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1.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(2): 101635, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373893

RESUMO

The two black rhinoceros subspecies (Diceros bicornis bicornis and D. b. minor) in South African conservation areas are managed as separate metapopulations. Since infection with Babesia bicornis can be fatal in black rhinoceroses, occurrence of this and other piroplasms in the two metapopulations was determined to assess possible risk. Blood specimens were collected from 156 black rhinoceroses: 80 from D. b. bicornis and 76 from D. b. minor. DNA was extracted; the V4 hypervariable region of the parasite 18S rRNA gene was amplified and subjected to the Reverse Line Blot (RLB) hybridization assay. There was a significant difference in occurrence of piroplasms: 18/80 (23%) in D. b. bicornis and 39/76 (51%) in D. b. minor. Theileria bicornis occurred in significantly more of the D. b. minor population (36/76; 47%) than the D. b. bicornis population (1/80; 1%); with B. bicornis the difference was not significant: D. b. bicornis 5/80 (6%) and D. b. minor 9/76 (11%). Three individuals were infected with Theileria equi. Results were confirmed using molecular characterization of the near full-length parasite 18S rRNA gene of 13 selected specimens. We identified four (Tb1, Tb2, Tb3 and Tb4) 18S rDNA sequence types for T. bicornis, two for B. bicornis (Bb1 and Bb2) and one for T. equi (Teq1). We furthermore identified T. bicornis haplotypes H1, H3 and H4 in 10 rhinoceroses; H3 was the most common haplotype identified. Rhinoceroses inhabiting more arid areas are apparently free of T. bicornis and B. bicornis, probably due to the absence or scarcity of vectors. When individuals are relocated for metapopulation management purposes, appropriate prophylactic action should be taken to minimise the risk of babesiosis, which could be fatal.


Assuntos
Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Perissodáctilos , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Theileriose/epidemiologia , Animais , Babesiose/parasitologia , Sequência de Bases , DNA Ribossômico/análise , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/análise , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Theileriose/parasitologia
2.
J Dent ; 74: 37-42, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29792910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyse if children with untreated or treated caries (restorations/missing teeth) are perceived differently compared to children with healthy teeth and to explore possible differences in the perception by laypersons and dental experts. METHODS: Eye movements of female experts (n = 20) and laypersons (n = 18) were recorded by eye-tracking while paired images (neutral expression/teeth not visible; emotional expression/smiling, teeth visible) of children with healthy teeth, with visible untreated or treated caries (restorations/missing teeth as a consequence of caries treatment), each n = 13, were presented. First fixation, total fixation time and number of fixations on the areas of interest (eyes, nose, mouth) in the first two seconds of presentation were determined. Furthermore, the images were rated regarding arousal, valence and attractivity. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney-U- and Kruskal-Wallis-tests (α = 0.05). RESULTS: Generally, laypersons spent more time exploring and fixating the eye region than the mouth, while dental experts more often first percept and longer and more often fixated the mouth region, especially in images with emotional expression. Dental experts, but not laypersons, were significantly longer fixating the mouth of children with untreated caries than the mouth of children with healthy teeth in images with emotional expression. When evaluating images with emotional expression, both dental experts and laypersons rated children with healthy teeth to be more attractive, pleasant and calm than children with untreated or treated caries. CONCLUSIONS: Children with visible treated and untreated caries were differently perceived by laypersons and dental experts than children with healthy teeth.


