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1.
Diabetes Care ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of empagliflozin on the incidence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and its effects on metabolic, cardiovascular (CV), and renal outcomes among participants with or without OSA in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants with diabetes and CV disease were randomized to empagliflozin (10 and 25 mg) or placebo daily in addition to standard of care. OSA was assessed by investigator report using Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities version 18.0, and CV outcomes were independently adjudicated. Analyses were performed using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models. RESULTS: OSA was reported in 391 of 7,020 (5.6%) participants at baseline. Those with OSA were more likely to be male (83 vs. 71%) and to have moderate-severe obesity (BMI ≥35 kg/m2; 55 vs. 18%). Over a median of 3.1 years, empagliflozin had similar placebo-adjusted reductions in HbA1c, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure, regardless of OSA status, but a larger effect on weight (adjusted mean ± SE difference at week 52: OSA vs. no OSA -2.9 ± 0.5 vs. -1.9 ± 0.1 kg). Incidence of 3-point major adverse CV events, CV death, heart failure hospitalization, and incident or worsening nephropathy in the placebo group was 1.2-2.0-fold higher for those with baseline OSA compared with those without. Empagliflozin significantly reduced the risk for outcomes regardless of OSA status (P-interaction all > 0.05). Fifty patients reported a new diagnosis of OSA through 7 days after medication discontinuation, and this occurred less often with empagliflozin treatment (hazard ratio 0.48 [95% CI 0.27, 0.83]). CONCLUSIONS: In EMPA-REG OUTCOME, participants with OSA had greater comorbidity and higher frequency of CV and renal events. Empagliflozin had favorable effects on risk factors and CV and renal outcomes regardless of preexisting OSA and may also reduce the risk for new-onset OSA.

