734 Medicaid patients were included in the study, and the incidence of new persistent opioid use in these cohorts was 4.1%, 5.6%, and 7.1%, respectively. In the outpatient cohorts, 1,542,565 commercial, 390,876 Medicare, and 94,878 Medicaid patients were selected, with 2.0%, 1.5%, and 6.4% new persistent opioid use, respectively. Across all 3 payers in both surgical settings, patients with new persistent opioid use had a higher comorbidity burden and more use of concomitant medications in the baseline period. In the 1-year period after index surgery, patients with new persistent opioid use had more inpatient admissions, emergency department visits, and ambulance/paramedic service use than patients without persistent use, regardless of payer and setting. Patients with new persistent opioid use had approximately 5 times more opioid prescriptions and also had more nonopioid pharmacy claims than those without persistent use across all cohorts. After covariate adjustment, predicted 1-year total health care costs were significantly higher for patients with new persistent opioid use compared with those without persistent use for all comparisons (commercial inpatient: $29,499 vs. $11,798; Medicare inpatient: $34,455 vs. $21,313; Medicaid inpatient: $14,622 vs. $6,678; commercial outpatient: $18,751 vs. $7,517; Medicare outpatient ($26,411 vs. $13,577; Medicaid outpatient: $12,381 vs. $6,784; all P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: New persistent opioid use after major surgery in opioid-naive patients is associated with increased health care utilization and costs in the year after surgery across all surgical settings and payers. DISCLOSURES: Funding for this study was provided by Heron Therapeutics, which participated in analysis and interpretation of data, drafting, reviewing, and approving the publication. All authors contributed to the analysis and interpretation of the data and development of the publication and maintained control over the final content. England and Evans-Shields are employees of Heron Therapeutics. Kong, Lew, Zimmerman, and Henriques are employees of IBM Watson Health, which was compensated by Heron Therapeutics for conducting this research. Brummett is a paid consultant for Heron Therapeutics, Vertex Pharmaceuticals, and Alosa Health and provides expert testimony. He further reports receipt of research funding from MDHHS (Sub K Michigan Open), NIDA (Centralized Pain Opioid Non-Responsiveness R01 DA038261-05), NIH0DHHS-US-16 PAF 07628 (R01 NR017096-05), NIH-DHHS (P50 AR070600-05 CORT), NIH-DHHS-US (K23 DA038718-04), NIH-DHHS-US-16-PAF06270 (R01 HD088712-05), NIH-DHHS-US-17-PAF02680 (R01 DA042859-05), and UM Michigan Genomics Initiative and holds a patent for peripheral perineural dexmedetomidine. Sun reports funding from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (K08DA042314) as well as consulting fees from the Mission Lisa Foundation that are unrelated to this work.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453190

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of aerobic exercise on maximal and submaximal cardiopulmonary responses and predictors of change in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). DESIGN: Single-center, parallel-group, rater-blind study. SETTING: Research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with mild to moderate PD (N=100). INTERVENTION: Participants were enrolled in a trial evaluating the effect of cycling on PD and randomized to either voluntary exercise (VE), forced exercise (FE), or a no exercise control group. The exercise groups were time and intensity matched and exercised 3×/wk for 8 weeks on a stationary cycle. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cardiopulmonary responses were collected via gas analysis during a maximal graded exercise test at baseline and post intervention. RESULTS: Exercise attendance was 97% and 93% for the FE and VE group, respectively. Average exercise heart rate reserve was 67%±11% for FE and 70%±10% for VE. No significant difference was present for change in peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) post intervention, even though the FE group had a 5% increase in VO2peak. Both the FE and VE groups had significantly higher percentage oxygen consumption per unit time (V˙o2) at ventilator threshold (VT) than the control group compared with baseline values (P=.04). Mean V˙O2 at VT was 5% (95% CI, 0.1%-11%) higher in the FE group (P=.04) and 7% (2%, 12%) higher in VE group compared with controls. A stepwise linear regression model revealed that lower age, higher exercise cadence, and lower baseline VO2peak were most predictive of improved VO2peak. The overall model was found to be significant (P<.01). CONCLUSIONS: Peak and submaximal cardiopulmonary function may improve after aerobic exercise in individuals with PD. Lower age, higher exercise cadence, and lower baseline VO2peak were most predictive of improved VO2peak in this exercise cohort. The improvements observed in aerobic capacity were gained after a relatively short aerobic cycling intervention.

