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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35696710

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to report liver transplantation (LT) outcomes and cardiac disease manifestations in children with Alagille Syndrome (ALGS) in a contemporary cohort. STUDY DESIGN: This project used a novel linkage between the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) and Pediatric Health Information System databases. All children ≤21y undergoing a first LT were identified (2002-2018). The presence of ALGS was identified using SRTR diagnosis coding. Subjects with ALGS were age-matched 1:2 to LT recipients with biliary atresia (BA). The Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used to compare patient and graft survival between groups. RESULTS: A total of 156 LT recipients with ALGS were identified and matched to a control group of 312 LT recipients with BA. Children with ALGS were more likely to have an associated diagnosis of congenital heart disease (80.7% vs. 16.4%; p=0.001) compared to children with BA with 40 (25.6%) children with AGS requiring cardiac intervention (catheter or surgical) either before or after LT. Those patients with ALGS had a higher creatinine, laboratory MELD and PELD scores prior to LT. No difference was observed regarding patient or graft survival between children with ALGS and children with BA (p = 0.08 and p = 0.27, respectively). CONCLUSION: Despite increased rate of congenital heart defects and cardiac interventions, higher creatinine, and higher laboratory MELD/PELD scores at time of transplant, this study demonstrates that there is no difference in either patient or graft survival between patients with ALGS and BA.

2.
World J Transplant ; 12(5): 88-99, 2022 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35663540

RESUMO

Children infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seem to have a better prognosis than adults. Nevertheless, pediatric solid organ transplantation (SOT) has been significantly affected by the unprecedented coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic during the pre-, peri-, and post-transplant period. Undoubtedly, immunosuppression constitutes a real challenge for transplant clinicians as increased immunosuppression may prolong disease recovery, while its decrease can contribute to more severe symptoms. To date, most pediatric SOT recipients infected by SARS-CoV-2 experience mild disease with only scarce reports of life-threatening complications. As a consequence, after an initial drop during the early phase of the pandemic, pediatric SOTs are now performed with the same frequency as during the pre-pandemic period. This review summarizes the currently available evidence regarding pediatric SOT during the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
Front Oncol ; 12: 843769, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35692753

RESUMO

Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a local ablative technique used in conjunction with chemotherapy to treat locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). The combination of IRE and chemotherapy has showed increased overall survival when compared to chemotherapy alone, pointing towards a possible facilitating effect of IRE on chemotherapeutic drug action and delivery. This review aims to present current chemotherapeutic regimens for LAPC and their co-implementation with IRE, with an emphasis on possible molecular augmentative mechanisms of drug delivery and action. Moreover, the potentiating mechanism of IRE on immunotherapy, M1 oncolytic virus and dendritic cell (DC)-based treatments is briefly explored. Investigating the synergistic effect of IRE on currently established treatment regimens as well as newer ones, may present exciting new possibilities for future studies seeking to improve current LAPC treatment algorithms.

4.
J Clin Med ; 11(9)2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35566727

RESUMO

The introduction of robotics in living donor liver transplantation has been revolutionary. We aimed to examine the safety of robotic living donor right hepatectomy (RLDRH) compared to open (ODRH) and laparoscopic (LADRH) approaches. A systematic review was carried out in Medline and six additional databases following PRISMA guidelines. Data on morbidity, postoperative liver function, and pain in donors and recipients were extracted from studies comparing RLDRH, ODRH, and LADRH published up to September 2020; PROSPERO (CRD42020214313). Dichotomous variables were pooled as risk ratios and continuous variables as weighted mean differences. Four studies with a total of 517 patients were included. In living donors, the postoperative total bilirubin level (MD: -0.7 95%CI -1.0, -0.4), length of hospital stay (MD: -0.8 95%CI -1.4, -0.3), Clavien-Dindo complications I-II (RR: 0.5 95%CI 0.2, 0.9), and pain score at day > 3 (MD: -0.6 95%CI -1.6, 0.4) were lower following RLDRH compared to ODRH. Furthermore, the pain score at day > 3 (MD: -0.4 95%CI -0.8, -0.09) was lower after RLDRH when compared to LADRH. In recipients, the postoperative AST level was lower (MD: -0.5 95%CI -0.9, -0.1) following RLDRH compared to ODRH. Moreover, the length of stay (MD: -6.4 95%CI -11.3, -1.5) was lower after RLDRH when compared to LADRH. In summary, we identified low- to unclear-quality evidence that RLDRH seems to be safe and feasible for adult living donor liver transplantation compared to the conventional approaches. No postoperative deaths were reported.