2.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(10): 834-844, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although metformin is increasingly being used in women with type 2 diabetes during pregnancy, little data exist on the benefits and harms of metformin use on pregnancy outcomes in these women. We aimed to investigate the effects of the addition of metformin to a standard regimen of insulin on neonatal morbidity and mortality in pregnant women with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this prospective, multicentre, international, randomised, parallel, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial, women with type 2 diabetes during pregnancy were randomly assigned from 25 centres in Canada and four in Australia to receive either metformin 1000 mg twice daily or placebo, added to insulin. Randomisation was done via a web-based computerised randomisation service and stratified by centre and pre-pregnancy BMI (<30 kg/m2 or ≥30 kg/m2) in a ratio of 1:1 using random block sizes of 4 and 6. Women were eligible if they had type 2 diabetes, were on insulin, had a singleton viable pregnancy, and were between 6 and 22 weeks plus 6 days' gestation. Participants were asked to check their fasting blood glucose level before the first meal of the day, before the last meal of the day, and 2 h after each meal. Insulin doses were adjusted aiming for identical glucose targets (fasting glucose <5·3 mmol/L [95 mg/dL], 2-h postprandial glucose <6·7 mmol/L [120 mg/dL]). Study visits were done monthly and patients were seen every 1-4 weeks as was needed for standard clinical care. At study visits blood pressure and bodyweight were measured; patients were asked about tolerance to their pills, any hospitalisations, insulin doses, and severe hypoglycaemia events; and glucometer readings were downloaded to the central coordinating centre. Participants, caregivers, and outcome assessors were masked to the intervention. The primary outcome was a composite of fetal and neonatal outcomes, for which we calculated the relative risk and 95% CI between groups, stratifying by site and BMI using a log-binomial regression model with an intention-to-treat analysis. Secondary outcomes included several relevant maternal and neonatal outcomes. The trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01353391. FINDINGS: Between May 25, 2011, and Oct 11, 2018, we randomly assigned 502 women, 253 (50%) to metformin and 249 (50%) to placebo. Complete data were available for 233 (92%) participants in the metformin group and 240 (96%) in the placebo group for the primary outcome. We found no significant difference in the primary composite neonatal outcome between the two groups (40% vs 40%; p=0·86; relative risk [RR] 1·02 [0·83 to 1·26]). Compared with women in the placebo group, metformin-treated women achieved better glycaemic control (HbA1c at 34 weeks' gestation 41·0 mmol/mol [SD 8·5] vs 43·2 mmol/mol [-10]; 5·90% vs 6·10%; p=0·015; mean glucose 6·05 [0·93] vs 6·27 [0·90]; difference -0·2 [-0·4 to 0·0]), required less insulin (1·1 units per kg per day vs 1·5 units per kg per day; difference -0·4 [95% CI -0·5 to -0·2]; p<0·0001), gained less weight (7·2 kg vs 9·0 kg; difference -1·8 [-2·7 to -0·9]; p<0·0001) and had fewer caesarean births (125 [53%] of 234 in the metformin group vs 148 [63%] of 236 in the placebo group; relative risk [RR] 0·85 [95% CI 0·73 to 0·99]; p=0·031). We found no significant difference between the groups in hypertensive disorders (55 [23%] in the metformin group vs 56 [23%] in the placebo group; p=0·93; RR 0·99 [0·72 to 1·35]). Compared with those in the placebo group, metformin-exposed infants weighed less (mean birthweight 3156 g [SD 742] vs 3375 g [742]; difference -218 [-353 to -82]; p=0·002), fewer were above the 97th centile for birthweight (20 [9%] in the metformin group vs 34 [15%] in the placebo group; RR 0·58 [0·34 to 0·97]; p=0·041), fewer weighed 4000 g or more at birth (28 [12%] in the metformin group vs 44 [19%] in the placebo group; RR 0·65 [0·43 to 0·99]; p=0·046), and metformin-exposed infants had reduced adiposity measures (mean sum of skinfolds 16·0 mm [SD 5·0] vs 17·4 [6·2] mm; difference -1·41 [-2·6 to -0·2]; p=0·024; mean neonatal fat mass 13·2 [SD 6·2] vs 14·6 [5·0]; p=0·017). 30 (13%) infants in the metformin group and 15 (7%) in the placebo group were small for gestational age (RR 1·96 [1·10 to 3·64]; p=0·026). We found no significant difference in the cord c-peptide between groups (673 pmol/L [435] in the metformin group vs 758 pmol/L [595] in the placebo group; p=0·10; ratio of means 0·88 [0·72 to 1·02]). The most common adverse event reported was gastrointestinal (38 events in the metformin group and 38 events in the placebo group). INTERPRETATION: We found several maternal glycaemic and neonatal adiposity benefits in the metformin group. Along with reduced maternal weight gain and insulin dosage and improved glycaemic control, the lower adiposity and infant size measurements resulted in fewer large infants but a higher proportion of small-for-gestational-age infants. Understanding the implications of these effects on infants will be important to properly advise patients who are contemplating the use of metformin during pregnancy. FUNDING: Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, University of Toronto.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
3.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915523

RESUMO

AIMS: The EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial demonstrated reductions in cardiovascular (CV) death and heart failure (HF) outcomes with empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, in patients with type 2 diabetes and established CV disease over a study period of 3 years. We aimed to investigate the early benefit-risk profile of empagliflozin in patients enrolled in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial according to HF status at baseline. METHODS AND RESULTS: The effects of treatments on glycated haemoglobin, systolic blood pressure and body weight, and on the HF endpoints of hospitalization for HF (HHF), HHF or CV death, and HHF or all-cause mortality were evaluated at 12 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year after randomization. Occurrence of adverse events (AEs) during these time points was also evaluated. Compared with placebo, empagliflozin lowered glycated haemoglobin, systolic blood pressure, and body weight and rates of all the HF endpoints, as early as at 12 weeks, regardless of HF status at baseline. Favourable clinical and metabolic effects were maintained over time. AEs were generally higher in those with HF than without HF; however, compared with placebo, empagliflozin did not increase risk of developing AEs over the first year of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, the use of empagliflozin led to early and beneficial effects on clinical, metabolic, and HF outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes with or without HF at baseline, which were already apparent within 12 weeks from initiation of treatment. Over the first year of treatment, no safety concern was detected with the use of empagliflozin.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(18): e016976, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893717