3.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(10): 3455-3465.e13, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic corticosteroids (SCS) may cause complications for patients with asthma. OBJECTIVE: We sought to better understand the burden of SCS use in persistent asthma, including health care costs. METHODS: Adult patients with persistent asthma were identified in the IBM MarketScan Databases from January 2003 to July 2016. The index date was set as the first SCS prescription for SCS users or an algorithm-matched date for non-SCS users. Patients were required to have ≥1 year of data before and after the index date. Based on the number of SCS claims in the first year after index, patients were categorized into 3 SCS groups: 0 SCS claims, 1 to 3 claims, and 4+ claims. Inverse probability of treatment weights were applied to adjust for differences between SCS and non-SCS users. Analyses included weighted and multivariate modeling to assess SCS-related complications and costs during a 3-year follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 86,786 SCS users (1-3 claims: 76,690; 4+ claims: 10,096) and 91,409 non-SCS users were included; 45% remained 3 years after index. In multivariate analysis, the 3-year risk of developing any chronic complication was 6% greater for those with 1 to 3 claims and 26% greater for those with 4+ claims compared with non-SCS users (P < .001). Multivariate-adjusted health care costs over 3 years were significantly greater as 4+ users incurred $22,311 greater total costs, $4627 greater asthma-related costs, and $2647 greater chronic complication-related costs than non-SCS users (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, adults with persistent asthma receiving SCS treatment had greater odds of complications and greater associated costs over 3 years than matched non-SCS asthma patients.

4.
Patient Prefer Adherence ; 14: 517-527, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210539

RESUMO

Background: There is lack of real-world treatment pattern comparison data between ixekizumab and adalimumab which are approved for the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. Objective: To compare real-world treatment patterns among psoriasis patients initiating ixekizumab or adalimumab in the United States. Methods: Psoriasis patients with ≥1 claim for ixekizumab or adalimumab between March 1, 2016, and May 31, 2018, were identified (index date = date of first ixekizumab or adalimumab claim) from the IBM Watson Health MarketScan® databases. Patients were required to be continuously enrolled for ≥12 months before the index date and followed for a minimum of 6 months until inpatient death, enrollment end, or study end, whichever occurred first. Treatment persistence, adherence, discontinuation, restart, and switching were analyzed. Inverse probability of treatment weighting and multivariable regression modeling were employed to address cohort imbalances and estimate the adjusted risk of non-persistence, discontinuation, and switching, and the odds of adherence. Results: A total of 646 ixekizumab and 3668 adalimumab users were included and followed for a mean of 14.0 and 16.5 months, respectively. Compared to adalimumab, ixekizumab was associated with 19% lower risk of non-persistence (hazard ratio [HR]=0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.69-0.95), 26% lower risk of discontinuation (HR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.62-0.88), and 28% lower risk of switching (HR=0.72, 95% CI: 0.57-0.91). Ixekizumab users had higher odds of medication possession ratio ≥80% (odds ratio [OR]=1.36, 95% CI: 1.10-1.69) but similar odds by proportion of days covered ≥80% (OR=1.22, 95% CI: 0.98-1.53). Conclusion: Psoriasis patients treated with ixekizumab demonstrated longer persistency, higher adherence and were less likely to discontinue or switch treatment compared to adalimumab users. However, while patients achieving highly adherent threshold significantly differed by MPR ≥80%, it did not by PDC ≥80%; hence, further analysis using fixed-length follow-up is required.

