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1.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 363-367, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437946

RESUMO

Methods for cardiac tissue engineering and application in experiments are core technologies developed at the Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology in Göttingen. As is the case in many academic research laboratories data capture and documentation may be improved to latest methods of digital research. A comprehensive information system infrastructure is the foundation of further advances toward automation of lab processes. A data management system concept is proposed and prototypically deployed that enables traceability of assets within the lab and reproducibility of published assays and results. The prototype integrates existing electronic lab notebook, experiment result database, and a newly introduced research data management system by means of a custom developed portal and integration component. The architecture concept and developed integration tools explore connection of routine experimental work in a biomedical research lab to a universal infrastructure of data.

2.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 12(8): e002491, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial atrial septal defect (ASD) has previously been attributed primarily to mutations in cardiac transcription factors. Here, we report a large, multi-generational family (78 members) with ASD combined with a late-onset dilated cardiomyopathy and further characterize the consequences of mutant α-actin. METHODS: We combined a genome-wide linkage analysis with cell biology, microscopy, and molecular biology tools to characterize a novel ACTC1 (cardiac α-actin) mutation identified in association with ASD and late-onset dilated cardiomyopathy in a large, multi-generational family. RESULTS: Using a genome-wide linkage analysis, the ASD disease locus was mapped to chromosome 15q14 harboring the ACTC1 gene. In 15 affected family members, a heterozygous, nonsynonymous, and fully penetrant mutation (p. Gly247Asp) was identified in exon 5 of ACTC1 that was absent in all healthy family members (n=63). In silico tools predicted deleterious consequences of this variant that was found absent in control databases. Ultrastructural analysis of myocardial tissue of one of the mutation carriers showed sarcomeric disarray, myofibrillar degeneration, and increased apoptosis, while cardiac proteomics revealed a significant increase in extracellular matrix proteins. Consistently, structural defects and increased apoptosis were also observed in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes overexpressing the mutant, but not native human ACTC1. Molecular dynamics studies and additional mechanistic analyses in cardiomyocytes confirmed actin polymerization/turnover defects, thereby affecting contractility. CONCLUSIONS: A combined phenotype of ASD and late-onset heart failure was caused by a heterozygous, nonsynonymous ACTC1 mutation. Mechanistically, we found a shared molecular mechanism of defective actin signaling and polymerization in both cardiac development and contractile function. Detection of ACTC1 mutations in patients with ASD may thus have further clinical implications with regard to monitoring for (late-onset) dilated cardiomyopathy.

3.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 134: 13-28, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233754

RESUMO

Cardiac fibrosis is a hallmark of heart failure for which there is no effective pharmacological therapy. By genetic modification and in vivo inhibitor approaches it was suggested that the Rho-associated kinases (ROCK1 and ROCK2) are involved in pro-fibrotic signalling in cardiac fibroblasts and that they may serve as targets for anti-fibrotic therapies. We demonstrate that simultaneous inhibition of ROCK1 and ROCK2 strongly interfered with tissue formation and their biomechanical properties in a model of engineered connective tissue (ECT), comprised of cardiac fibroblasts and collagen. These effects were observed with both rat and human ECT. Inhibitors of different chemistries, including the isoquinoline inhibitors Fasudil and H1152P as well as the pyrazol-phenyl inhibitor SR-3677, showed comparable effects. By combined treatment of ECT with TGF-ß and H1152P, we could identify ROCK as a mediator of TGF-ß-dependent tissue stiffening. Moreover, expression analyses suggested that lysyl oxidase (LOX) is a downstream target of the ROCK-actin-MRTF/SRF pathway and inhibition of this pathway by Latrunculin A and CCG-203971 showed similar anti-fibrotic effects in the ECT model as ROCK inhibitors. In line with the collagen crosslinking function of LOX, its inhibition by ß-aminopropionitrile resulted in reduced ECT stiffness, but let tissue compaction unaffected. Finally, we show that ROCK inhibition also reduced the compaction and stiffness of engineered heart muscle tissues. Our results indicate that pharmacological inhibition of ROCK has a strong anti-fibrotic potential which is in part due to a decrease in the expression of the collagen crosslinking enzyme lysyl oxidase.