RESUMO

Background Early reduction in albuminuria with an SGLT2 (sodium-glucose cotransporter 2) inhibitor may be a positive indicator of long-term cardiovascular and renal benefits. We assessed changes in albuminuria during the first 12 weeks of treatment and subsequent long-term cardiovascular and renal risks associated with the SGLT2 inhibitor, empagliflozin, in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME (Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 diabetes Mellitus Patients) trial. Methods and Results We calculated the percentage urinary albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) change from baseline to week 12 in 6820 participants who did not experience a cardiovascular outcome (including 3-point major cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure) or renal outcome (defined as 40% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate from baseline, estimated glomerular filtration rate <15 mL/min per 1.73 m2, need for continuous renal-replacement therapy, or renal death) during the first 12 weeks. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for each 30% reduction in UACR with outcomes. Empagliflozin reduced UACR by 18% (95% CI, 14-22) at week 12 compared with placebo, and increased the likelihood of a >30% reduction in UACR (odds ratio, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.27-1.58; P<0.001). During 3.0 years of follow-up, 704 major cardiovascular events, 440 cardiovascular deaths/hospitalizations for heart failure, and 168 renal outcomes were observed. Each 30% decrease in UACR during the first 12 weeks was statistically significantly associated with a lower hazard for major cardiovascular events (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.99; P=0.012), cardiovascular deaths/hospitalizations for heart failure (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.98; P=0.003), and renal outcomes (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.78-0.89; P<0.001). Conclusions Short-term reduction in UACR was more common with empagliflozin and was statistically significantly associated with a decreased risk of long-term cardiovascular and renal outcomes. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01131676.

5.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744418

RESUMO

Associations between body mass index (BMI) and the cardiovascular (CV) and kidney efficacy of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are uncertain; therefore, data analysed separately from the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results (LEADER) trial and the Trial to Evaluate Cardiovascular and Other Long-term Outcomes with Semaglutide in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes (SUSTAIN 6) were examined. These international, randomized, placebo-controlled trials investigated liraglutide and semaglutide (both subcutaneous) in patients with T2D and at high risk of CV events. In post hoc analyses, patients were categorized by baseline BMI (<25, ≥25-<30, ≥30-<35 and ≥35 kg/m2 ), and CV and kidney outcomes with GLP-1 RA versus placebo were analysed. All baseline BMI data from LEADER (n = 9331) and SUSTAIN 6 (n = 3290) were included (91% and 92% of patients with overweight or obesity, respectively). In SUSTAIN 6, nominally significant heterogeneity of semaglutide efficacy by baseline BMI was observed for CV death/myocardial infarction/stroke (major adverse CV events, primary outcome of both; Pinteraction = .02); otherwise, there was no statistical heterogeneity for either GLP-1 RA versus placebo across BMI categories for key CV and kidney outcomes. The lack of statistical heterogeneity from these cardiorenal outcomes implies that liraglutide and semaglutide may be beneficial for many patients and is probable not to depend on their baseline BMI, but further study is needed.

6.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744354

RESUMO

AIM: To explore the cardiovascular (CV) and kidney effects of empagliflozin in patients with different clinical phenotypes of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) (i.e. with the presence or absence of overt albuminuria) participating in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: EMPA-REG OUTCOME randomized participants (1:1:1) to empagliflozin 10 mg, 25 mg or placebo, added to standard of care. Post hoc, patients with different clinical phenotypes of DKD at baseline were categorized in three subgroups: (a) overt DKD (overt albuminuria [urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio of >300 mg/g] with any estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR]; n = 769); (b) non-overt DKD (kidney impairment [eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 ] without overt albuminuria [urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio of ≤300 mg/g]; n = 1290); and (c) 'all others' (eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 without overt albuminuria; n = 4893). Analyses included CV (death, hospitalization for heart failure, all-cause hospitalization) and selected kidney outcomes, change in eGFR and kidney safety. Cox proportional hazards models assessed the consistency of treatment effect across subgroups. RESULTS: Empagliflozin significantly reduced the risk of CV and kidney outcomes across all subgroups (P-values for interaction >.05), consistent with the overall trial population findings. Empagliflozin also significantly reduced the yearly loss of eGFR, assessed by chronic slopes, in all subgroups. The adverse event profile of empagliflozin was similar across all subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Empagliflozin may improve CV and kidney outcomes and slow the progression of kidney disease in type 2 diabetes patients with DKD, irrespective of its clinical form, both with or without the presence of overt albuminuria.