5.
J Med Econ ; 23(2): 174-183, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597499

RESUMO

Objective: To assess healthcare resource utilization (HRU) and costs in children of mothers with and without postpartum depression (PPD).Methods: Administrative claims data from the IBM Watson Health MarketScan Databases (2010-2016) were used. Women with live births (index date = delivery date) were identified and linked to their newborns. The mother-child pairs were divided into PPD and non-PPD exposure cohorts based on claims for depression, mood or adjustment disorders, or anxiety identified in the mother between 15 and 365 days after delivery. Mother-child pairs with PPD exposure were propensity score matched 1:3 to mother-child pairs without PPD exposure. Children were required to have 24 months of continuous health plan enrolment following delivery. Additional comparisons were performed between mother-child pairs with and without preterm delivery.Results: Overall, 33,314 mother-child pairs with PPD exposure were propensity score matched to 102,364 mother-child pairs without PPD exposure. During the 24-month follow-up period, HRU across most service categories was significantly higher among children in the PPD exposure cohort than non-PPD exposure cohort. Among outpatient services, the percentages of children with a physician specialist service (68% versus 64%), early-intervention screening (40% versus 37%), and an emergency room visit (48% versus 42%) were greater in children of mothers with PPD (all p < .001). Furthermore, children of mothers with PPD incurred 12% higher total healthcare costs in the first 24 months of life compared to children of mothers without PPD ($24,572 versus $21,946; p < .001). After excluding mothers with preterm delivery, the proportion of children with ER visits, physician specialist services, and outpatient pharmacy claims was significantly higher in the PPD exposure cohort than non-PPD exposure cohort (all p < .001).Conclusion: The results of this analysis suggest that HRU and costs over the first 24 months of life in children of mothers with PPD exceeded that of children of mothers without evidence of PPD.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/economia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 82(4): 927-935, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Real-world data on treatment patterns associated with use of interleukin-17A inhibitors in psoriasis are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To compare treatment patterns between ixekizumab or secukinumab users in clinical practice. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study included patients with psoriasis aged ≥18 years treated with ixekizumab or secukinumab between March 1, 2016, and May 31, 2018 in IBM MarketScan (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY) databases. Inverse probability of treatment weighting and multivariable models were used to address cohort imbalances and estimate the risks of nonpersistence (60-day gap), discontinuation (≥90-day gap), switching, and the odds of adherence. RESULTS: The study monitored 645 ixekizumab users for 13.7 months and 1152 secukinumab users for 16.3 months. Ixekizumab users showed higher persistence rate (54.8% vs 45.1%, P < .001) and lower discontinuation rate (37.8% vs 47.5%, P < .001) than secukinumab. After multivariable adjustment, ixekizumab users had lower risks of nonpersistence (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.95) and discontinuation (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.96), and higher odds of high adherence to treatment measured by a medication possession ratio ≥80% (hazard ratio, 1.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.60). The risk of switching was similar between cohorts. LIMITATIONS: Disease severity and clinical outcomes were unavailable. CONCLUSION: Ixekizumab users demonstrated longer drug persistence, lower discontinuation rate and risk of discontinuation, higher likelihood of adherence, and similar risk of switching compared with secukinumab users in clinical practices.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Substituição de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Demandas Administrativas em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Interleucina-17/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psoríase/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
7.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 25(12): 1366-1376, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As more biologics become available for the treatment of psoriasis (PsO), there is a lack of direct comparisons of health care costs between patients who are treated by different medications, including ixekizumab (IXE), secukinumab (SEC), and adalimumab (ADA). OBJECTIVE: To compare the real-world health care costs of patients with PsO initiating IXE with those of patients initiating either SEC or ADA. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with PsO between July 1, 2015, and May 31, 2018, were identified from the IBM MarketScan commercial and Medicare databases. Two weighted patient sample sets were constructed based on drug claims between March 1, 2016, and May 31, 2018: IXE versus SEC and IXE versus ADA. Within each sample, the first claim of eligible drugs was set as the index date. Patients were aged ≥ 18 years and had ≥ 12 months of continuous eligibility before and after the index date. Patients with other indications for the index drug in the preperiod or with use of the index drug within 90 days before the index date were excluded. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) was employed to balance cohorts. All-cause and PsO-related health care costs per member per month (PMPM) incurred during the 12-month follow-up period were assessed. Monthly PsO-related pharmacy costs were adjusted using drug discount rates published by the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review (ICER). Annual index drug costs were estimated by adjusting for medication possession ratio and ICER discount rates. All costs were weighted by IPTW. RESULTS: Two study samples were identified: 357 IXE users were compared with 763 SEC users, and 388 IXE users were separately compared with 2,578 ADA users. Before weighting, IXE users were demographically and clinically similar to SEC users but were older and had worse health status than ADA users. Cohorts were balanced postweighting. After weighting, mean monthly all-cause health care costs were $7,313 and $6,477 (P = 0.002) and mean PsO-related costs were $6,303 and $5,437 (P < 0.001), for IXE and SEC users, respectively. Similarly, mean monthly all-cause health care costs were $6,535 and $5,557 (P = 0.026) and mean PsO-related costs were $5,792 and $4,754 (P = 0.017), for IXE and ADA users, respectively. After applying ICER adjustments, mean monthly PsO-related costs were comparable between groups: $3,637/IXE versus $3,443/SEC (P = 0.132) and $3,320/IXE versus $3,287/ADA (P = 0.907). CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for drug discount programs (through application of ICER discount rate), this real-world study estimated that average monthly PsO-related costs during the first year of treatment were similar between patients treated with IXE compared with those treated with SEC or ADA. DISCLOSURES: Funding for this study was provided to IBM Watson Health by Eli Lilly and Company. The analysis was conducted independently by IBM Watson Health. Eli Lilly and Company and IBM Watson Health collaborated on study design and interpretation of results. Shi, Lew, and Zimmerman were employed by IBM Watson Health and received funding from Eli Lilly and Company to conduct this study. Zhu, Burge, Malatestinic, Lin, Goldblum, and Murage were employed by Eli Lilly and Company while this study was conducted. Blauvelt has served as a scientific adviser and/or clinical study investigator for AbbVie, Aclaris, Akros, Allergan, Almirall, Amgen, Arena, Athenex, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Celgene, Dermavant, Dermira, Eli Lilly and Company, FLX Bio, Galderma, Genentech/Roche, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen, Leo, Meiji, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Novartis, Pfizer, Purdue Pharma, Regeneron, Revance, Sandoz, Sanofi Genzyme, Sienna Pharmaceuticals, Sun Pharma, UCB Pharma, Valeant, and Vidac, and as a paid speaker for AbbVie, Regeneron, and Sanofi Genzyme. A portion of these results were presented at the 2019 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Annual Meeting; May 18-22, 2019; New Orleans, LA, and the 2019 Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy Annual Meeting; March 25-28, 2019; San Diego, CA.