4.
Europace ; 2019 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106349

RESUMO

AIMS: Brugada syndrome (BrS) is associated with a pronounced risk to develop sudden cardiac death (SCD). Up to 21% of patients are related to mutations in SCN5A. Studies identified SCN10A as a contributor of BrS. However, the investigation of the human cellular phenotype of BrS in the presence of SCN10A mutations remains lacking. The objective of this study was to establish a cellular model of BrS in presence of SCN10A mutations using human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs). METHODS AND RESULTS: Dermal fibroblasts obtained from a BrS patient suffering from SCD harbouring the SCN10A double variants (c.3803G>A and c.3749G>A) and three independent healthy control subjects were reprogrammed to hiPSCs. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells were differentiated into cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs).The hiPSC-CMs from the BrS patient showed a significantly reduced peak sodium channel current (INa) and a significantly reduced ATX II (sea anemone toxin, an enhancer of late INa) sensitive as well as A-887826 (a blocker of SCN10A channel) sensitive late sodium channel current (INa) when compared with the healthy control hiPSC-CMs, indicating loss-of-function of sodium channels. Consistent with reduced INa the action potential amplitude and upstroke velocity (Vmax) were significantly reduced, which may contribute to arrhythmogenesis of BrS. Moreover, Ajmaline effects on action potentials were stronger in BrS-hiPSC-CMs than in healthy control cells. This is in agreement with the higher susceptibility of patients to sodium channel blocking drugs in unmasking BrS. CONCLUSION: Patient-specific hiPSC-CMs are able to recapitulate single-cell phenotype features of BrS with SCN10A mutations and may provide novel opportunities to further elucidate the cellular disease mechanism.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5651, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948775

RESUMO

Acute myocardial infarction (MI) evokes a systemic inflammatory response and locally the degradation of the necrotic tissue, followed by scar formation. The mechanisms for containment of the infarct zone are not studied well. The study aimed to examine the response of healthy cardiomyocytes to serum of patients with myocardial infarction. Human iPSC-cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CM) generated from two healthy donors were incubated with serum of patients with MI with and without ventricular fibrillation (VF) or of healthy controls. Different cell adhesion molecules were studied by flow cytometry and immunostaining. Cellular electrophysiology was studied by patch clamp. The cell adhesion molecules CD54/ICAM-1, CD58/LFA-3 and CD321/JAM-A were expressed on iPSC-CM within the plasma membrane. Incubation with serum of MI patients reduced the levels of expression of CD54/ICAM-1 and CD321/JAM-A by 15-20%. VF serum was less effective than serum of MI patients without VF. MI serum or VF serum did not affect resting potential, action potential duration or maximum depolarization velocity. Myocardial infarction serum exerts anti-inflammatory effects on healthy cardiomyocytes without affecting their electrical activity, thus helping to contain the infarct zone and to protect healthy tissue. Ventricular fibrillation during MI drives healthy cardiomyocytes towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype.

6.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 106(3): 642-651, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947366

RESUMO

Short QT syndrome (SQTS) predisposes afflicted patients to sudden cardiac death. Until now, only one drug-quinidine-has been shown to be effective in patients with SQTS type 1(SQTS1). The objective of this study was to use human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) from a patient with SQTS1 to search for potentially effective drugs for the treatment of SQTS1 patients. Patch clamp and single-cell contraction measurements were employed to assess drug effects. Ivabradine, mexiletine, and ajmaline but not flecainide, ranolazine, or amiodarone prolonged the action potential duration (APD) in hiPSC-CMs from an SQTS1 patient. Ivabradine, ajmaline, and mexiletine inhibited KCNH2 channel currents significantly, which may underlie their APD-prolonging effects. Under proarrhythmic epinephrine stimulation in spontaneously beating SQTS1 hiPSC-CMs, ivabradine, mexiletine, and ajmaline but not flecainide reduced the epinephrine-induced arrhythmic events. The results demonstrate that ivabradine, ajmaline, and mexiletine may be candidate drugs for preventing tachyarrhythmias in SQTS1 patients.

8.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 140: 93-100, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902615

RESUMO

Facilitated by the introduction of human induced pluripotent stem cells and protocols for their efficient directed differentiation at high quantity and quality, innovative human heart muscle models are being developed for applications in drug screens. Employed models range from the microscopic cardiomyocytes-on-a-chip scale to the cardiac macrotissues-on-a-plate scale. Whilst cardiomyocyte-on-a-chip models can be readily adapted to high-throughput primary screening, they are limited as to the deep phenotyping of contractility, and here in particular contractile force development. In lower throughput cardiac macrotissue-on-a-plate platforms, organotypic function, including anisotropic electrical spread of excitation and contractility, can be recapitulated at the macroscopic scale. This review serves as an overview of cardiac macrotissue-on-a-plate technologies with a focus on their application in the investigation of drug effects on heart muscle contractility and disease modeling.