5.
JAMA Surg ; 2022 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35583884

RESUMO

Importance: Liver allocation is determined by the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), a scoring system based on 4 laboratory measurements. During the MELD era, sex disparities in liver transplant have increased and there are no modifications to MELD based on sex. Objective: To use laboratory values stored in electronic health records to describe population-level sex differences in all MELD laboratory values (in healthy individuals and patients with liver disease) and propose a sex adjustment. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted from March 2019 to April 2020 to evaluate sex differences in laboratory values in liver transplant patients, patients with liver disease who did not undergo transplant, and healthy controls. Primary analyses were conducted in Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC)'s deidentified electronic health record system. Replication analyses were conducted in the All of Us Research Program. Simulations of a sex-adjusted sodium-adjusted MELD (MELDNa) score were completed using liver transplant waiting list data from the liver simulated allocation modeling system. Patients who regularly used VUMC with measurements for any MELDNa component laboratory were included in the analyses. Analysis took place from November 2019 to March 2021. Exposures: Electronic health record-reported sex. Main Outcomes and Measure: Creatinine, bilirubin, international normalized ratio, and sodium levels. Results: The VUMC sample was composed of 623 931 individuals (359 976 [57.7%] female) with a median (IQR) age of 44 (23-61) years. All component MELDNa laboratory values and calculated MELDNa scores yielded significant sex differences within VUMC (mean [SD] creatinine: male, 0.99 [0.39] mg/dL; female, 0.79 [0.30] mg/dL; P < .001; bilirubin: male, 0.76 [0.83] mg/dL; female, 0.58 [0.64] mg/dL; P < .001; international normalized ratio of prothrombin rate: male, 1.24 [0.42]; female, 1.20 [0.40]; P < .001; sodium: male, 139.00 [2.36] mEq/L; female, 139.03 [2.28] mEq/L; P < .001), resulting in MELDNa scoring that disadvantaged female individuals. This pattern persisted when the sample was divided into healthy controls, individuals with liver disease who did not undergo transplant, and patients who did undergo liver transplant. Female transplant patients had a greater number of decompensation traits (mean [SD]: male, 1.34 [1.11]; female, 1.60 [1.09]; P = .005), despite having lower MELDNa scores (mean [SD]: male, 21.72 [6.11]; female, 20.21 [6.15]; P = .005), indicating MELDNa scores are not accurately representing disease severity in female individuals. In simulations, the sex-adjusted MELDNa score modestly increased female transplant rate and decreased overall death. Conclusions and Relevance: These results demonstrate pervasive sex differences in all laboratory values used in MELDNa scoring and highlight the need and utility of a sex-adjustment to the MELDNa protocol.

6.
Transplant Rev (Orlando) ; 36(2): 100691, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35367836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Living Donor Liver Transplantation(LDLT) in acute liver failure(ALF) patients has been limited by concerns regarding donor safety, consent process and recipient outcomes. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review(SR) and meta-analysis to address the concerns about subpar LDLT outcomes in patients with ALF. METHODS: We retrieved a total of 5965 literature references in our SR. United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database was queried for patients over the age of 18, who underwent LDLT for "status 1" or "status 1A" listing. RESULTS: Of 427 articles reviewed, 3 studies comprising 2574 patients (192 underwent LDLT and 2382 DDLT), were included in the meta-analysis. One, 3,5-year patient and graft survival demonstrated no difference between LDLT and DDLT group: 1-year patient survival OR1.51; 95%CI [0.58,1.90]; 1-year graft survival OR 1.19; 95%CI [0.65-2.18]; 3-year patient survival OR 0.97;95%CI [0.52-1.88]; 3-year graft survival OR 1.21 95%CI [0.67-2.16]; 5-year patient survival 0.9; 95%CI [0.37-2.20]; 5-year graft survival OR 1.30; 95%CI [0.57-2.97]. UNOS database search returned only 3 patients that underwent LDLT for ALF compared to 1562 with DDLT, precluding comparison. CONCLUSION: One, 3, and 5-year patient and graft survival following LDLT vs DDLT transplantation were not statistically significantly different; however, due to limited number of studies further studies are warranted.