Assuntos
Atenção , Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico por imagem , Cárie Dentária/terapia , Estética Dentária , Movimentos Oculares , Boca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Beleza , Criança , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Bucal , Sorriso , Dente Decíduo , Percepção Visual , Adulto Jovem
3.
ILAR J ; 58(3): 359-370, 2017 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28985319

RESUMO

Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus (RVFV) is an emerging vector-borne pathogen that causes sporadic epizootics and epidemics with multi-year, apparently quiescent, inter-epidemic periods. The epidemiology and ecology of the virus during these inter-epidemic periods is poorly understood. There is evidence for low-level circulation of the virus in livestock and wild ruminants; however, as of yet there is no evidence to identify a specific mammalian reservoir host. Using a systematic approach, this review synthesizes results from serosurveys, attempts at viral detection, and experimental infection of wildlife. These data demonstrate there is a gap in research conducted on RVF in wild ruminants. Specifically, there is very little published data on the pathogenicity of an RVFV infection in various wildlife species, validation of diagnostic assays for exposure to RVFV and understanding of epizootic or endemic disease dynamics in wild ruminants. We recommend that future research on RVFV incorporate a more systematic approach to understand the low-level cycling of the virus during inter-epidemic periods in both wild and domestic ruminant species.


Assuntos
Febre do Vale de Rift/transmissão , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/patogenicidade , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Febre do Vale de Rift/virologia , Ruminantes/virologia
4.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 84(1): e1-e11, 2017 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28155285

RESUMO

The objectives of the study were to determine the species composition of ticks infesting white and black rhinoceroses in southern Africa as well as the conservation status of those tick species that prefer rhinos as hosts. Ticks were collected opportunistically from rhinos that had been immobilised for management purposes, and 447 white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) and 164 black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis) were sampled in South Africa, 61 black rhinos in Namibia, 18 white and 12 black rhinos in Zimbabwe, and 24 black rhinos in Zambia. Nineteen tick species were recovered, of which two species, Amblyomma rhinocerotis and Dermacentor rhinocerinus, prefer rhinos as hosts. A. rhinocerotis was collected only in the northeastern KwaZulu-Natal reserves of South Africa and is endangered, while D. rhinocerinus is present in these reserves as well as in the Kruger National Park and surrounding conservancies. Eight of the tick species collected from the rhinos are ornate, and seven species are regularly collected from cattle. The species present on rhinos in the eastern, moister reserves of South Africa were amongst others Amblyomma hebraeum, A. rhinocerotis, D. rhinocerinus, Rhipicephalus maculatus, Rhipicephalus simus and Rhipicephalus zumpti, while those on rhinos in the Karoo and the drier western regions, including Namibia, were the drought-tolerant species, Hyalomma glabrum, Hyalomma rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum and Rhipicephalus gertrudae. The species composition of ticks on rhinoceroses in Zambia differed markedly from those of the other southern African countries in that Amblyomma sparsum, Amblyomma tholloni and Amblyomma variegatum accounted for the majority of infestations.


Assuntos
Ixodidae/fisiologia , Perissodáctilos/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Dermacentor/fisiologia , Feminino , Gado/parasitologia , Masculino , Namíbia/epidemiologia , Rhipicephalus/fisiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Zâmbia/epidemiologia , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
5.
J Environ Manage ; 128: 642-54, 2013 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23845958

RESUMO

Risk assessment of secondary soil salinization, which is caused in part by the way people manage the land, is an essential challenge to agricultural sustainability. The objective of our study was to develop a soil salinity risk assessment methodology by selecting a consistent set of risk factors based on the conceptual Pressure-State-Response (PSR) sustainability framework and incorporating the grey relational analysis and the Analytic Hierarchy Process methods. The proposed salinity risk assessment methodology was demonstrated through a case study of developing composite risk index maps for the Yinchuan Plain, a major irrigation agriculture district in northwest China. Fourteen risk factors were selected in terms of the three PSR criteria: pressure, state, and response. The results showed that the salinity risk in the Yinchuan Plain was strongly influenced by the subsoil and groundwater salinity, land use, distance to irrigation canals, and depth to groundwater. To maintain agricultural sustainability in the Yinchuan Plain, a suite of remedial and preventative actions were proposed to manage soil salinity risk in the regions that are affected by salinity at different levels and by different salinization processes. The weight sensitivity analysis results also showed that the overall salinity risk of the Yinchuan Plain would increase or decrease as the weights for pressure or response risk factors increased, signifying the importance of human activities on secondary soil salinization. Ideally, the proposed methodology will help us develop more consistent management tools for risk assessment and management and for control of secondary soil salinization.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Salinidade , Solo , Irrigação Agrícola , China , Modelos Teóricos , Medição de Risco
6.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 14(3): 116-20, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22342377