Assuntos
Adalimumab/economia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/economia , Antirreumáticos/economia , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Psoríase/economia , Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/ultraestrutura , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/economia , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
8.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 25(9): 973-983, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The treatment of postsurgical pain with prescription opioids has been associated with persistent opioid use and increased health care utilization and costs. OBJECTIVE: To compare the health care burden between opioid-naive adult patients who were prescribed opioids after a major surgery and opioidnaive adult patients who were not prescribed opioids. METHODS: Administrative claims data from the IBM Watson Health MarketScan Research Databases for 2010-2016 were used. Opioid-naive adult patients who underwent major inpatient or outpatient surgery and who had at least 1 year of continuous enrollment before and after the index surgery date were eligible for inclusion. Cohorts were defined based on an opioid pharmacy claim between 7 days before index surgery and 1 year after index surgery (opioid use during surgery and inpatient use were not available). To ensure an opioid-naive population, patients with opioid claims between 365 and 8 days before surgery were excluded. Acute medical outcomes, opioid utilization, health care utilization, and costs were measured during the post-index period (index surgery hospitalization and day of index outpatient surgery not included). Predicted costs were estimated from multivariable log-linked gamma-generalized linear models. RESULTS: The final sample consisted of 1,174,905 opioid-naive patients with an inpatient surgery (73% commercial, 20% Medicare, 7% Medicaid) and 2,930,216 opioid-naive patients with an outpatient surgery (74% commercial, 23% Medicare, and 3% Medicaid). Opioid use after discharge was common among all 3 payer types but was less common among Medicare patients (63% inpatient/43% outpatient) than patients with commercial (80% inpatient/75% outpatient) or Medicaid insurance (86% inpatient/81% outpatient). Across all 3 payers, opioid users were younger, were more likely to be female, and had a higher preoperative comorbidity burden than nonopioid users. In unadjusted analyses, opioid users tended to have more hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and pharmacy claims. Adjusted predicted 1-year post-period total health care costs were significantly higher (P< 0.001) for opioid users than nonopioid users for commercial insurance (inpatient: $22,209 vs. $14,439; outpatient: $13,897 vs. $8,825), Medicare (inpatient: $31,721 vs. $26,761; outpatient: $24,529 vs. $15,225), and Medicaid (inpatient: $13,512 vs. $9,204; outpatient: $11,975 vs. $8,212). CONCLUSIONS: Filling an outpatient opioid prescription (vs. no opioid prescription) in the 1 year after inpatient or outpatient surgery was associated with increased health care utilization and costs across all payers. DISCLOSURES: Funding for this study was provided by Heron Therapeutics, which participated in analysis and interpretation of data, drafting, reviewing, and approving the publication. All authors contributed to the development of the publication and maintained control over the final content. Brummett is a paid consultant for Heron Therapeutics and Recro Pharma and reports receipt of research funding from MDHHS (Sub K Michigan Open), NIDA (Centralized Pain Opioid Non-Responsiveness R01 DA038261-05), NIH0DHHS-US-16 PAF 07628 (R01 NR017096-05), NIH-DHHS (P50 AR070600-05 CORT), NIH-DHHS-US (K23 DA038718-04), NIH-DHHS-US-16-PAF06270 (R01 HD088712-05), NIH-DHHS-US-17-PAF02680 (R01 DA042859-05), and UM Michigan Genomics Initiative and holding a patent for peripheral perineural dexmedetomidine. Oderda is a paid consultant for Heron Therapeutics. Pawasauskas is a paid consultant to Heron Therapeutics and Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals. England and Evans-Shields are employees of Heron Therapeutics. Kong, Lew, Zimmerman, and Henriques are employees of IBM Watson Health, which was compensated by Heron Therapeutics for conducting this research. Portions of this work were presented as a poster at the AMCP Managed Care and Specialty Pharmacy Annual Meeting 2019; March 25-28, 2019; San Diego, CA.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/economia , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/educação , Adulto , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios/economia , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Comorbidade , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Programas de Assistência Gerenciada/economia , Medicaid/economia , Medicare/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/economia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/etiologia , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/economia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
9.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 64: 280-285, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103489

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gait deteriorates under dual task conditions in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Therapeutic interventions have the potential to improve dual task performance, although it remains unclear how training affects gait performance under varying cognitive domains. The primary aim of this trial was to determine the effect of an 8-week single- or multi-modal gait and cognitive training intervention on dual task performance across cognitive domains in individuals with PD. METHODS: Twenty individuals with PD completed a 24-session single-modal training (SMT, n = 10) or multi-modal training (MMT, n = 10). The SMT group performed gait and cognitive training sequentially; the MMT group performed gait and cognitive training simultaneously. Gait was analyzed using motion capture analysis during simultaneous performance of six untrained cognitive tasks. RESULTS: Both SMT and MMT resulted in significant improvements in MDS-UPDRS III scores and gait performance. Improvements in arm swing were more prevalent in the less affected extremity, while improvements in the more affected upper extremity favored the MMT group. Temporal aspects of gait (velocity, step length) improved under all dual task conditions, while postural aspects of gait (step width, arm swing) varied by cognitive task. CONCLUSIONS: Both SMT and MMT were effective in improving motor and dual task performance in PD. Improvements in upper extremity gait variables in the MMT group may indicate that the complexity of the training is be beneficial in PD. The different responses in temporal and postural aspects of gait highlights the need for clinicians to train multiple cognitive domains during behavioral therapy.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/reabilitação , Remediação Cognitiva/métodos , Função Executiva , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/reabilitação , Reabilitação Neurológica/métodos , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Doença de Parkinson/reabilitação , Equilíbrio Postural , Desempenho Psicomotor , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/etiologia , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(14): e14948, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946318