7.
Metabol Open ; 7: 100039, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812924

RESUMO

Context: We examined if empagliflozin was associated with modulation of cardiac autonomic tone among subjects with type 2 diabetes and stable coronary artery disease (CAD) relative to placebo. Methods: Using ambulatory 24-h Holter electrocardiographic data prospectively collected from a randomized trial, we compared changes in heart rate variability (HRV) parameters between empagliflozin- and placebo-assigned subjects over a follow-up period of 6 months. Measured HRV domains included: standard deviation (SD) of NN intervals (SDNN), SD of average NN intervals per 5-min (SDANN), root mean square of successive RR interval differences (RMSSD), % successive NN intervals differing >50 ms (ms) (pNN50), low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and the LF/HF ratio (LF:HF). Differences in HRV parameters between the 2 groups were compared with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Statistical measures of significance were reported as adjusted differences between the 2 groups and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Results: Sixty-six subjects completed 24-h Holter monitoring at baseline and 6-months. Over 6 months, the change in HRV was similar between subjects treated with empagliflozin vs. placebo for the following parameters: RMSSD -1.2 ms (-6.0 to 3.6 ms); pNN50 0.5% (-2.6 to 3.6%); VLF -907.8 ms2 (-2388.8 to 573.1 ms2); LF -341 ms2 (-878.7 to 196.7 ms2); HF -33.8 ms2 (-111.1 to 43.5 ms2); LF:HF -0.1 (-0.4 to 0.2). Subjects who received placebo experienced an increase in SDNN 18.6 ms (2.8-34.3 ms) and SDANN 20.2 ms (3.2-37.3 ms) relative to those treated with empagliflozin. Conclusion: Compared to placebo, empagliflozin did not result in changes in autonomic tone among individuals with type 2 diabetes and stable coronary artery disease.

8.
J Hypertens ; 38(9): 1829-1840, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin reduced cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalizations in type 2 diabetes (T2D) in addition to a reduction of SBP. As heart failure patients often present with low SBP, which can challenge treatment initiation, we explored if empagliflozin's effect on SBP was independent of baseline SBP and heart failure status, and if the effect on cardiovascular and heart failure outcomes was influenced by updated mean SBP or by an early change in SBP after drug initiation. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 7020 patients were treated with empagliflozin 10 mg, 25 mg or placebo and followed for a median of 3.1 years. All of them had BP measurement at baseline. We evaluated changes in SBP in the context of heart failure status at baseline and according to baseline SBP categories (<120, 120--<130, 130--<140, 140--<160, ≥160 mmHg). The updated mean SBP during the trial was calculated as a time-dependent variable. We then assessed the association of baseline and updated mean SBP with three-point major adverse cardiovascular events (3P-MACE), hospitalization for heart failure, cardiovascular death, hospitalization for heart failure or cardiovascular death, all-cause death, and incident/worsening nephropathy, and whether treatment effect of empagliflozin vs. placebo on these outcomes differed if adjusted for updated mean SBP. Finally, we evaluated the impact of early decline in SBP (≥5 mmHg at week 4) on the treatment effect of empagliflozin vs. placebo on these outcomes. Analyses were performed via Cox regression adjusting for baseline risk factors including a term for treatment subgroup interaction, and by landmark analyses starting at week 4. The difference in SBP reduction at week 12 between empagliflozin and placebo was 3--5 mmHg and similar regardless of baseline SBP category or HF status at baseline. Baseline SBP and updated mean SBP categories showed no association with cardiovascular outcomes, but was associated with new/worsening nephropathy. The treatment effects of empagliflozin on all explored outcomes were independent of updated mean SBP as well of the early drop in SBP on treatment. CONCLUSION: In addition to decreasing SBP, empagliflozin reduced cardiovascular, heart failure and renal outcomes independently of updated mean SBP during the trial, and of the early SBP drop. These results suggest a BP-independent effect of empagliflozin on cardiovascular and heart failure outcomes. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT01131676.

