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1.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(21): 10908-10913, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080970

RESUMO

We estimate the time- and temperature-evolution of spin energy levels in a metallopeptide by combining molecular dynamics with crystal field analysis. Fluctuations of tens of cm-1 for spin energy levels at fs times gradually average out at longer times. We confirm that local vibrations are key in spin dynamics.


Assuntos
Metaloproteínas/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Termodinâmica , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Fatores de Tempo , Vibração
2.
Chem Sci ; 10(10): 2882-2892, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996866

RESUMO

Phosphofructokinases (Pfks) catalyze the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate (F6P) and they are regulated in a wide variety of organisms. Although numerous aspects of the kinetics and regulation have been characterized for Pfks, the knowledge about the mechanism of the phosphoryl transfer reaction and the transition state lags behind. In this work, we describe the X-ray crystal structure of the homodimeric Pfk-2 from E. coli, which contains products in one site and reactants in the other, as well as an additional ATP molecule in the inhibitory allosteric site adjacent to the reactants. This complex was previously predicted when studying the kinetic mechanism of ATP inhibition. After removing the allosteric ATP, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations revealed conformational changes related to domain packing, as well as stable interactions of Lys27 and Asp256 with donor (ATP) and acceptor (fructose-6-) groups, and of Asp166 with Mg2+. The phosphoryl transfer reaction mechanism catalyzed by Pfk-2 was investigated through Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM) simulations using a combination of the string method and a path-collective variable for the exploration of its free energy surface. The calculated activation free energies showed that a dissociative mechanism, occurring with a metaphosphate intermediate formation followed by a proton transfer to Asp256, is more favorable than an associative one. The structural analysis reveals the role of Asp256 acting as a catalytic base and Lys27 stabilizing the transition state of the dissociative mechanism.

3.
Eur J Med Chem ; 169: 159-167, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875506

RESUMO

The metabolic product of caspase-1, IL-1ß, is an important mediator in inflammation and pyroptosis cell death process. Alzheimer's disease, septic shock and rheumatoid arthritis are IL-1ß mediated diseases, making the caspase-1 an interesting target of pharmacological value. Many inhibitors have been developed until now, most of them are peptidomimetic with improved potency. In the present study, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations and the MM/GBSA method were employed to reproduce and interpret the results obtained by in vitro experiments for a series of inhibitors. The analysis shows that the tautomeric state of the catalytic His237 impact significantly the performance of the prediction protocol, providing evidence for a His237 tautomeric state different to the proposed in the putative mechanism. Additionally, analysis of inhibitor-enzyme interactions indicates that the differences in the inhibitory potency of the tested ligands can be explained mainly by the interaction of the inhibitors with the S2-S4 protein region. These results provide guidelines for subsequent studies of caspase-1 catalytic reaction mechanism and for the design of novel inhibitors.


Assuntos
Caspase 1/metabolismo , Desenho de Fármacos , Serpinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Virais/farmacologia , Biocatálise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Serpinas/síntese química , Serpinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Termodinâmica , Proteínas Virais/síntese química , Proteínas Virais/química
4.
J Phys Chem B ; 122(38): 8861-8871, 2018 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157632

RESUMO

Catechol- O-methyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the methylation reaction of dopamine by S-adenosylmethionine, increasing the reaction rate by almost 16 orders of magnitude compared to the reaction in aqueous solution. Here, we combine the recently introduced adaptive string method and the mean reaction force method, in combination with the structural and electronic descriptors to characterize the reaction mechanism. The catalytic effect of the enzyme is addressed by the comparison of the reaction in the human wild-type enzyme, in the less effective Y68A mutant, and in aqueous solution. The influence of these different environments at different stages of the chemical process and the significance of the key collective variables describing the reaction were quantified. Our results show that the native enzyme limits the access of water molecules to the active site, enhancing the interaction between the reactants and providing a more favorable electrostatic environment to assist the SN2 methyl transfer reaction.