RESUMO

Despite the widespread awareness of concussion across all levels of sport, the management of concussion from youth to college is inconsistent and fragmented. A fundamental gap contributing to inconsistent care is the lack of a scalable, systematic approach to document initial injury characteristics following concussion. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in injury profiles and management of youth, high school, and college athletes using a mobile application for incident report documentation.A cohort study was conducted in which concussion electronic incident report data from 46 high schools and colleges, and Cleveland Clinic ambulatory concussion clinics were gathered and analyzed.In sum, 1421 (N = 88 youth, N = 1171 high school and N = 162 college) athletes with sport-related concussions were included.Despite the relative absence of red flags, youth athletes had a greater probability of being sent to the emergency department than high school and collegiate athletes. Over 60% of athletes were removed from play immediately post-injury. Injury recognition was delayed in 25% of athletes due to delayed symptom reporting (20% of males, 16% of females) or delayed symptom onset (5% of males, 9% of females). A significantly greater incidence of red flags was evident in males, and in high school and collegiate athletes compared to youth athletes.The high frequency of youth athletes sent to the emergency department, despite the absence of red flags, may be a reflection of inadequate medical coverage at youth events, ultimately resulting in unnecessary utilization of emergency medicine services. The relatively high incidence of delayed injury reporting implies that additional educational efforts targeting student-athletes and the utilization of resources to improve injury detection are warranted. The systematic collection of injury-related demographics through the electronic mobile application facilitated interdisciplinary communication and improved the efficiency of managing athletes with concussion.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Concussão Encefálica/epidemiologia , Gestão de Riscos/métodos , Medicina Esportiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos em Atletas/terapia , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Concussão Encefálica/terapia , Medicina de Emergência/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Masculino , Aplicativos Móveis/normas , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Medicina Esportiva/normas , Estudantes , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
11.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(5): 923-930, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30543801

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this project was to determine the effects of lower extremity aerobic exercise coupled with upper extremity repetitive task practice (RTP) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and depressive symptomology in individuals with chronic stroke. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data from 2 randomized controlled trials. SETTING: Research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals (N=40) with chronic stroke. INTERVENTIONS: Participants received one of the following interventions: forced exercise+RTP (FE+RTP, n=16), voluntary exercise+RTP (VE+RTP, n=16), or stroke education+RTP (EDU+RTP, n=8). All groups completed 24 sessions, each session lasting 90 minutes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) were used to assess depressive symptomology and HRQOL. RESULTS: There were no significant group-by-time interactions for any of the SIS domains or composite scores. Examining the individual groups following the intervention, those in the FE+RTP and VE+RTP groups demonstrated significant improvements in the following SIS domains: strength, mobility, hand function, activities of daily living, and the physical composite. In addition, the FE+RTP group demonstrated significant improvements in memory, cognitive composite, and percent recovery from stroke. The HRQOL did not change in the EDU+RTP group. Although CES-D scores improved predominantly for those in the FE+RTP group, these improvements were not statistically significant. Overall, results were maintained at the 4-week follow-up. CONCLUSION: Aerobic exercise, regardless of mode, preceding motor task practice may improve HRQOL in patients with stroke. The potential of aerobic exercise to improve cardiorespiratory endurance, motor outcomes, and HRQOL poststroke justifies its use to augment traditional task practice.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Prática Psicológica , Qualidade de Vida , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Cognição , Terapia Combinada , Depressão/etiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Mãos/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Memória , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Caminhada
12.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(5): 1315-1322, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30581109