9.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643857

RESUMO

The randomized, double-blind, cardiovascular outcomes trials LEADER (NCT01179048) and SUSTAIN 6 (NCT01720446) showed cardiovascular risk reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with liraglutide and semaglutide, respectively, compared with placebo. This post hoc analysis examined the impact of microvascular disease at baseline on cardiovascular outcomes in these trials, and the efficacy of liraglutide (1.8 mg) and once-weekly semaglutide (0.5-1.0 mg) in patients with and without microvascular disease. In total, 9340 patients from LEADER and 3297 patients from SUSTAIN 6 were included in this analysis; of these, 5761 and 2356 had a history of microvascular disease at baseline and 3835 and 1640 had a history of both microvascular and macrovascular disease, respectively. Patients with microvascular disease were shown to have an increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events compared with patients without microvascular disease (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] in LEADER: 1.15 [1.03; 1.29], P = .0136; SUSTAIN 6: 1.56 [1.14; 2.17], P = .0064). Liraglutide and semaglutide consistently reduced cardiovascular risk in patients with and without microvascular disease.

10.
BMC Microbiol ; 20(1): 219, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined how maternal body mass index (BMI), mode of delivery and ethnicity affect the microbial composition of human milk and none have examined associations with maternal metabolic status. Given the high prevalence of maternal adiposity and impaired glucose metabolism, we systematically investigated the associations between these maternal factors in women ≥20 years and milk microbial composition and predicted functionality by V4-16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing (NCT01405547;  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01405547 ). Demographic data, weight, height, and a 3-h oral glucose tolerance test were gathered at 30 (95% CI: 25-33) weeks gestation, and milk samples were collected at 3 months post-partum (n = 113). RESULTS: Multivariable linear regression analyses demonstrated no significant associations between maternal characteristics (maternal BMI [pre-pregnancy, 3 months post-partum], glucose tolerance, mode of delivery and ethnicity) and milk microbiota alpha-diversity; however, pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with human milk microbiota beta-diversity (Bray-Curtis R2 = 0.037). Women with a pre-pregnancy BMI > 30 kg/m2 (obese) had a greater incidence of Bacteroidetes (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 3.70 [95% CI: 1.61-8.48]) and a reduced incidence of Proteobacteria (0.62 [0.43-0.90]) in their milk, compared to women with an overweight BMI (25.0-29.9 kg/m2) as assessed by multivariable Poisson regression. An increased incidence of Gemella was observed among mothers with gestational diabetes who had an overweight BMI versus healthy range BMI (5.96 [1.85-19.21]). An increased incidence of Gemella was also observed among mothers with impaired glucose tolerance with an obese BMI versus mothers with a healthy range BMI (4.04 [1.63-10.01]). An increased incidence of Brevundimonas (16.70 [5.99-46.57]) was found in the milk of women who underwent an unscheduled C-section versus vaginal delivery. Lastly, functional gene inference demonstrated that pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with an increased abundance of genes encoding for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites pathway in milk (coefficient = 0.0024, PFDR < 0.1). CONCLUSIONS: Human milk has a diverse microbiota of which its diversity and differential abundance appear associated with maternal BMI, glucose tolerance status, mode of delivery, and ethnicity. Further research is warranted to determine whether this variability in the milk microbiota impacts colonization of the infant gut.

11.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(9)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485734

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Control of multiple cardiovascular (CV) risk factors reduces CV events in individuals with type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate this association in a contemporary clinical trial population, including how CV risk factor control affects the CV benefits of empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis. SETTING: Randomized CV outcome trial (EMPA-REG OUTCOME). PARTICIPANTS: Type 2 diabetes patients with established CV disease. INTERVENTION: Empagliflozin or placebo. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of CV outcomes-including the treatment effect of empagliflozin-by achieving 7 goals for CV risk factor control at baseline: (1) glycated hemoglobin <7.5%, (2) low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <100 mg/dL or statin use, (3) systolic blood pressure <140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure <90 mmHg, (4) pharmacological renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade, (5) normoalbuminuria, (6) aspirin use, (7) nonsmoking. RESULTS: In the placebo group, the hazard ratio (HR) for CV death was 4.00 (95% CI, 2.26-7.11) and 2.48 (95% CI, 1.52-4.06) for patients achieving only 0-3 or 4-5 risk factor goals at baseline, respectively, compared with those achieving 6-7 goals. Participants achieving 0-3 or 4-5 goals also had increased risk for the composite outcome of hospitalization for heart failure or CV death (excluding fatal stroke) (HR 2.89 [1.82-4.57] and 1.90 [1.31-2.78], respectively) and 3-point major adverse CV events (HR 2.21 [1.53-3.19] and 1.42 [1.06-1.89]). Empagliflozin significantly reduced these outcomes across all risk factor control categories (P > 0.05 for treatment-by-subgroup interactions). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular risk in EMPA-REG OUTCOME was inversely associated with baseline CV risk factor control. Empagliflozin's cardioprotective effect was consistent regardless of multiple baseline risk factor control.

