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1.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(9)2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571753

RESUMO

Comparison of genomic footprints in chicken breeds with different selection history is a powerful tool in elucidating genomic regions that have been targeted by recent and more ancient selection. In the present work, we aimed at examining and comparing the trajectories of artificial selection in the genomes of the native egg-type Russian White (RW) and meat-type White Cornish (WC) breeds. Combining three different statistics (top 0.1% SNP by FST value at pairwise breed comparison, hapFLK analysis, and identification of ROH island shared by more than 50% of individuals), we detected 45 genomic regions under putative selection including 11 selective sweep regions, which were detected by at least two different methods. Four of such regions were breed-specific for each of RW breed (on GGA1, GGA5, GGA8, and GGA9) and WC breed (on GGA1, GGA5, GGA8, and GGA28), while three remaining regions on GGA2 (two sweeps) and GGA3 were common for both breeds. Most of identified genomic regions overlapped with known QTLs and/or candidate genes including those for body temperatures, egg productivity, and feed intake in RW chickens and those for growth, meat and carcass traits, and feed efficiency in WC chickens. These findings were concordant with the breed origin and history of their artificial selection. We determined a set of 188 prioritized candidate genes retrieved from the 11 overlapped regions of putative selection and reviewed their functions relative to phenotypic traits of interest in the two breeds. One of the RW-specific sweep regions harbored the known domestication gene, TSHR. Gene ontology and functional annotation analysis provided additional insight into a functional coherence of genes in the sweep regions. We also showed a greater candidate gene richness on microchromosomes relative to macrochromosomes in these genomic areas. Our results on the selection history of RW and WC chickens and their key candidate genes under selection serve as a profound information for further conservation of their genomic diversity and efficient breeding.

2.
Front Genet ; 12: 708740, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276802

RESUMO

Specific local environmental and sociocultural conditions have led to the creation of various goat populations in Russia. National goat diversity includes breeds that have been selected for down and mohair production traits as well as versatile local breeds for which pastoralism is the main management system. Effective preservation and breeding programs for local goat breeds are missing due to the lack of DNA-based data. In this work, we analyzed the genetic diversity and population structure of Russian local goats, including Altai Mountain, Altai White Downy, Dagestan Downy, Dagestan Local, Karachaev, Orenburg, and Soviet Mohair goats, which were genotyped with the Illumina Goat SNP50 BeadChip. In addition, we addressed genetic relationships between local and global goat populations obtained from the AdaptMap project. Russian goats showed a high level of genetic diversity. Although a decrease in historical effective population sizes was revealed, the recent effective population sizes estimated for three generations ago were larger than 100 in all studied populations. The mean runs of homozygosity (ROH) lengths ranged from 79.42 to 183.94 Mb, and the average ROH number varied from 18 to 41. Short ROH segments (<2 Mb) were predominant in all breeds, while the longest ROH class (>16 Mb) was the least frequent. Principal component analysis, Neighbor-Net graph, and Admixture clustering revealed several patterns in Russian local goats. First, a separation of the Karachaev breed from other populations was observed. Moreover, genetic connections between the Orenburg and Altai Mountain breeds were suggested and the Dagestan breeds were found to be admixed with the Soviet Mohair breed. Neighbor-Net analysis and clustering of local and global breeds demonstrated the close genetic relations between Russian local and Turkish breeds that probably resulted from past admixture events through postdomestication routes. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the genetic relationships of goats originating in West Asia and Eurasia and may be used to design breeding programs for local goats to ensure their effective conservation and proper management.