Assuntos
Catecol O-Metiltransferase/química , Catálise , Domínio Catalítico , Catecol O-Metiltransferase/genética , Dopamina/química , Humanos , Metilação , Mutação , S-Adenosilmetionina/química , Termodinâmica , Água/química
5.
J Phys Chem A ; 121(51): 9764-9772, 2017 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29190105

RESUMO

Here we present a modified version of the on-the-fly string method for the localization of the minimum free energy path in a space of arbitrary collective variables. In the proposed approach the shape of the biasing potential is controlled by only two force constants, defining the width of the potential along the string and orthogonal to it. The force constants and the distribution of the string nodes are optimized during the simulation, improving the convergence. The optimized parameters can be used for umbrella sampling with a path CV along the converged string as the reaction coordinate. We test the new method with three fundamentally different processes: chloride attack to chloromethane in bulk water, alanine dipeptide isomerization, and the enzymatic conversion of isochorismate to piruvate. In each case the same set of parameters resulted in a rapidly converging simulation and a precise estimation of the potential of mean force. Therefore, the default settings can be used for a wide range of processes, making the method essentially parameter free and more user-friendly.

6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(47): 12390-12395, 2017 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29101125

RESUMO

While being one of the most popular reaction rate theories, the applicability of transition state theory to the study of enzymatic reactions has been often challenged. The complex dynamic nature of the protein environment raised the question about the validity of the nonrecrossing hypothesis, a cornerstone in this theory. We present a computational strategy to quantify the error associated to transition state theory from the number of recrossings observed at the equicommittor, which is the best possible dividing surface. Application of a direct multidimensional transition state optimization to the hydride transfer step in human dihydrofolate reductase shows that both the participation of the protein degrees of freedom in the reaction coordinate and the error associated to the nonrecrossing hypothesis are small. Thus, the use of transition state theory, even with simplified reaction coordinates, provides a good theoretical framework for the study of enzymatic catalysis.


Assuntos
Biocatálise , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/química , Humanos , Íons/química , Cinética
7.
J Phys Chem B ; 120(50): 12820-12825, 2016 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28002952

RESUMO

The photoswitching speed of the reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins (RSFPs) from the family of green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) changes upon mutation which is of direct importance for various high-resolution techniques. Dronpa is one of the most used RSFPs. Its point mutants rsFastLime (Dronpa V157G) and rsKame (Dronpa V157L) exhibit a striking difference in their photoswitching speed. Here the QM/MM on-the-fly string method is used in order to explore the details of the thermal isomerization mechanism. The four principal ways in which isomerization may occur have been scrutinized for each of the three proteins. It has been shown that thermal isomerization occurs via a one-bond-flip mechanism in all three proteins, although, in rsKame, where the chromophore is constrained more, the activation free energy difference between hula-twist and one-bond-flip is significantly smaller. Functional mode analysis has been applied to examine the motions of the amino acids during the isomerization. It clearly identifies the importance of Val/Leu 157 as well as the amino acids in the α-helix during the isomerization.


Assuntos
Glicina/química , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/química , Leucina/química , Mutação Puntual , Valina/química , Glicina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Isomerismo , Cinética , Leucina/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Temperatura , Termodinâmica , Valina/metabolismo
10.
J Phys Chem B ; 119(49): 15100-9, 2015 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26561208