13.
Diabetes Care ; 43(8): 1803-1812, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444457

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes is a leading cause of kidney failure, but few outcome trials proactively enrolled individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We performed secondary analyses of cardiovascular (CV) and kidney outcomes across baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) categories (≥60, 45 to <60, 30 to <45, and <30 mL/min/1.73 m2) in Cardiovascular and Renal Microvascular Outcome Study With Linagliptin (CARMELINA), a cardiorenal placebo-controlled outcome trial of the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor linagliptin (NCT01897532). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants with CV disease and/or CKD were included. The primary outcome was time to first occurrence of CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke (three-point major adverse CV event [3P-MACE]), with a secondary outcome of renal death, end-stage kidney disease, or sustained ≥40% decrease in eGFR from baseline. Other end points included progression of albuminuria, change in HbA1c, and adverse events (AEs) including hypoglycemia. RESULTS: A total of 6,979 subjects (mean age 65.9 years; eGFR 54.6 mL/min/1.73 m2; 80.1% albuminuria) were followed for 2.2 years. Across eGFR categories, linagliptin as compared with placebo did not affect the risk for 3P-MACE (hazard ratio 1.02 [95% CI 0.89, 1.17]) or the secondary kidney outcome (1.04 [0.89, 1.22]) (interaction P values >0.05). Regardless of eGFR, albuminuria progression was reduced with linagliptin, as was HbA1c, without increasing risk for hypoglycemia. AEs were balanced among groups overall and across eGFR categories. CONCLUSIONS: Across all GFR categories, in participants with type 2 diabetes and CKD and/or CV disease, there was no difference in risk for linagliptin versus placebo on CV and kidney events. Significant reductions in risk for albuminuria progression and HbA1c and no difference in AEs were observed.

14.
Am J Hypertens ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and resistant hypertension (rHT) often coexist, greatly increasing risk of target-organ damage and death. We explored the effects of empagliflozin in patients with and without presumed resistant hypertension (prHT) in a post hoc analysis of EMPA-REG OUTCOME (NCT01131676). METHODS: Overall, 7020 patients received empagliflozin 10mg, 25mg, or placebo with median follow-up of 3.1 years. We defined baseline prHT as ≥3 classes of antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic and uncontrolled BP (SBP≥140 and/or diastolic BP [DBP]≥90 mmHg), or ≥4 classes of antihypertensive, including a diuretic, and controlled BP. We explored the effect of empagliflozin on CV death, heart failure hospitalization (HHF), 3-point major adverse cardiac events (3P-MACE), all-cause death, and incident/worsening nephropathy by Cox regression and BP over time by a mixed-repeated-measures-model analysis. RESULTS: 1579 (22.5%) patients had prHT. The mean difference in change in SBP from baseline to week 12 versus placebo was -4.5 (95% CI, -5.9 to -3.1) mmHg (p<0.001) in prHT and -3.7 (-4.5, -2.9) mmHg (p<0.001) in patients without prHT. SBP was more frequently controlled (<130/80 mmHg) with empagliflozin than with placebo. Patients with prHT had 1.5 to 2-fold greater risk of HHF, incident/worsening nephropathy and CV death compared to those without prHT. Empagliflozin improved all outcomes in patients with and without prHT (interaction P>0.1 for all outcomes). CONCLUSIONS: Empagliflozin induced a clinically relevant reduction in SBP and consistently improved all outcomes regardless of prHT status. Due to these dual effects, empagliflozin should be considered for patients with hypertension and T2D.