9.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(3): 272-285, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714667

RESUMO

Fibrosis is a pivotal player in heart failure development and progression. Measurements of (markers of) fibrosis in tissue and blood may help to diagnose and risk stratify patients with heart failure, and its treatment may be effective in preventing heart failure and its progression. A lack of pathophysiological insights and uniform definitions has hampered the research in fibrosis and heart failure. The Translational Research Committee of the Heart Failure Association discussed several aspects of fibrosis in their workshop. Early insidious perturbations such as subclinical hypertension or inflammation may trigger first fibrotic events, while more dramatic triggers such as myocardial infarction and myocarditis give rise to full blown scar formation and ongoing fibrosis in diseased hearts. Aging itself is also associated with a cardiac phenotype that includes fibrosis. Fibrosis is an extremely heterogeneous phenomenon, as several stages of the fibrotic process exist, each with different fibrosis subtypes and a different composition of various cells and proteins - resulting in a very complex pathophysiology. As a result, detection of fibrosis, e.g. using current cardiac imaging modalities or plasma biomarkers, will detect only specific subforms of fibrosis, but cannot capture all aspects of the complex fibrotic process. Furthermore, several anti-fibrotic therapies are under investigation, but such therapies generally target aspecific aspects of the fibrotic process and suffer from a lack of precision. This review discusses the mechanisms and the caveats and proposes a roadmap for future research.

10.
Cardiovasc Res ; 115(3): 488-500, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657875

RESUMO

Morbidity and mortality from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and heart failure (HF) remain significant in Europe and are increasing worldwide. Patients with IHD or HF might benefit from novel therapeutic strategies, such as cell-based therapies. We recently discussed the therapeutic potential of cell-based therapies and provided recommendations on how to improve the therapeutic translation of these novel strategies for effective cardiac regeneration and repair. Despite major advances in optimizing these strategies with respect to cell source and delivery method, the clinical outcome of cell-based therapy remains unsatisfactory. Major obstacles are the low engraftment and survival rate of transplanted cells in the harmful microenvironment of the host tissue, and the paucity or even lack of endogenous cells with repair capacity. Therefore, new ways of delivering cells and their derivatives are required in order to empower cell-based cardiac repair and regeneration in patients with IHD or HF. Strategies using tissue engineering (TE) combine cells with matrix materials to enhance cell retention or cell delivery in the transplanted area, and have recently received much attention for this purpose. Here, we summarize knowledge on novel approaches emerging from the TE scenario. In particular, we will discuss how combinations of cell/bio-materials (e.g. hydrogels, cell sheets, prefabricated matrices, microspheres, and injectable matrices) combinations might enhance cell retention or cell delivery in the transplantation areas, thereby increase the success rate of cell therapies for IHD and HF. We will not focus on the use of classical engineering approaches, employing fully synthetic materials, because of their unsatisfactory material properties which render them not clinically applicable. The overall aim of this Position Paper from the ESC Working Group Cellular Biology of the Heart is to provide recommendations on how to proceed in research with these novel TE strategies combined with cell-based therapies to boost cardiac repair in the clinical settings of IHD and HF.

11.
Prog Biophys Mol Biol ; 144: 51-60, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553553

RESUMO

Cardiomyocyte and stroma cell cross-talk is essential for the formation of collagen-based engineered heart muscle, including engineered human myocardium (EHM). Fibroblasts are a main component of the myocardial stroma. We hypothesize that fibroblasts, by compacting the surrounding collagen network, support the self-organization of cardiomyocytes into a functional syncytium. With a focus on early self-organization processes in EHM, we studied the molecular and biophysical adaptations mediated by defined populations of fibroblasts and embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes in a collagen type I hydrogel. After a short phase of cell-independent collagen gelation (30 min), tissue compaction was progressively mediated by fibroblasts. Fibroblast-mediated tissue stiffening was attenuated in the presence of cardiomyocytes allowing for the assembly of stably contracting, force-generating EHM within 4 weeks. Comparative RNA-sequencing data corroborated that fibroblasts are particularly sensitive to the tissue compaction process, resulting in the fast activation of transcription profiles, supporting heart muscle development and extracellular matrix synthesis. Large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) measurements revealed nonlinear strain stiffening at physiological strain amplitudes (>2%), which was reduced in the presence of cells. The nonlinear stress-strain response could be characterized by a mathematical model. Collectively, our study defines the interplay between fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes during human heart muscle self-organization in vitro and underscores the relevance of fibroblasts in the biological engineering of a cardiomyogenesis-supporting viscoelastic stroma. We anticipate that the established mathematical model will facilitate future attempts to optimize EHM for in vitro (disease modelling) and in vivo applications (heart repair).