Assuntos
Falência Hepática Aguda , Transplante de Fígado , Adulto , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Falência Hepática Aguda/cirurgia , Doadores Vivos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Transplant Rev (Orlando) ; 36(2): 100693, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Isolated cases of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) undergoing liver transplantation (LT) have been reported with increasing frequency. We aimed to systemically review and synthesize the available literature on ECMO use in this population. METHODS: A systematic literature review of the PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases (end-of-search date: November 14, 2021) was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Eligible studies presented clinical parameters and outcomes of adult or pediatric patients with HPS receiving ECMO support at the time of, or following, LT. RESULTS: Sixteen studies from 4 continents reporting on 17 patients who were initiated on ECMO prior to (n = 2), during (n = 1) or after LT (n = 14) were included. Nine of the 16 studies were published between 2019 and 2021. The median pre-LT PaO2 was 38.0 mmHg (IQR 35.0-52.0). The median time from LT to ECMO initiation was 7 days (IQR, 3-12). Six patients (50%, n = 6 of 12) were extubated post-LT, before deterioration, development of refractory hypoxemia, and initiation of ECMO. Most patients were cannulated with a venovenous configuration (75%, n = 12 of 16). Most patients cannulated with a venoarterial or veno-arterial-venous strategy (75%, n = 3 of 4) had concurrent hemodynamic instability. The median total time on ECMO was 13 days (IQR 10-29). Using linear regression, for patients cannulated postoperatively, each day between LT and ECMO initiation was associated with a 3.5-day increase in total ECMO duration (95%CI: 2.23-4.73, p < 0.001, R2 = 73.7%). The median postoperative intensive care unit length of stay was 40 days (IQR, 37-61) and hospital length of stay was 59.5 days (IQR 42-77). 82.4% of patients (14 of 17) survived to discharge. CONCLUSIONS: ECMO is feasible in patients with HPS undergoing LT and appears to be associated with better outcomes compared to other causes of cardiopulmonary failure in LT patients. As the volume of experience grows, ECMO may become a central part of perioperative support in LT patients with severe HPS.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Síndrome Hepatopulmonar , Transplante de Fígado , Adulto , Criança , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Hepatopulmonar/etiologia , Síndrome Hepatopulmonar/cirurgia , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos
8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(5)2022 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35267604

RESUMO

Liver transplantation (LT) is the only potentially curative option for children with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We performed a systematic review of the MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases (end-of-search date: 31 July 2020). Our outcomes were overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). We evaluated the effect of clinically relevant variables on outcomes using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Sixty-seven studies reporting on 245 children undergoing LT for HCC were included. DFS data were available for 150 patients and the 1-, 3-, and 5-year DFS rates were 92.3%, 89.1%, and 84.5%, respectively. Sixty of the two hundred and thirty-eight patients (25.2%) died over a mean follow up of 46.8 ± 47.4 months. OS data were available for 222 patients and the 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS rates were 87.9%, 78.8%, and 74.3%, respectively. Although no difference was observed between children transplanted within vs. beyond Milan criteria (p = 0.15), superior OS was observed in children transplanted within vs. beyond UCSF criteria (p = 0.02). LT can yield favorable outcomes for pediatric HCC beyond Milan but not beyond UCSF criteria. Further research is required to determine appropriate LT selection criteria for pediatric HCC.