3.
Life (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803851

RESUMO

Currently, the intraspecific taxonomy of snow sheep (Ovis nivicola) is controversial and needs to be specified using DNA molecular genetic markers. In our previous work using whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, we found that the population inhabiting Kharaulakh Ridge was genetically different from the other populations of Yakut subspecies to which it was usually referred. Here, our study was aimed at the clarification of taxonomic status of Kharaulakh snow sheep using mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. A total of 87 specimens from five different geographic locations of Yakut snow sheep as well as 20 specimens of other recognized subspecies were included in this study. We identified 19 haplotypes, two of which belonged to the population from Kharaulakh Ridge. Median-joining network and Bayesian tree analyses revealed that Kharaulakh population clustered separately from all the other Yakut snow sheep. The divergence time between Kharaulakh population and Yakut snow sheep was estimated as 0.48 ± 0.19 MYA. Thus, the study of the mtDNA cytb sequences confirmed the results of genome-wide SNP analysis. Taking into account the high degree of divergence of Kharaulakh snow sheep from other groups, identified by both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we propose to classify the Kharaulakh population as a separate subspecies.

4.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(3)2021 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806625

RESUMO

Despite their economic value, sheep remain relatively poorly studied animals in terms of the number of known loci and genes associated with commercially important traits. This gap in our knowledge can be filled in by performing new genome-wide association studies (GWAS) or by re-analyzing previously documented data using novel powerful statistical methods. This study is focused on the search for new loci associated with meat productivity and carcass traits in sheep. With a multivariate approach applied to publicly available GWAS results, we identified eight novel loci associated with the meat productivity and carcass traits in sheep. Using an in silico follow-up approach, we prioritized 13 genes in these loci. One of eight novel loci near the FAM3C and WNT16 genes has been replicated in an independent sample of Russian sheep populations (N = 108). The novel loci were added to our regularly updated database increasing the number of known loci to more than 140.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Citocinas/genética , Produtos da Carne , Análise Multivariada , Fenótipo , Proteínas Wnt/genética
5.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(3)2021 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802939

RESUMO

Gotland sheep, a breed native to Gotland, Sweden (an island in the Baltic Sea), split from the Gute sheep breed approximately 100 years ago, and since, has probably been crossed with other breeds. This breed has recently gained popularity, due to its pelt quality. This study estimates the shared ancestors and identifies recent selection signatures in Gotland sheep using 600 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype data. Admixture analysis shows that the Gotland sheep is a distinct breed, but also has shared ancestral genomic components with Gute (~50%), Karakul (~30%), Romanov (~20%), and Fjällnäs (~10%) sheep breeds. Two complementary methods were applied to detect selection signatures: A Bayesian population differentiation FST and an integrated haplotype homozygosity score (iHS). Our results find that seven significant SNPs (q-value < 0.05) using the FST analysis and 55 significant SNPs (p-value < 0.0001) using the iHS analysis. Of the candidate genes that contain significant markers, or are in proximity to them, we identify several belongings to the keratin genes, RXFP2, ADCY1, ENOX1, USF2, COX7A1, ARHGAP28, CRYBB2, CAPNS1, FMO3, and GREB1. These genes are involved in wool quality, polled and horned phenotypes, fertility, twining rate, meat quality, and growth traits. In summary, our results provide shared founders of Gotland sheep and insight into genomic regions maintained under selection after the breed was formed. These results contribute to the detection of candidate genes and QTLs underlying economic traits in sheep.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Genotipagem/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Carneiro Doméstico/classificação , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Cruzamento , Efeito Fundador , Genótipo , Seleção Genética , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Suécia
6.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(4)2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916207

RESUMO

Sheep farming has been an important sector of the UK's economy and rural life for many centuries. It is the favored source of wool, meat and milk products. In the era of exponential progress in genomic technologies, we can now address the questions of what is special about UK sheep breed genotypes and how they differ genetically form one another and from other countries. We can reflect how their natural history has been determined at the level of their genetic code and what traces have been left in their genomes because of selection for phenotypic traits. These include adaptability to certain environmental conditions and management, as well as resistance to disease. Application of these advancements in genetics and genomics to study sheep breeds of British domestic selection has begun and will continue in order to facilitate conservation solutions and production improvement.