RESUMO

The elucidation of the catalytic role of LinA dehydrohalogenase in the degradation processes of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers is extremely important to further studies on the bioremediation of HCH polluted areas. Herein, QM/MM free energy simulations are employed to provide the details of the dehydrochlorination reaction of two HCH isomers (γ and ß). In particular, the role of the protonation state of one of the catalytic residues-His73-is explored. Based on our calculations, two distinct minimum free energy pathways (concerted and stepwise) were found for γ-HCH and ß-HCH. The choice of the reaction channel for the dehydrochlorination reactions of γ- and ß-HCH was shown to depend on the initial mutual orientations of the reacting species in the active site and the protonation form of His73. The sequential pathway comprises the transfer of the proton (Hδ1) between His73 and Asp25 and subsequently the H1/Cl2 pair elimination from the substrate molecule. Within a concerted mechanism, the dehydrochlorination reaction of γ-/ß-HCH is initiated with neutral His73 and the Hδ1 proton is transferred upon final product formation. We found that the concerted pathway for ß-HCH results in significantly higher free energy of activation than the stepwise route and therefore can be disregarded as not a feasible mechanism. On the other hand, the reaction that occurs with much lower energetic barrier requires a stronger base (i.e., anionic His73) to abstract the proton (H1) from the substrate molecule. The presence of such transient form of His results in higher energy than the respective Michaelis complex and was observed only in the stepwise pathway for both isomers. Furthermore, we have concluded that both pathways (concerted and stepwise) are feasible for the dehydrochlorination reaction of γ-HCH. The activation free energies obtained from the M05-2X/6-31+G(d,p) corrected path coordinate PMF profiles for the dehydrochlorination reactions of the γ-/ß-HCH are in good agreement with the experimental values.

11.
J Chem Phys ; 143(13): 134111, 2015 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26450296

RESUMO

In the present work, we use Variational Transition State Theory (VTST) to develop a practical method for transition state ensemble optimization by looking for an optimal hyperplanar dividing surface in a space of meaningful trial collective variables. These might be interatomic distances, angles, electrostatic potentials, etc. Restrained molecular dynamics simulations are used to obtain on-the-fly estimates of ensemble averages that guide the variations of the hyperplane maximizing the transmission coefficient. A central result of our work is an expression that quantitatively estimates the importance of the coordinates used for the localization of the transition state ensemble. Starting from an arbitrarily large set of trial coordinates, one can distinguish those that are indeed essential for the advance of the reaction. This facilitates the use of VTST as a practical theory to study reaction mechanisms of complex processes. The technique was applied to the reaction catalyzed by an isochorismate pyruvate lyase. This reaction involves two simultaneous chemical steps and has a shallow transition state region, making it challenging to define a good reaction coordinate. Nevertheless, the hyperplanar transition state optimized in the space of 18 geometrical coordinates provides a transmission coefficient of 0.8 and a committor histogram well-peaked about 0.5, proving the strength of the method. We have also tested the approach with the study of the NaCl dissociation in aqueous solution, a stringest test for a method based on transition state theory. We were able to find essential degrees of freedom consistent with the previous studies and to improve the transmission coefficient with respect to the value obtained using solely the NaCl distance as the reaction coordinate.

12.
J Phys Chem B ; 119(3): 873-82, 2015 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25159911

RESUMO

The role of protein motions in enzymatic catalysis is the subject of a hot scientific debate. We here propose the use of an explicit solvent coordinate to analyze the impact of environmental motions during the reaction process. The example analyzed here is the reaction catalyzed by catechol O-methyltransferase, a methyl transfer reaction from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to the nucleophilic oxygen atom of catecholate. This reaction proceeds from a charged reactant to a neutral product, and then a large electrostatic coupling with the environment could be expected. By means of a two-dimensional free energy surface, we show that a large fraction of the environmental motions needed to attain the transition state happens during the first stages of the reaction because most of the environmental motions are slower than changes in the substrate. The incorporation of the solvent coordinate in the definition of the transition state improves the transmission coefficient and the committor histogram in solution, while the changes are much less significant in the enzyme. The equilibrium solvation approach seems then to work better in the enzyme than in aqueous solution because the enzyme provides a preorganized environment where the reaction takes place.