15.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(5): 1128-1139, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canagliflozin reduced renal and cardiovascular events in people with type 2 diabetes in the CREDENCE trial. We assessed efficacy and safety of canagliflozin by initial estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). METHODS: CREDENCE randomly assigned 4401 participants with an eGFR of 30 to <90 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and substantial albuminuria to canagliflozin 100 mg or placebo. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to analyze effects on renal and cardiovascular efficacy and safety outcomes within screening eGFR subgroups (30 to <45, 45 to <60, and 60 to <90 ml/min per 1.73 m2) and linear mixed effects models to analyze the effects on eGFR slope. RESULTS: At screening, 1313 (30%), 1279 (29%), and 1809 (41%) participants had an eGFR of 30 to <45, 45 to <60, and 60 to <90 ml/min per 1.73 m2, respectively. The relative benefits of canagliflozin for renal and cardiovascular outcomes appeared consistent among eGFR subgroups (all P interaction >0.11). Subgroups with lower eGFRs, who were at greater risk, exhibited larger absolute benefits for renal outcomes. Canagliflozin's lack of effect on serious adverse events, amputations, and fractures appeared consistent among eGFR subgroups. In all subgroups, canagliflozin use led to an acute eGFR drop followed by relative stabilization of eGFR loss. Among those with an eGFR of 30 to <45 ml/min per 1.73 m2, canagliflozin led to an initial drop of 2.03 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Thereafter, decline in eGFR was slower in the canagliflozin versus placebo group (-1.72 versus -4.33 ml/min per 1.73 m2; between-group difference 2.61 ml/min per 1.73 m2). CONCLUSIONS: Canagliflozin safely reduced the risk of renal and cardiovascular events, with consistent results across eGFR subgroups, including the subgroup initiating treatment with an eGFR of 30 to <45 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Absolute benefits for renal outcomes were greatest in subgroups with lower eGFR. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY NAME AND REGISTRATION NUMBER: Evaluation of the Effects of Canagliflozin on Renal and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Participants With Diabetic Nephropathy (CREDENCE), NCT02065791.

16.
Diabetes Care ; 43(7): 1546-1552, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366578

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results (LEADER) trial (ClinicalTrials.gov reg. no. NCT01179048) demonstrated a reduced risk of cardiovascular (CV) events for patients with type 2 diabetes who received the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist liraglutide versus placebo. The mechanisms behind this CV benefit remain unclear. We aimed to identify potential mediators for the CV benefit observed with liraglutide in the LEADER trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed exploratory analyses to identify potential mediators of the effect of liraglutide on major adverse CV events (MACE; composite of CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke) from the following candidates: glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), body weight, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), confirmed hypoglycemia, sulfonylurea use, insulin use, systolic blood pressure, and LDL cholesterol. These candidates were selected as CV risk factors on which liraglutide had an effect in LEADER such that a reduction in CV risk might result. We used two methods based on a Cox proportional hazards model and the new Vansteelandt method designed to use all available information from the mediator and to control for confounding factors. RESULTS: Analyses using the Cox methods and Vansteelandt method indicated potential mediation by HbA1c (up to 41% and 83% mediation, respectively) and UACR (up to 29% and 33% mediation, respectively) on the effect of liraglutide on MACE. Mediation effects were small for other candidates. CONCLUSIONS: These analyses identify HbA1c and, to a lesser extent, UACR as potential mediators of the CV effects of liraglutide. Whether either is a marker of an unmeasured factor or a true mediator remains a key question that invites further investigation.