7.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(8): 3093-3110, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784744

RESUMO

Native cattle breeds represent an important cultural heritage. They are a reservoir of genetic variation useful for properly responding to agriculture needs in the light of ongoing climate changes. Evolutionary processes that occur in response to extreme environmental conditions could also be better understood using adapted local populations. Herein, different evolutionary histories of the world northernmost native cattle breeds from Russia were investigated. They highlighted Kholmogory as a typical taurine cattle, whereas Yakut cattle separated from European taurines approximately 5,000 years ago and contain numerous ancestral and some novel genetic variants allowing their adaptation to harsh conditions of living above the Polar Circle. Scans for selection signatures pointed to several common gene pathways related to adaptation to harsh climates in both breeds. But genes affected by selection from these pathways were mostly different. A Yakut cattle breed-specific missense mutation in a highly conserved NRAP gene represents a unique example of a young amino acid residue convergent change shared with at least 16 species of hibernating/cold-adapted mammals from six distinct phylogenetic orders. This suggests a convergent evolution event along the mammalian phylogenetic tree and fast fixation in a single isolated cattle population exposed to a harsh climate.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Evolução Biológica , Bovinos/genética , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Seleção Genética , Animais , Introgressão Genética , Genoma , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Densidade Demográfica
8.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(3): 838-855, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941615

RESUMO

How animals, particularly livestock, adapt to various climates and environments over short evolutionary time is of fundamental biological interest. Further, understanding the genetic mechanisms of adaptation in indigenous livestock populations is important for designing appropriate breeding programs to cope with the impacts of changing climate. Here, we conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of diversity, interspecies introgression, and climate-mediated selective signatures in a global sample of sheep and their wild relatives. By examining 600K and 50K genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data from 3,447 samples representing 111 domestic sheep populations and 403 samples from all their seven wild relatives (argali, Asiatic mouflon, European mouflon, urial, snow sheep, bighorn, and thinhorn sheep), coupled with 88 whole-genome sequences, we detected clear signals of common introgression from wild relatives into sympatric domestic populations, thereby increasing their genomic diversities. The introgressions provided beneficial genetic variants in native populations, which were significantly associated with local climatic adaptation. We observed common introgression signals of alleles in olfactory-related genes (e.g., ADCY3 and TRPV1) and the PADI gene family including in particular PADI2, which is associated with antibacterial innate immunity. Further analyses of whole-genome sequences showed that the introgressed alleles in a specific region of PADI2 (chr2: 248,302,667-248,306,614) correlate with resistance to pneumonia. We conclude that wild introgression enhanced climatic adaptation and resistance to pneumonia in sheep. This has enabled them to adapt to varying climatic and environmental conditions after domestication.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Introgressão Genética , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Mudança Climática , Variação Genética , Filogeografia , Pneumonia/imunologia , Ovinos/imunologia
9.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 5(3): 3645-3646, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367043

RESUMO

Karachaev goat (Capra hircus) is a local breed from North-Caucasus region, Russia. Here we present complete mitochondrial genome of Karachaev goat from the republic of Karachaevo-Cherkessia, Russia. The length of the studied sequence was 16,624 bp in size. It was shown that the studied specimen belonged to haplogroup A.

10.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(8)2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824045

RESUMO

Analysis of ancient and historical DNA has great potential to trace the genetic diversity of local cattle populations during their centuries-long development. Forty-nine specimens representing five cattle breeds (Kholmogor, Yaroslavl, Great Russian, Novgorod, and Holland), dated from the end of the 19th century to the first half of the 20th century, were genotyped for nine polymorphic microsatellite loci. Using a multiple-tube approach, we determined the consensus genotypes of all samples/loci analysed. Amplification errors, including allelic drop-out (ADO) and false alleles (FA), occurred with an average frequency of 2.35% and 0.79%, respectively. A significant effect of allelic length on ADO rate (r2 = 0.620, p = 0.05) was shown. We did not observe significant differences in genetic diversity among historical samples and modern representatives of Kholmogor and Yaroslavl breeds. The unbiased expected heterozygosity values were 0.726-0.774 and 0.708-0.739; the allelic richness values were 2.716-2.893 and 2.661-2.758 for the historical and modern samples, respectively. Analyses of FST and Jost's D genetic distances, and the results of STRUCTURE clustering, showed the maintenance of a part of historical components in the modern populations of Kholmogor and Yaroslavl cattle. Our study contributes to the conservation of biodiversity in the local Russian genetic resources of cattle.