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Myocardial strain measured by speckle-tracking echocardiography detects subtle regional and global left ventricular dysfunction. Myocardial strain is measured in the longitudinal, circumferential, and radial dimensions; however, it is unclear which dimension of strain is the best predictor of postoperative outcomes. DESIGN: A secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from a clinical trial (NCT01187329). SETTING: The cardiothoracic surgical operating rooms of an academic tertiary-care center. PARTICIPANTS: Cardiothoracic surgery patients with aortic stenosis having aortic valve replacement (AVR) with or without coronary artery bypass grafting enrolled in a clinical trial. INTERVENTIONS: Myocardial deformation analysis from standardized investigative transesophageal echocardiographic examinations performed after induction of anesthesia. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors compared the ability of intraoperative global longitudinal strain (GLS), global circumferential strain (GCS), and global radial strain (GRS) strain to predict adverse postoperative outcomes, including prolonged hospitalization and the need for pharmacologic hemodynamic support after cardiac surgery. The association of GLS, GCS, and GRS with prolonged hospitalization (>7 days) and the need for pharmacologic hemodynamic support, with epinephrine or norepinephrine after cardiopulmonary bypass, were assessed using separate multivariable logistic regression models with adjustment for multiple comparisons. Of 100 patients, 86 had acceptable measurements for GLS analysis, 73 for GCS, and 72 for GRS. Worse GLS was associated with prolonged hospitalization [odds ratio [OR] (98.3% confidence interval [CI]) of 1.21 (1.01-1.46) per-unit worsening in strain (p = 0.01, significance criterion <0.0167)] and the need for inotropic support with epinephrine [OR (99.2% CI) of 1.81 (1.10-2.97) per-unit worsening in strain (p = 0.002, significance criterion <0.0083)], but not norepinephrine. GCS and GRS were not associated with adverse outcomes. CONCLUSION: GLS, but not GCS or GRS, predicts prolonged hospitalization and the requirement for inotropic support with epinephrine after AVR.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/tendências , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia
13.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 36(2): 105-113, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) is a major contributor to peri-operative morbidity and mortality with a reported incidence of about 8%. Tachycardia increases myocardial oxygen demand, and decreases oxygen supply, and is therefore a potential cause of MINS. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that there is an association between intra-operative area above a heart rate (HR) of 90 bpm and a composite of MINS and in-hospital all-cause mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective analyses. SETTING: Major tertiary care hospital, Cleveland, USA. PATIENTS: Adults having elective or nonelective noncardiac surgery and scheduled troponin monitoring during the first 3 postoperative days between 2010 and 2015. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All-or-none composite of myocardial injury (MINS), defined by a peak postoperative generation 4 troponin T concentration at least 0.03 ng ml, and in-hospital all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Among 2652 eligible patients, 123 (4.6%) experienced MINS within 7 days after surgery and 6 (0.2%) died before discharge. Intra-operative area above HR more than 90 bpm was not associated with the all-or-none composite of MINS and in-hospital mortality, with an estimated odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.99 (0.97 to 1.01) per 1 h bpm increase in area above HR more than 90 bpm. Secondary outcomes were also unrelated to the composite, with estimated odds ratios (98.3% confidence interval) of 0.99 (0.98 to 1.00) for area above HR more than 80, 0.98 (0.92 to 1.04) for area above HR more than 100 bpm, and 0.96 (0.88 to 1.05) for maximum HR. CONCLUSION: There was no apparent association between various measures of tachycardia and a composite of MINS and death, a result that contradicts previously reported associations between other measures of intra-operative tachycardia and MINS/mortality.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Taquicardia/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Período Intraoperatório , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Taquicardia/diagnóstico
14.
J Anesth ; 32(5): 663-672, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30014234

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine whether hypothyroidism is associated with cardiovascular complications and surgical wound infections after cardiac surgery. METHODS: Patients were categorized as: (1) hypothyroid [patients with increased TSH concentrations (≧ 5.5 mIU/L) within 6 months prior to surgery]; (2) corrected hypothyroid [diagnosis of hypothyroidism any time before surgery or on preoperative thyroid supplementation and normal TSH concentration (0.4 [Formula: see text] TSH [Formula: see text] 5.5 mIU/L]; and (3) euthyroid [no hypothyroid diagnosis and not on preoperative thyroid supplementation and normal TSH concentrations (0.4-5.5 mIU/L)]. We conducted pairwise comparisons among the three groups using inverse probability of treatment weighting. We compared the groups on postoperative myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, atrial fibrillation, and a composite of surgical wound infections and postoperative vasopressor use using multivariable logistic regression models. We compared the groups on ICU and hospital length of stay using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Hypothyroidism was associated with a lower risk of atrial fibrillation than euthyroidism, with an estimated relative risk (99.4% CI) of 0.71 (0.56, 0.89); P < 0.001. However, none of the other pairwise comparisons on myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, and atrial fibrillation were significant. Corrected hypothyroid patients were slightly more likely to be discharged from hospital at any given time than euthyroid patients (hazard ratios (99.6% CI), 1.18 (1.07, 1.30); P < 0.001), but no other pairwise comparisons for secondary outcomes were significant. CONCLUSIONS: Hypothyroidism was associated with lower risk of atrial fibrillation than euthyroidism, and corrected hypothyroidism was associated with a shorter length of stay than euthyroidism.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Hipotireoidismo/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Tireotropina/sangue
15.
Anesth Analg ; 127(5): 1129-1136, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypotension compromises local tissue perfusion, thereby reducing tissue oxygenation. Hypotension might thus be expected to promote infection. Hypotension on surgical wards, while usually less severe than intraoperative hypotension, is common and often prolonged. In this retrospective cohort study, we tested the hypotheses that there is an association between surgical site infections and low postoperative time-weighted average mean arterial pressure and/or postoperative minimum mean arterial pressure. METHODS: We considered patients who had colorectal surgery lasting ≥1 hour at the Cleveland Clinic between 2009 and 2013. We defined blood pressure exposures as time-weighted average (primary) and minimum mean arterial pressure (secondary) within 72 hours after surgery. We assessed associations between continuous blood pressure exposures with a composite of deep and superficial surgical site infection using separate severity-weighted average relative effect generalized estimating equations models, each using an unstructured correlation structure and adjusting for potentially confounding variables. RESULTS: A total of 5896 patients were eligible for analysis. Time-weighted mean arterial pressure and surgical site infection were not significantly associated, with an estimated odds ratio (95% CI) of 1.03 (0.99-1.08) for a 5-mm Hg decrease (P = .16). However, there was a significant inverse association between minimum postoperative mean arterial pressure and infection, with an estimated odds ratio of 1.08 (1.03-1.12) per 5-mm Hg decrease (P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative time-weighted mean arterial pressure was not associated with surgical site infection, but lowest postoperative mean arterial pressure was. Whether the relationship is causal remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial , Colo/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/efeitos adversos , Hipotensão/etiologia , Reto/cirurgia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/diagnóstico , Hipotensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ohio , Duração da Cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Clin Anesth ; 47: 12-18, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29544203