RESUMO

AIMS: The objective of this study was to explore the perception of the legal authorities regarding different report types and visualization techniques for post-mortem radiological findings. METHODS: A standardized digital questionnaire was developed and the district attorneys in the catchment area of the affiliated Forensic Institute were requested to evaluate four different types of forensic imaging reports based on four cases examples. Each case was described in four different report types (short written report only, gray-scale CT image with figure caption, color-coded CT image with figure caption, 3D-reconstruction with figure caption). The survey participants were asked to evaluate those types of reports regarding understandability, cost effectiveness and overall appropriateness for the courtroom. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: 3D reconstructions and color-coded CT images accompanied by written report were preferred regarding understandability and cost/effectiveness. 3D reconstructions of the forensic findings reviewed as most adequate for court.


Assuntos
Autopsia , Compreensão , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Medicina Legal , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
J Wildl Dis ; 47(4): 989-93, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22102672

RESUMO

Avian pox has a worldwide distribution, but prior to this investigation has not been reported in free-ranging flamingo populations. During observations of the first successful breeding of Lesser Flamingos on a purpose-built island, at Kamfers Dam near Kimberley, South Africa, multiple small, raised, crusted plaques on the legs and facial area were noticed on 30% of the fledgling flamingos. A diagnosis of avipoxvirus infection was made on the basis of the macroscopic, histologic, and electron microscopic features, and was further confirmed by DNA sequence analysis. The avipoxvirus detected was very similar to that previously detected in albatross and falcons.


Assuntos
Avipoxvirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Infecções por Poxviridae/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Doenças das Aves/patologia , Aves , Cruzamento , Feminino , Masculino , Infecções por Poxviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Poxviridae/patologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia
8.
Int Orthop ; 35(11): 1633-7, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21221577

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the value of systemic biochemical markers of bone turnover-urine levels of cross-linked C-terminal telopeptide I (uCTX-I), urinary C-terminal telopeptide II (uCTX-II) and serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (sCOMP)-in the diagnosis of chondral defects after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. Thirty-eight patients with previous ACL rupture were included. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the injured and the intact knee joint was performed with volumetric measurement of volume and area of cartilage (VC/AC), area of subchondral bone (cAB), and area of subchondral bone denuded and eroded (dAB). Biochemical markers were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassays. RESULTS: MRI-based volumetric cartilage measurement showed significant differences between the injured and the intact knees. uCTX-I, sCOMP and in parts uCTX-II correlated well with MRI parameters. CTX-I showed a significant correlation with VC and AC of the whole knee joint. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that uCTX-I, uCTX-II and sCOMP could identify patients with focal cartilage lesions from an early stage of osteoarthritis of the knee.


Assuntos
Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/patologia , Colágeno Tipo II/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Traumatismos do Joelho/diagnóstico , Articulação do Joelho/patologia , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Adulto , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/metabolismo , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Proteína de Matriz Oligomérica de Cartilagem , Feminino , Humanos , Traumatismos do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Articulação do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Proteínas Matrilinas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Ruptura
9.
Int Orthop ; 35(4): 607-13, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21127860