12.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2665, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30498501

RESUMO

Heart failure due to pressure overload is frequently associated with inflammation. In addition to inflammatory responses of the innate immune system, autoimmune reactions of the adaptive immune system appear to be triggered in subgroups of patients with heart failure as demonstrated by the presence of autoantibodies against myocardial antigens. Moreover, T cell-deficient and T cell-depleted mice have been reported to be protected from heart failure induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and we have shown recently that CD4+-helper T cells with specificity for an antigen in cardiomyocytes accelerate TAC-induced heart failure. In this study, we set out to investigate the potential contribution of CD8+-cytotoxic T cells with specificity to a model antigen (ovalbumin, OVA) in cardiomyocytes to pressure overload-induced heart failure. In 78% of cMy-mOVA mice with cardiomyocyte-specific OVA expression, a low-grade OVA-specific cellular cytotoxicity was detected after TAC. Adoptive transfer of OVA-specific CD8+-T cells from T cell receptor transgenic OT-I mice before TAC did not increase the risk of OVA-specific autoimmunity in cMy-mOVA mice. After TAC, again 78% of the mice displayed an OVA-specific cytotoxicity with on average only a three-fold higher killing of OVA-expressing target cells. More CD8+ cells were present after TAC in the myocardium of cMy-mOVA mice with OT-I T cells (on average 17.5/mm2) than in mice that did not receive OVA-specific CD8+-T cells (3.6/mm2). However, the extent of fibrosis was similar in both groups. Functionally, as determined by echocardiography, the adoptive transfer of OVA-specific CD8+-T cells did not significantly accelerate the progression from hypertrophy to heart failure in cMy-mOVA mice. These findings argue therefore against a major impact of cytotoxic T cells with specificity for autoantigens of cardiomyocytes in pressure overload-induced heart failure.

13.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 72(21): 2606-2608, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466518
14.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 27(6): 916-920, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30084989

RESUMO

The current state-of-the-art treatment for heart failure patients is aimed at delaying disease progression, relieving symptoms, reducing morbidity and improving survival. Cardiac regeneration of the injured heart, however, is not achieved. Currently, numerous alternative treatment approaches aiming at cardiac regeneration are under investigation. Myocardial tissue engineering strategies follow the idea of in vitro generation of myocardium-like structures for epicardial transplantation. Recently, this field has made tremendous advances regarding in vitro optimization of tissue-engineered constructs, and valuable data have been generated in small animal models. This review summarizes the technical aspects of engineered human myocardium generation, lessons learned from preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies and the current state of this approach on its way to clinical translation.

15.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2018 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30016401

RESUMO

Aims: Sex differences in cardiac fibrosis point to the regulatory role of 17ß-Estradiol (E2) in cardiac fibroblasts (CF). We therefore asked whether male and female CF in rodent and human models are differentially susceptible to E2, and whether this is related to sex-specific activation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and beta (ERß). Methods and Results: In female rat CF (rCF), 24 h E2-treatment (10-8 M) led to a significant down-regulation of collagen I and III expression, whereas both collagens were up-regulated in male rCF. E2-induced sex-specific collagen regulation was also detected in human CF, indicating that this regulation is conserved across species. Using specific ERα- and ERß-agonists (10-7 M) for 24 h, we identified ERα as repressive and ERß as inducing factor in female and male rCF, respectively. In addition, E2-induced ERα phosphorylation at Ser118 only in female rCF, whereas Ser105 phosphorylation of ERß was exclusively found in male rCF. Further, in female rCF we found both ER bound to the collagen I and III promoters using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. In contrast, in male rCF only ERß bound to both promoters. In engineered connective tissues (ECT) from rCF, collagen I and III mRNA were downregulated in female ECT and up-regulated in male ECT by E2. This was accompanied by an impaired condensation of female ECT, whereas male ECT showed an increased condensation and stiffness upon E2-treatment, analyzed by rheological measurements. Finally, we confirmed the E2-effect on both collagens in an in vivo mouse model with ovariectomy for E2 depletion, E2 substitution, and pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction. Conclusions: The mechanism underlying the sex-specific regulation of collagen I and III in the heart appears to involve E2-mediated differential ERα and ERß signaling in CFs.

