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Glob Chang Biol ; 27(23): 6059-6070, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495571


Climatic changes threaten freshwater resources and aquatic ecosystem health in the Sierra Nevada (California, USA), which has important consequences for millions of people and the world's fifth largest economy. However, the timing and magnitude of ecological changes driven by hydroclimate oscillations remain poorly understood in California's headwater region. Here, we develop a precisely dated, annually to decadally resolved lake sediment record of ecological change from the eastern Sierra Nevada that spans the last three millennia. Diatom paleoecology reveals a detailed history of abrupt limnologic transitions, best explained by modifications in water column stratification, mixing, and nutrient status in response to changing seasonality. Seasonally stratified conditions were registered during the Late Holocene Dry Period and the Medieval Climate Anomaly, illustrating the sensitivity of fossil diatoms to well-known periods of drought. Yet the most striking feature of the record is the uniqueness of ~1840-2016 CE: a period of singularly strong water column stratification, increased algal diversity, and reduced diatom productivity consistent with unprecedented "hot droughts." The data demonstrate that hot-dry conditions of the Industrial Era altered lake state to conditions unseen in the past ~3180 years, and suggest that regional trends identified by historical monitoring began far earlier than previously recognized. Our record illustrates the profound influence of anthropogenic climate warming on high-elevation lakes and the ecosystem services they provide in the Sierra Nevada, which hold implications for water quality and availability in California.

Diatomáceas , Lagos , California , Mudança Climática , Secas , Ecossistema , Humanos
Sci Adv ; 5(12): eaaw2610, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844659


Atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are thought to have synchronized global temperatures during Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles, yet their impact relative to changes in high-latitude insolation and ice-sheet extent remains poorly constrained. Here, we use tropical glacial fluctuations to assess the timing of low-latitude temperature changes relative to global climate forcings. We report 10Be ages of moraines in tropical East Africa and South America and show that glaciers reached their maxima at ~29 to 20 ka, during the global Last Glacial Maximum. Tropical glacial recession was underway by 20 ka, before the rapid CO2 rise at ~18.2 ka. This "early" tropical warming was influenced by rising high-latitude insolation and coincident ice-sheet recession in both polar regions, which lowered the meridional thermal gradient and reduced tropical heat export to the high latitudes.