9.
Cancer ; 128(12): 2243-2257, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35285949

RESUMO

The 5-year overall survival rate of a patient with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer is poor at approximately 14%. Similarly, historical data on liver transplantation (LT) in those with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) showed poor outcomes, with 5-year survival rates between 12% and 21%. More recently, limited data have shown improved outcomes in select patients with 5-year overall survival rates of approximately 60%. Despite these reported survival improvements, there is no significant improvement in disease-free survival. Given the uncertain benefit with this therapeutic approach and a renewed investigational interest, we aimed to conduct a contemporary systematic review on LT for CRLM. A systematic review of the literature was performed according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis statement. English articles reporting on data regarding LT for CRLM were identified through the MEDLINE (via PubMed), Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases (last search date: December 16th, 2021) by 2 researchers independently. A total of 58 studies (45 published and 13 ongoing) were included. Although early retrospective studies suggest the possibility that some carefully selected patients may benefit from LT, there is minimal prospective data on the topic and LT remains exploratory in the setting of CRLM. Additionally, several other challenges, such as the limited availability of deceased donor organs and defining appropriate selection criteria, remain when considering the implementation of LT for these patients. Further evidence from ongoing prospective trials is needed to determine if and to what extent there is a role for LT in patients with surgically unresectable CRLM.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Transplante de Fígado , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Hepatectomia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 70(4): 315-328, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35218504

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to compare the safety and efficacy of proximal repair (PR) versus extensive repair (ER) for acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD). METHODS: A literature search in three databases was performed according to the PRISMA statement. Studies comparing PR versus ER for ATAAD were included. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed. RESULTS: A total of 27 studies incorporating 7113 patients (PR: 5080; ER: 2033) were included. Patients undergoing PR presented decreased in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR]: 0.67 [95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) 0.53-0.85]; p < 0.01) and post-operative bleeding (OR 0.75 [95% CI 0.60-0.95]; p = 0.02) compared to ER. Meta-regression analysis revealed that in-hospital mortality was not influenced by differences regarding the extent of dissection (p = 0.43). Cardiopulmonary bypass time (SMD:-0.93 [95% CI - 1.22, - 0.66]; p < 0.01) and length of hospital stay (SMD:-0.19 [95% CI - 0.34, - 0.05]; p = 0.01) were also lower in the PR group, while there was no difference in terms of renal failure and permanent neurological deficit. The ER approach demonstrated a lower post-discharge mortality compared to PR (OR 1.46 [95% CI 1.09, 1.97]; p = 0.01), while the post-discharge reoperation rate was comparable between the two groups. 1 and 3-year overall survival (OS) were comparable between PR and ER (OR 1.05, [95% CI 0.77-1.44]; p = 0.76) and (OR 1.27 [95% CI 0.86-1.86]; p = 0.23), respectively. The 5-year OS (OR 1.67 [95% CI 1.16-2.41]; p = 0.01) was in favor of the PR arm. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ATAAD, PR was associated with lower odds of in-hospital mortality but higher odds of late mortality. ER and PR demonstrated similar post-operative complication and reoperation rates.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente , Aneurisma Dissecante , Aneurisma Dissecante/complicações , Humanos , Alta do Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Transplant Direct ; 8(2): e1264, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35018302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation (LT) has been employed for hepatic adenoma (HA) on a case-oriented basis. We aimed to describe the characteristics, waitlist, and post-LT outcomes of patients requiring LT for HA. METHODS: All patients listed or transplanted for HA in the United States were identified in the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database (1987-2020). A systematic literature review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis statement. RESULTS: A total of 199 HA patients were listed for LT in UNOS and the crude waitlist mortality was 9.0%. A total of 142 HA patients underwent LT; 118 of these were among those listed with an indication of HA who underwent LT, and 24 were diagnosed incidentally. Most did not experience hepatocellular carcinoma transformation (89.4%). Over a median follow-up of 62.9 mo, death was reported in 18.3%. The 1-, 3-, and 5-y patient survival rates were 94.2%, 89.7%, and 86.3% in the UNOS cohort. The systematic review yielded 61 articles reporting on 99 nonoverlapping patients undergoing LT for HA and 2 articles reporting on multicenter studies. The most common LT indications were suspected malignancy (39.7%), unresectable HA (31.7%), and increasing size (27.0%), whereas 53.1% had glycogen storage disease. Over a median follow-up of 36.5 mo, death was reported in 6.0% (n=5/84). The 1-, 3-, and 5-y patient survival rates were all 95.0% in the systematic review. CONCLUSIONS: LT for HA can lead to excellent long-term outcomes in well-selected patients. Prospective granular data are needed to develop more optimal selection criteria and further improve outcomes.