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Epidural analgesia may be associated with fewer postoperative complications and is associated with improved survival after colon cancer resection. This study used the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) to assess any association between epidural analgesia (versus non-epidural) and complications after colectomy. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: 603 hospitals in the United States reporting data to NSQIP. PATIENTS: From 2014-15 data, 4176 patients undergoing colectomy with records indicating epidural analgesia were matched 1:4 via propensity scores to 16,704 patients without. INTERVENTIONS: None (observational study). MEASUREMENTS: Primarily, we assessed the association between epidural analgesia and a composite of cardiopulmonary complications using an average relative effect generalized estimating equations model. Secondary outcomes included neurologic, renal, and surgical complications and length of hospitalization. Sensitivity analyses repeated the analyses on a subgroup of only open colectomies. MAIN RESULTS: We found no association between epidural analgesia and the primary outcome: average relative effect (95% CI) 0.87 (0.68, 1.11); P = 0.25. We found no significant associations with any secondary outcomes. In the 8005 open colectomies, however, there was a significant association between epidural analgesia and fewer cardiopulmonary complications (average relative effect odds ratio [95% CI] of 0.58 [0.35, 0.95]; P = 0.03) and shortened hospital stay (HR for time to discharge [98.75% CI] of 1.10 [1.02, 1.18]; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We found no overall association between epidural analgesia and reduced complications after colectomy. In open colectomies, however, epidural analgesia was associated with fewer cardiopulmonary complications and shorter hospitalization. This may inform analgesic choice when planning open colectomy.


Assuntos
Analgesia Epidural/efeitos adversos , Colectomia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Colo/cirurgia , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgesia Epidural/métodos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Colo/mortalidade , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Humanos , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Melhoria de Qualidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Anesth Analg ; 126(6): 2025-2031, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29533258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) experience intermittent hypoxia, hypercarbia, and sympathetic activation during sleep, which increases risk for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and other cardiac arrhythmias. Whether patients with OSA experience increased episodes of atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery is unclear. We examined whether patients at increased risk for OSA, assessed by the STOP-BANG (snoring, tired during the day, observed stop breathing during sleep, high blood pressure, body mass index more than 35 kg/m, age more than 50 years, neck circumference more than 40 cm, and male gender) questionnaire, had a higher incidence of new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. Because both postoperative atrial fibrillation and OSA increase resource utilization, we secondarily examined whether patients at increased OSA risk had longer duration of postoperative mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay. METHODS: With institutional review board approval, this retrospective observational study evaluated adult patients who underwent elective cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass between 2014 and 2015 with preoperative assessment of OSA risk using the STOP-BANG questionnaire. Patients with a history of atrial fibrillation were excluded. The association between the STOP-BANG score and postoperative atrial fibrillation was examined using a multivariable logistic regression model. Secondarily, we estimated the association between the STOP-BANG score and duration of initial intubation using multivariable linear regression and ICU length of stay using Cox proportional hazards regression. We also descriptively summarized the percentage of patients requiring tracheal reintubation for mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: Of 4228 cardiac surgery patients, 1593 met inclusion and exclusion criteria. An increased STOP-BANG score was associated with higher odds of postoperative atrial fibrillation (odds ratio [95% confidence interval {CI}], 1.16 [1.09-1.23] per-point increase in the STOP-BANG score; P < .001). The STOP-BANG score was not associated with ICU length of stay (estimated hazard ratio [97.5% CI], 0.99 [0.96-1.03] per-point increase in the STOP-BANG score; P = .99) or duration of initial intubation (ratio of geometric means [97.5% CI], 1.01 [1.00-1.04]; P = .03; significance criterion [Bonferroni correction] < 0.025). One percent of patients required reintubation. DISCUSSION: Increasing risk for OSA, assessed by STOP-BANG, was associated with higher odds of postoperative atrial fibrillation, but not prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation or ICU length of stay.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/tendências , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia/tendências , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia
18.
Anesthesiology ; 128(2): 317-327, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29189290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relative contributions of intraoperative and postoperative hypotension to perioperative morbidity remain unclear. We determined the association between hypotension and a composite of 30-day myocardial infarction and death over three periods: (1) intraoperative, (2) remaining day of surgery, and (3) during the initial four postoperative days. METHODS: This was a substudy of POISE-2, a 10,010-patient factorial-randomized trial of aspirin and clonidine for prevention of myocardial infarction. Clinically important hypotension was defined as systolic blood pressure less than 90 mmHg requiring treatment. Minutes of hypotension was the exposure variable intraoperatively and for the remaining day of surgery, whereas hypotension status was treated as binary variable for postoperative days 1 to 4. We estimated the average relative effect of hypotension across components of the composite using a distinct effect generalized estimating model, adjusting for hypotension during earlier periods. RESULTS: Among 9,765 patients, 42% experienced hypotension, 590 (6.0%) had an infarction, and 116 (1.2%) died within 30 days of surgery. Intraoperatively, the estimated average relative effect across myocardial infarction and mortality was 1.08 (98.3% CI, 1.03, 1.12; P < 0.001) per 10-min increase in hypotension duration. For the remaining day of surgery, the odds ratio was 1.03 (98.3% CI, 1.01, 1.05; P < 0.001) per 10-min increase in hypotension duration. The average relative effect odds ratio was 2.83 (98.3% CI, 1.26, 6.35; P = 0.002) in patients with hypotension during the subsequent four days of hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically important hypotension-a potentially modifiable exposure-was significantly associated with a composite of myocardial infarction and death during each of three perioperative periods, even after adjustment for previous hypotension.