RESUMO

In this retrospective case series 80 patients divided in 40 matched pair groups with an arthroscopically proven ACL insufficiency were followed up for 15 years. One half was reconstructed using an autologous BTB patella graft, the other half was treated by a conservative physiotherapeutic based rehabilitation program. At follow-up the clinical scores (Lysholm, IKDC) showed no significant differences between subjects who had undergone ACL reconstruction and those who had not. Furthermore there was no detectable difference in the incidence of osteoarthritis between the cohorts. Patients having a negative pivot shift test showed significantly less signs of radiographic osteoarthritis and better functional assessment scores whether reconstructed or not. Based on these results and a review of the literature there is no clear evidence that ACL reconstruction reduces the rate of OA development or improves the long-term symptomatic outcome. Probably review of reconstruction by an anatomical approach will be more successful than operative techniques decades ago.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Instabilidade Articular/terapia , Traumatismos do Joelho/terapia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Traumatismos em Atletas/cirurgia , Transplante Ósseo , Feminino , Humanos , Instabilidade Articular/etiologia , Instabilidade Articular/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos do Joelho/complicações , Traumatismos do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Osteoartrite do Joelho/epidemiologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ruptura/diagnóstico , Ruptura/terapia , Adulto Jovem
10.
J. bras. psiquiatr ; 2(33): 107-113, abr. 1984.
Artigo | Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: psi-7514

RESUMO

O presente trabalho tem por objetivo contribuir para a compreensao e utilizacao da transferencia em psicoterapia dinamica. Estuda-se o historico, a importancia e a compreensao dos diversos aspectos do conceito, especialmente aqueles desenvolvimentos por FREUD, e seu emprego em psicoterapia. Seguindo contribuicoes atuais, diferencia, por um lado, o trabalho realizado na analise consistente da neurose de transferencia, esta como uma recapitulacao da doenca original, utilizada fundamentalmente no tratamento psicanalitico, e, de outra parte, a compreensao da transferencia, visualizada como tentativa de restauracao do relacionamento, empregada em psicoterapia dinamica. Tres exemplos clinicos, muito resumidos, ilustram a necessidade de interpretar a transferencia em psicoterapia. Nas consideracoes finais, e enfocada a utilizacao da transferencia em psicoterapia dinamica.


Assuntos
Transtornos Neuróticos , Interpretação Psicanalítica , Transtornos Neuróticos , Interpretação Psicanalítica
11.
Rev. bras. psicanal ; 16(1): 55-62, 1982.
Artigo | Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: psi-10785

RESUMO

Trata-se de contribuicao ao tema de 'Selecao de Candidatos' estudando o ambiente dos institutos de Psicanalise onde s erealiza esta atividade muito delicada. Varios fatores podem criar determinados ambientes e estes irao influir, de alguma modo, na selecao realizada, atividade de decisiva importancia porque representa o futuro da Psicanalise. Sao considerados resumidamente os seguintes fatores imbricados: perda da traicao, luta pelo poder, narcisismo do analista didata e lideres manifestos e ocultos. Como conclusao menciona que se pode estabelecer na selecao dos analistas didatas e dos candidatos verdadeiro circulo vicioso, de dificil solucao. A esperanca esta na integridade das pessoas e na propria acao da Psicanalise.


Assuntos
Seleção de Pessoal , Prática Profissional , Condições de Trabalho , Local de Trabalho , Psicanálise , Seleção de Pessoal , Prática Profissional , Condições de Trabalho , Local de Trabalho , Psicanálise
13.
Rev. psicoanal ; 38(6): 1231-1250, 1981.
Artigo em Espanhol | BINACIS | ID: biblio-1173485

Assuntos
Psicanálise
14.
18.
Buenos Aires; Hormé; 1969. 260 p. (Biblioteca Psicoterapia, 20). (81150).
Monografia em Espanhol | BINACIS | ID: bin-81150
19.
Rev. psicoanal ; 25(3 -4): 847-862, 1968.
Artigo em Espanhol | BINACIS | ID: biblio-1172857

Assuntos
Psicanálise
20.
Rev. psicoanal ; 25(3 -4): 847-862, 1968.
Artigo em Espanhol | BINACIS | ID: bin-115695

Assuntos
Psicanálise
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