Assuntos
Alelos , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Repetições de Microssatélites , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos , Genótipo , Análise de Componente Principal
11.
Transl Anim Sci ; 4(1): 264-274, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704985

RESUMO

Genomic selection is routinely used worldwide in agricultural breeding. However, in Russia, it is still not used to its full potential partially due to high genotyping costs. The use of genotypes imputed from the low-density chips (LD-chip) provides a valuable opportunity for reducing the genotyping costs. Pork production in Russia is based on the conventional 3-tier pyramid involving 3 breeds; therefore, the best option would be the development of a single LD-chip that could be used for all of them. Here, we for the first time have analyzed genomic variability in 3 breeds of Russian pigs, namely, Landrace, Duroc, and Large White and generated the LD-chip that can be used in pig breeding with the negligible loss in genotyping quality. We have demonstrated that out of the 3 methods commonly used for LD-chip construction, the block method shows the best results. The imputation quality depends strongly on the presence of close ancestors in the reference population. We have demonstrated that for the animals with both parents genotyped using high-density panels high-quality genotypes (allelic discordance rate < 0.05) could be obtained using a 300 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip, while in the absence of genotyped ancestors at least 2,000 SNP markers are required. We have shown that imputation quality varies between chromosomes, and it is lower near the chromosome ends and drops with the increase in minor allele frequency. Imputation quality of the individual SNPs correlated well across breeds. Using the same LD-chip, we were able to obtain comparable imputation quality in all 3 breeds, so it may be suggested that a single chip could be used for all of them. Our findings also suggest that the presence of markers with extremely low imputation quality is likely to be explained by wrong mapping of the markers to the chromosomal positions.

12.
BMC Genomics ; 20(Suppl 3): 294, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Domestication and centuries of selective breeding have changed genomes of sheep breeds to respond to environmental challenges and human needs. The genomes of local breeds, therefore, are valuable sources of genomic variants to be used to understand mechanisms of response to adaptation and artificial selection. As a step toward this we performed a high-density genotyping and comprehensive scans for signatures of selection in the genomes from 15 local sheep breeds reared across Russia. RESULTS: Results demonstrated that the genomes of Russian sheep breeds contain multiple regions under putative selection. More than 50% of these regions matched with intervals identified in previous scans for selective sweeps in sheep genomes. These regions contain well-known candidate genes related to morphology, adaptation, and domestication (e.g., KITLG, KIT, MITF, and MC1R), wool quality and quantity (e.g., DSG@, DSC@, and KRT@), growth and feed intake (e.g., HOXA@, HOXC@, LCORL, NCAPG, LAP3, and CCSER1), reproduction (e.g., CMTM6, HTRA1, GNAQ, UBQLN1, and IFT88), and milk-related traits (e.g., ABCG2, SPP1, ACSS1, and ACSS2). In addition, multiple genes that are putatively related to environmental adaptations were top-ranked in selected intervals (e.g., EGFR, HSPH1, NMUR1, EDNRB, PRL, TSHR, and ADAMTS5). Moreover, we observed that multiple key genes involved in human hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies, and genetic disorders accompanied with an inability to feel pain and environmental temperatures, were top-ranked in multiple or individual sheep breeds from Russia pointing to a possible mechanism of adaptation to harsh climatic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our work represents the first comprehensive scan for signatures of selection in genomes of local sheep breeds from the Russian Federation of both European and Asian origins. We confirmed that the genomes of Russian sheep contain previously identified signatures of selection, demonstrating the robustness of our integrative approach. Multiple novel signatures of selection were found near genes which could be related to adaptation to the harsh environments of Russia. Our study forms a basis for future work on using Russian sheep genomes to spot specific genetic variants or haplotypes to be used in efforts on developing next-generation highly productive breeds, better suited to diverse Eurasian environments.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Ovinos/genética , Ovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Lactação/genética , Leite/metabolismo , Pigmentação/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez , Reprodução/genética , Federação Russa , Ovinos/anatomia & histologia , Ovinos/metabolismo
13.
Ecol Evol ; 8(16): 8000-8010, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30250679