Assuntos
Hipotensão/epidemiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Anesth Analg ; 126(5): 1484-1493, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29200066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is often preserved in patients with aortic stenosis and thus cannot distinguish between normal myocardial contractile function and subclinical dysfunction. Global longitudinal strain and strain rate (SR), which measure myocardial deformation, are robust indicators of myocardial function and can detect subtle myocardial dysfunction that is not apparent with conventional echocardiographic measures. Strain and SR may better predict postoperative outcomes than LVEF. The primary aim of our investigation was to assess the association between global longitudinal strain and serious postoperative outcomes in patients with aortic stenosis having aortic valve replacement. Secondarily, we also assessed the associations between global longitudinal SR and LVEF and the outcomes. METHODS: In this post hoc analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial (NCT01187329), we examined the association between measures of myocardial function and the following outcomes: (1) need for postoperative inotropic/vasopressor support; (2) prolonged hospitalization (>7 days); and (3) postoperative atrial fibrillation. Standardized transesophageal echocardiographic examinations were performed after anesthetic induction. Myocardial deformation was measured using speckle-tracking echocardiography. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between measures of myocardial function and outcomes, adjusted for potential confounding factors. The predictive ability of global longitudinal strain, SR, and LVEF was assessed as area under receiver operating characteristics curves (AUCs). RESULTS: Of 100 patients enrolled in the clinical trial, 86 patients with aortic stenosis had acceptable images for global longitudinal strain analysis. Primarily, worse intraoperative global longitudinal strain was associated with prolonged hospitalization (odds ratio [98.3% confidence interval], 1.22 [1.01-1.47] per 1% decrease [absolute value] in strain; P = .012), but not with other outcomes. Secondarily, worse global longitudinal SR was associated with prolonged hospitalization (odds ratio [99.7% confidence interval], 1.68 [1.01-2.79] per 0.1 second(-1) decrease [absolute value] in SR; P = .003), but not other outcomes. LVEF was not associated with any outcomes. Global longitudinal SR was the best predictor for prolonged hospitalization (AUC, 0.72), followed by global longitudinal strain (AUC, 0.67) and LVEF (AUC, 0.62). CONCLUSIONS: Global longitudinal strain and SR are useful predictors of prolonged hospitalization in patients with aortic stenosis having an aortic valve replacement.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/tendências , Hospitalização/tendências , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 31(6): 2058-2064, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29066145

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated the hypothesis that perioperative acetaminophen reduces incisional pain at 30 and 90 days. DESIGN: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial. SETTING: Tertiary-care hospital (single center) cardiac surgery unit. PARTICIPANTS: Patients undergoing cardiac surgery via median sternotomy. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were assigned randomly to intravenous (IV) acetaminophen or IV placebo. Patients were given 4 doses of 1 g of IV acetaminophen or an equal volume of saline placebo over 15 minutes every 6 hours for 24 hours starting in the operating room after sternal closure. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Study participants were assessed by phone for incisional pain severity 30 and 90 days after surgery. Those reporting any incisional pain were asked to complete the Neuropathic Pain Questionnaire-Short Form and the modified Brief Pain Inventory. Patients were compared on 30- and 90-day incisional pain severity using separate multivariable linear regression models. IV acetaminophen had no effect on 30- and 90-day incisional pain, with an estimated difference in means (confidence interval) of 0.06 (-0.87 to 0.99) at 30 days (p = 0.88) and 0.07 (-0.71 to 0.86) at 90 days (p = 0.83). Low pain severity, neuropathic pain, and interference at both 30 and 90 days after surgery, regardless of treatment group, were observed. CONCLUSIONS: IV acetaminophen did not reduce the incidence or intensity of incisional pain at 30 days and 90 days after surgery.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Medição da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/tendências , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo da Dor/tendências , Medição da Dor/métodos , Medição da Dor/tendências , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
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