17.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 22(7): 1141-1150, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227432

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the association of the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Risk Score for Heart Failure in Diabetes (TRS-HFDM ) with mortality using data from the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In EMPA-REG OUTCOME, patients with type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular (CV) disease (N = 7020) received the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor, empagliflozin, 10 or 25 mg or placebo. Post hoc, patients were stratified into risk categories (low-intermediate, high, very-high risk scores) using baseline TRS-HFDM . Cox regression analyses evaluated the association of TRS-HFDM categories with all-cause mortality (ACM), CV death, hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) and CV death (excluding fatal stroke) or HHF, and whether empagliflozin reduced the risk of CV outcomes across these risk categories. RESULTS: In placebo patients, increasing risk category was associated with a higher risk of ACM, CV death, and HHF. Empagliflozin reduced the risk of ACM (low-intermediate HR 0.68 [95% CI 0.48, 0.97] and very-high 0.69 [0.52, 0.91]), CV death (0.75 [0.48, 1.18] and 0.56 [0.41, 0.78]), HHF (0.53 [0.28, 1.01] and 0.67 [0.48, 0.96]), and CV death or HHF (0.69 [0.46, 1.03]) and (0.64 [0.49, 0.82]) across all risk categories versus placebo. Higher absolute risk reductions (ARRs) were observed for CV death in the very-high versus low-intermediate category (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Applied to EMPA-REG OUTCOME, higher TRS-HFDM was associated with increased HHF and mortality risk. Empagliflozin reduced CV outcomes across TRS-HFDM categories. Higher ARRs were associated with higher risk scores.

18.
Diabetes Care ; 43(5): 1157-1163, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sex differences have been described in diabetes cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs). PURPOSE: We systematically reviewed for baseline sex differences in cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and CV protection therapy in diabetes CVOTs. DATA SOURCES: Randomized placebo-controlled trials examining the effect of diabetes medications on major adverse cardiovascular events in people ≥18 years of age with type 2 diabetes. STUDY SELECTION: Included trials reported baseline sex-specific CV risks and use of CV protection therapy. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers independently abstracted study data. DATA SYNTHESIS: We included five CVOTs with 46,606 participants. We summarized sex-specific data using mean differences (MDs) and relative risks (RRs) and pooled estimates using random effects meta-analysis. There were fewer women than men in included trials (28.5-35.8% women). Women more often had stroke (RR 1.28; 95% CI 1.09, 1.50), heart failure (RR 1.30; 95% CI 1.21,1.40), and chronic kidney disease (RR 1.33; 95% CI 1.17; 1.51). They less often used statins (RR 0.90; 95% CI 0.86, 0.93), aspirin (RR 0.82; 95% CI 0.71, 0.95), and ß-blockers (RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.88, 0.97) and had a higher systolic blood pressure (MD 1.66 mmHg; 95% CI 0.90, 2.41), LDL cholesterol (MD 0.34 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.29, 0.39), and hemoglobin A1c (MD 0.11%; 95% CI 0.09, 0.14 [1.2 mmol/mol; 1.0, 1.5]) than men. LIMITATIONS: We could not carry out subgroup analyses due to the small number of studies. Our study is not generalizable to low CV risk groups nor to patients in routine care. CONCLUSIONS: There were baseline sex disparities in diabetes CVOTs. We suggest efforts to recruit women into trials and promote CV management across the sexes.

19.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 22(7): 1151-1156, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115840

RESUMO

AIM: To perform post-hoc analyses of the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial examining the degree to which empagliflozin-induced changes in conventional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors might explain the observed CV benefits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We estimated 3-year EMPA-REG OUTCOME CV event rates using a type 2 diabetes-specific clinical outcomes simulation model applied to annual patient-level data. Variables included were atrial fibrillation, smoking, albuminuria, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin, heart rate, white cell count, haemoglobin, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and histories of ischaemic heart disease, heart failure, amputation, blindness, renal failure, stroke, myocardial infarction or diabetic ulcer. Multiple simulations were performed for each participant to minimize uncertainty and optimize confidence interval precision around CV risk point estimates. Observed and simulated cardiovascular relative risk reductions were compared. RESULTS: Model-predicted relative risk reductions were smaller than those observed in the trial, with empagliflozin-associated changes in conventional CV risk factor values appearing to explain only 12% of the observed relative risk reduction for all-cause death (4% of 32%), 7% for CV death (3% of 39%) and 15% for heart failure (4% of 29%). CONCLUSIONS: Empagliflozin-associated changes in conventional CV risk factors in EMPA-REG OUTCOME appear to explain only a small proportion of the CV and all-cause death reductions observed. Alternative risk-reduction mechanisms need to be explored to determine if the observed CV risk changes can be explained by other factors, or possibly by a direct drug-specific effect.

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