RESUMO

Insights into the genetic characteristics of a species provide important information for wildlife conservation programs. Here, we used the OvineSNP50 BeadChip developed for domestic sheep to examine population structure and evaluate genetic diversity of snow sheep (Ovis nivicola) inhabiting Verkhoyansk Range and Momsky Ridge. A total of 1,121 polymorphic SNPs were used to test 80 specimens representing five populations, including four populations of the Verkhoyansk Mountain chain: Kharaulakh Ridge-Tiksi Bay (TIK, n = 22), Orulgan Ridge (ORU, n = 22), the central part of Verkhoyansk Range (VER, n = 15), Suntar-Khayata Ridge (SKH, n = 13), and Momsky Ridge (MOM, n = 8). We showed that the studied populations were genetically structured according to a geographic pattern. Pairwise FST values ranged from 0.044 to 0.205. Admixture analysis identified K = 2 as the most likely number of ancestral populations. A Neighbor-Net tree showed that TIK was an isolated group related to the main network through ORU. TreeMix analysis revealed that TIK and MOM originated from two different ancestral populations and detected gene flow from MOM to ORU. This was supported by the f3 statistic, which showed that ORU is an admixed population with TIK and MOM/SKH heritage. Genetic diversity in the studied groups was increasing southward. Minimum values of observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity and allelic richness (Ar) were observed in the most northern population-TIK, and maximum values were observed in the most southern population-SKH. Thus, our results revealed clear genetic structure in the studied populations of snow sheep and showed that TIK has a different origin from MOM, SKH, and VER even though they are conventionally considered a single subspecies known as Yakut snow sheep (Ovis nivicola lydekkeri). Most likely, TIK was an isolated group during the Late Pleistocene glaciations of Verkhoyansk Range.

14.
Genet Sel Evol ; 50(1): 37, 2018 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29996786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The origin of native and locally developed Russian cattle breeds is linked to the historical, social, cultural, and climatic features of the diverse geographical regions of Russia. In the present study, we investigated the population structure of nine Russian cattle breeds and their relations to the cattle breeds from around the world to elucidate their origin. Genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Bestuzhev (n = 26), Russian Black-and-White (n = 21), Kalmyk (n = 14), Kholmogor (n = 25), Kostromsky (n = 20), Red Gorbatov (n = 23), Suksun (n = 20), Yakut (n = 25), and Yaroslavl cattle breeds (n = 21) was done using the Bovine SNP50 BeadChip. SNP profiles from an additional 70 breeds were included in the analysis as references. RESULTS: The observed heterozygosity levels were quite similar in eight of the nine studied breeds (HO = 0.337-0.363) except for Yakut (Ho = 0.279). The inbreeding coefficients FIS ranged from -0.028 for Kalmyk to 0.036 for Russian Black-and-White and were comparable to those of the European breeds. The nine studied Russian breeds exhibited taurine ancestry along the C1 axis of the multidimensional scaling (MDS)-plot, but Yakut was clearly separated from the European taurine breeds on the C2 axis. Neighbor-Net and admixture analyses, discriminated three groups among the studied Russian breeds. Yakut and Kalmyk were assigned to a separate group because of their Turano-Mongolian origin. Russian Black-and-White, Kostromsky and Suksun showed transboundary European ancestry, which originated from the Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Danish Red breeds, respectively. The lowest level of introgression of transboundary breeds was recorded for the Kholmogor, Yaroslavl, Red Gorbatov and Bestuzhev breeds, which can be considered as an authentic genetic resource. CONCLUSIONS: Whole-genome SNP analysis revealed that Russian native and locally developed breeds have conserved authentic genetic patterns in spite of the considerable influence of Eurasian taurine cattle. In this paper, we provide fundamental genomic information that will contribute to the development of more accurate breed conservation programs and genetic improvement strategies.