13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 136(46): 16227-39, 2014 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25347783

RESUMO

M.TaqI is a DNA methyltransferase from Thermus aquaticus that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to the N6 position of an adenine, a process described only in prokaryotes. We have used full atomistic classical molecular dynamics simulations to explore the protein-SAM-DNA ternary complex where the target adenine is flipped out into the active site. Key protein-DNA interactions established by the target adenine in the active site are described in detail. The relaxed structure was used for a combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics exploration of the reaction mechanism using the string method. According to our free energy calculations the reaction takes place through a stepwise mechanism where the methyl transfer precedes the abstraction of the proton from the exocyclic amino group. The methyl transfer is the rate-determining step, and the obtained free energy barrier is in good agreement with the value derived from the experimental rate constant. Two possible candidates to extract the leftover proton have been explored: a water molecule found in the active site and Asn105, a residue activated by the hydrogen bonds formed through the amide hydrogens. The barrier for the proton abstraction is smaller when Asn105 acts as a base. The reaction mechanisms can be different in other N6-DNA-methyltransferases, as determined from the exploration of the reaction mechanism in the Asn105Asp M.TaqI mutant.


Assuntos
DNA Metiltransferases Sítio Específica (Adenina-Específica)/química , DNA Metiltransferases Sítio Específica (Adenina-Específica)/metabolismo , Thermus/enzimologia , DNA/química , DNA/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Conformação Proteica , Teoria Quântica , Termodinâmica
14.
J Comput Chem ; 35(23): 1672-81, 2014 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24986052

RESUMO

Path-based reaction coordinates constitute a valuable tool for free-energy calculations in complex processes. When a reference path is defined by means of collective variables, a nonconstant distance metric that incorporates the nonorthonormality of these variables should be taken into account. In this work, we show that, accounting for the correct metric tensor, these kind of variables can provide iso-hypersurfaces that coincide with the iso-committor surfaces and that activation free energies equal the value that would be obtained if the committor function itself were used as reaction coordinate. The advantages of the incorporation of the variable metric tensor are illustrated with the analysis of the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by isochorismate-pyruvate lyase. Hybrid QM/MM techniques are used to obtain the free energy profile and to analyze reactive trajectories initiated at the transition state. For this example, the committor histogram is peaked at 0.5 only when a variable metric tensor is incorporated in the definition of the path-based coordinate.

15.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 9(8): 3740-9, 2013 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26584125

RESUMO

We present a combination of the string method and a path collective variable for the exploration of the free energy surface associated to a chemical reaction in condensed environments. The on-the-fly string method is employed to find the minimum free energy paths on a multidimensional free energy surface defined in terms of interatomic distances, which is a convenient selection to study bond forming/breaking processes. Once the paths have been determined, a reaction coordinate is defined as a measure of the advance of the system along these paths. This reaction coordinate can be then used to trace the reaction Potential of Mean Force from which the activation free energy can be obtained. This combination of methodologies has been here applied to the study, by means of Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics simulations, of the reaction catalyzed by guanidinoacetate methyltransferase. This enzyme catalyzes the methylation of guanidinoacetate by S-adenosyl-l-methionine, a reaction that involves a methyl transfer and a proton transfer and for which different reaction mechanisms have been proposed.

16.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 8(5): 1795-801, 2012 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26593670

RESUMO

Exploration of chemical reactions in complex explicit environments has become an affordable task with the use of hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics potentials which allow calculating free energy profiles of chemical reactions under the influence of the surroundings. Tracing these free energy profiles requires the selection of a reaction coordinate, which can be cumbersome for those processes involving more than a single chemical event in a concerted step. We here propose a collective coordinate to be used in the calculation of free energy profiles for complex reactions in condensed phases. This coordinate is based in the definition of the advance along a path introduced by Branduardi et al. (J. Chem. Phys.2007, 126, 054103) but modified to use internal coordinates which are more adequate for the description of chemical reactions. The coordinate is tested with the analysis of the isochorismate transformation to pyruvate and salycilate in aqueous solution and in the active site of PchB, a reaction that involves a CO bond breaking simultaneously with a proton transfer between two carbon atoms. The coordinate introduced here allows obtaining smooth and meaningful free energy profiles of the reaction.

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