16.
Nat Biotechnol ; 36(7): 592-593, 2018 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29979663
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29914693

RESUMO

With the development of advanced focusing optics for x-rays, we can now use x-ray beams with spot sizes in the micro- or nanometer range to scan cells and large areas of tissues and continuously record the diffraction signals. From this data, x-ray scattering maps or so-called x-ray darkfield images are computed showing how different types of cells or regions of tissues differ in their diffraction intensity. At the same time a diffraction pattern is available for each scan point which encodes the local nanostructure, averaged over many contributing constituents illuminated by the beam. In this work we have exploited these new capabilities of scanning x-ray diffraction to investigate cardiac muscle cells as well as cardiac tissue. We give examples of how cardiac cells, especially living, cultured cells, can be prepared to be compatible with the instrumentation constraints of nano- or micro-diffraction instruments. Furthermore, we show how the developmental stage, ranging from neonatal to adult cells, as well as the final preparation state of the cardiomyocytes influences the recorded scattering signal and how these diffraction signals compare to the structure of a fully developed cardiac muscle.

19.
JCI Insight ; 3(12)2018 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29925689

RESUMO

Generation of homogeneous populations of subtype-specific cardiomyocytes (CMs) derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and their comprehensive phenotyping is crucial for a better understanding of the subtype-related disease mechanisms and as tools for the development of chamber-specific drugs. The goals of this study were to apply a simple and efficient method for differentiation of iPSCs into defined functional CM subtypes in feeder-free conditions and to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the molecular, cell biological, and functional properties of atrial and ventricular iPSC-CMs on both the single-cell and engineered heart muscle (EHM) level. By a stage-specific activation of retinoic acid signaling in monolayer-based and well-defined culture, we showed that cardiac progenitors can be directed towards a highly homogeneous population of atrial CMs. By combining the transcriptome and proteome profiling of the iPSC-CM subtypes with functional characterizations via optical action potential and calcium imaging, and with contractile analyses in EHM, we demonstrated that atrial and ventricular iPSC-CMs and -EHM highly correspond to the atrial and ventricular heart muscle, respectively. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the molecular and functional identities characteristic of atrial and ventricular iPSC-CMs and -EHM and supports their suitability in disease modeling and chamber-specific drug screening.

20.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(3): e001893, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29545480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limb-Girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD) are a heritable group of genetically determined disorders with a primary involvement of the pelvic or shoulder girdle musculature with partially cardiac manifestation, such as dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and life-threatening tachyarrhythmia. We report here that human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes from a patient with LGMD2I and DCM associated with recurrent ventricular tachycardia displayed ion channel dysfunction and abnormality of calcium homeostasis. METHODS: Dermal fibroblasts obtained from a patient with LGMD2I harboring a fukutin-related protein gene mutation (826C>A; Leu276Ile) and 3 healthy donors were reprogrammed to hiPSCs. The hiPSCs were differentiated into cardiomyocytes and used for biological and electrophysiological studies. RESULTS: Compared with hiPSC cardiomyocytes from the healthy donors, the hiPSC cardiomyocytes from the patient exhibited abnormal action potentials characterized by reduced amplitude and upstroke velocity. The peak and late Na channel currents (INa) as well as the peak L-type calcium channel currents were significantly reduced. The expression of SCN5A and CACNA1C was reduced in DCM cardiomyocytes, consistent with reduction of INa and L-type calcium channel currents. In addition, the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr) was reduced, whereas the transient outward current (Ito) and slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium current (IKs) were similar in DCM and control cardiomyocytes. Finally, a significant reduction of systolic and diastolic intracellular Ca2+ concentrations was detected in DCM cardiomyocytes. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that patient-specific hiPSC cardiomyocytes can recapitulate some phenotypic properties of LGMD2I with DCM and provide a platform for studies on the cardiac events in LGMD.

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