Assuntos
Bovinos/classificação , Técnicas de Genotipagem/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Genética Populacional , Heterozigoto , Endogamia , Federação Russa
15.
Genet Sel Evol ; 50(1): 29, 2018 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29793424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Russia has a diverse variety of native and locally developed sheep breeds with coarse, fine, and semi-fine wool, which inhabit different climate zones and landscapes that range from hot deserts to harsh northern areas. To date, no genome-wide information has been used to investigate the history and genetic characteristics of the extant local Russian sheep populations. To infer the population structure and genome-wide diversity of Russian sheep, 25 local breeds were genotyped with the OvineSNP50 BeadChip. Furthermore, to evaluate admixture contributions from foreign breeds in Russian sheep, a set of 58 worldwide breeds from publicly available genotypes was added to our data. RESULTS: We recorded similar observed heterozygosity (0.354-0.395) and allelic richness (1.890-1.955) levels across the analyzed breeds and they are comparable with those observed in the worldwide breeds. Recent effective population sizes estimated from linkage disequilibrium five generations ago ranged from 65 to 543. Multi-dimensional scaling, admixture, and neighbor-net analyses consistently identified a two-step subdivision of the Russian local sheep breeds. A first split clustered the Russian sheep populations according to their wool type (fine wool, semi-fine wool and coarse wool). The Dagestan Mountain and Baikal fine-fleeced breeds differ from the other Merino-derived local breeds. The semi-fine wool cluster combined a breed of Romanian origin, Tsigai, with its derivative Altai Mountain, the two Romney-introgressed breeds Kuibyshev and North Caucasian, and the Lincoln-introgressed Russian longhaired breed. The coarse-wool group comprised the Nordic short-tailed Romanov, the long-fat-tailed outlier Kuchugur and two clusters of fat-tailed sheep: the Caucasian Mountain breeds and the Buubei, Karakul, Edilbai, Kalmyk and Tuva breeds. The Russian fat-tailed breeds shared co-ancestry with sheep from China and Southwestern Asia (Iran). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we derived the genetic characteristics of the major Russian local sheep breeds, which are moderately diverse and have a strong population structure. Pooling our data with a worldwide genotyping set gave deeper insight into the history and origin of the Russian sheep populations.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Genotipagem/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ovinos/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/veterinária , Animais , Cruzamento , Genética Populacional , Heterozigoto , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Federação Russa ,
16.
Genome Announc ; 6(16)2018 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29674545

RESUMO

We present here the draft genome sequences of five Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk samples from clinically healthy cows in the Russian Federation. Four of them were determined to be sequence type 97 (ST-97), and one was determined to be ST-22. All the strains are characterized by their genome possessing genes that code for enterotoxins and cytotoxins.

18.
J Hered ; 106(6): 758-61, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26447215

RESUMO

Two sets of commercially available single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed for cattle (BovineSNP50 BeadChip) and sheep (OvineSNP50 BeadChip) have been trialed for whole-genome analysis of 4 female samples of Rangifer tarandus inhabiting Russia. We found out that 43.0% of bovine and 47.0% of Ovine SNPs could be genotyped, while only 5.3% and 2.03% of them were respectively polymorphic. The scored and the polymorphic SNPs were identified on each bovine and each ovine chromosome, but their distribution was not unique. The maximal value of runs of homozygosity (ROH) was 30.93Mb (for SNPs corresponding to bovine chromosome 8) and 80.32Mb (for SNPs corresponding to ovine chromosome 7). Thus, the SNP chips developed for bovine and ovine species can be used as a powerful tool for genome analysis in reindeer R. tarandus.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Rena/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Ovinos , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Front Genet ; 6: 274, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26379702

RESUMO

General senescence of the adult organism is closely connected with reproductive one. Meanwhile, the age-related reduction in the female fertility is primarily associated with a decline in the gamete quality. Molecular and cellular changes in oocytes of old mammalian females are very similar to those occurring during aging of matured ova of their young counterparts, suggesting similarities in underlying mechanisms. The aim of the present work was to study actions of two related pituitary hormones, prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH), on age-associated modifications of metaphase-II (M-II) chromosomes in bovine oocytes using a model of the prolonged culture. We analyzed: (1) effects of PRL and GH on abnormal changes in the chromosome morphology in aging matured oocytes and the role of cumulus cells in these effects and (2) signaling pathways involved in the hormone actions. During the prolonged culture of oocytes, a gradual rise in the frequency of destructive modifications of M-II chromosomes was revealed. In the case of cumulus-enclosed oocytes (CEOs), PRL and GH exerted dose-dependent biphasic effects on the frequency of these modifications. Both PRL (50 ng/ml) and GH (10 ng/ml) decelerated the abnormal chromosome changes in CEOs, but did not affect the chromosome configuration in denuded oocytes. Concurrently, the presence of PRL and GH receptors in cumulus cells surrounding matured oocytes was demonstrated. Attenuating effects of both hormones on the chromosome modifications in aging CEOs were abolished by PP2 (an inhibitor of Src-family tyrosine kinases), triciribine (an inhibitor of Akt kinase), and calphostin C (a protein kinase C inhibitor). Our findings indicate that PRL and GH can exert the similar decelerating action on age-associated alterations in the M-II chromosome morphology in bovine ova, which is mediated by cumulus cells and may be related to activation of Src-family tyrosine kinases as well as Akt- and protein kinase C-dependent signal pathways.

20.
Theriogenology ; 82(8): 1154-64, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25212395

RESUMO

The available evidence points to participation of PRL in regulation of mammalian oocyte maturation. The aim of the present study was to characterize pathways of PRL action on bovine oocytes. We analyzed (1) the presence of the PRL receptor and its mRNA isoforms in oocytes and cumulus cells; (2) the effect of PRL on meiosis resumption and the role of cumulus cells, the NO/NO synthase system, protein kinase C, and tyrosine kinases in this effect; and (3) PRL effects in the presence of gonadotropins on the developmental capacity of cumulus-free and cumulus-enclosed oocytes. The transcript and protein expression of the PRL receptor in the cells were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry, respectively. The nuclear status of oocytes was assessed after culture of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and denuded oocytes (DOs) with or without PRL (5-500 ng/mL) for 7, 14, or 24 hours. Besides, DOs were incubated for 7 hours in the absence or the presence of PRL (50 ng/mL) and/or L-NAME (an inhibitor of NO synthase), genistein (an inhibitor of tyrosine kinases), or calpostin C (a protein kinase C inhibitor). After IVM in 2 different systems containing PRL (50 ng/mL) and/or gonadotropic hormones, a part of oocytes underwent IVF and IVC and the embryo development was tracked until the blastocyst stage. Messenger RNA of long and short isoforms of the PRL receptor was revealed in both oocytes and cumulus cells. Immunocytochemistry confirmed the presence of the PRL receptor in oocytes and the cumulus investment. In the absence of gonadotropins (system 1), PRL retarded meiosis resumption in DOs but not in cumulus-enclosed oocytes, with this effect being short term, dose dependent, suppressed by L-NAME and genistein, and unaffected by calpostin. In systems containing gonadotropins, PRL did not affect nuclear maturation and the cleavage rate of cumulus-free and cumulus-enclosed oocytes. However, in the case of COCs, it raised the blastocyst yield both in system 2 (from 20.5%-40.9%, P < 0.01) and in system 3 (from 21.7%-33.9%, P < 0.05). The findings show for the first time the functioning of the direct pathway of PRL signaling into bovine oocytes, as confirmed by the expression of receptors of PRL and its direct meiosis-retarding effect involving activation of tyrosine kinases and NO synthase. Furthermore, this is the first demonstration that the beneficial effect of PRL on the oocyte developmental capacity is achieved via cumulus cells containing PRL receptors.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Células do Cúmulo/fisiologia , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Prolactina/farmacologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Células do Cúmulo/química , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro/veterinária , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/veterinária , Meiose/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/fisiologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Oócitos/química , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Receptores da Prolactina/análise , Receptores da Prolactina/genética , Transdução de Sinais
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