12.
Anticancer Res ; 42(2): 629-639, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35093860

RESUMO

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) arise from endocrine pancreatic cells and comprise 3-5% of pancreatic cancers. Surgical resection is the only potentially curative option for PNETs. Surgical candidates should be carefully selected according to tumor functionality, size, location, grade, and stage. Current guidelines state that patients with neuroendocrine carcinoma may not be surgical candidates due to aggressive tumor behavior and poor prognosis, while in cases of PNET with unresectable metastatic disease, resection may be of benefit in certain patients. The current guidelines recommend resection of any size of functional PNETs and of non-functional PNETs >2 cm. Watchful waiting is recommended for patients with non-functional PNETs <1 cm. Further evidence is needed to determine whether surgery for non-functional PNETs of 1-2 cm would be of benefit or if surgery should be individualized. This review aimed to discuss the current literature on the management of PNETs and highlight the utility of surgery in treatment.


Assuntos
Tumores Neuroendócrinos/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/diagnóstico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Seleção de Pacientes , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Clin Transplant ; 36(2): e14521, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Donation after circulatory death (DCD) is an increasingly utilized alternative to donation after brain death (DBD) to expand the liver donor pool. We compared the outcomes of liver transplant (LT) after DCD versus DBD. METHODS: A PRISMA-compliant systematic literature review was performed using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases (end-of-search-date: July 2, 2020). US outcomes were analyzed using the UNOS database (February, 2002-September, 2020). Pooled hazard ratios (HR) for patient and graft survival were obtained through random effect meta-analyses and adjusted for publication bias. RESULTS: Thirteen studies reporting on 1426 DCD and 5385 DBD LT recipients were included. 5620 DCD and 87561 DBD LT recipients were analyzed from the UNOS database. Meta-analysis showed increased risk of patient mortality for DCD (HR = 1.36; 95%CI, 1.09-1.70; P = .01; I2  = 53.6%). When adjusted for publication bias, meta-analysis showed no difference in patient survival between DCD and DBD (HR = 1.15; 95%CI, .91-1.45; P = .25; I2  = 61.5%). Meta-analysis showed increased risk of graft loss for DCD (HR = 1.50; 95%CI, 1.20-1.88; P < .001; I2  = 67.8%). When adjusted for publication bias, meta-analysis showed a reduction in effect size (HR = 1.36; 95%CI, 1.06-1.74; P = .02; I2  = 73.5%). CONCLUSION: When adjusted for publication bias, no difference was identified between DCD and DBD regarding patient survival, while DCD was associated with an increased risk of graft loss.


Assuntos
Transplante de Fígado , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Morte Encefálica , Morte , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Viés de Publicação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doadores de Tecidos
14.
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci ; 61(1): 101-104, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34879898

RESUMO

Swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) are commonly used large animal subjects for the study of disease and preclinical therapies. Organ machine perfusion is a therapy that has gained momentum as a research platform for the study of ex vivo organ preservation and therapeutics. However, complex perfusion circuits and research protocols often require large volumes of blood as perfusate. Here, we report a technique for increasing terminal blood yield during swine organ and blood procurement; our method involves acute normovolemic hemodilution and exsanguination via the femoral artery. We collected a total of 47 ± 4 mL/kg of blood and 4.3 ± 0.6 g/kg of hemoglobin, representing 73% ± 6% of the estimated blood volume and 64% ± 8% of the total estimated intravascular hemoglobin (n = 4). Neither pH, lactate, nor pO2 levels changed significantly during blood procurement. Acute normovolemic hemodilution is an effective method for increasing RBC and hemoglobin yield during blood procurement in swine.


Assuntos
Volume Sanguíneo , Hemodiluição , Animais , Hemodiluição/métodos , Hemodiluição/veterinária , Hemoglobinas , Humanos , Perfusão/veterinária , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Suínos
15.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 20(3): 237-245, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641657

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic raised unprecedented concerns in the hematopoietic stem cell transplant community. The diagnosis of COVID-19 in these transplant recipients may require extensive laboratory testing and high clinical suspicion, as atypical clinical manifestations or other respiratory viral infections are common in this patient population. The underlying malignancies, immunosuppressed state, frequently observed coinfections, and advanced age in some patients may also predispose them to worse clinical outcomes. Similar outcomes have been previously described with other human coronaviruses, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Many hematopoietic stem cell transplant organizations have issued elaborative guidelines that aim to prevent transmission and hence adverse patient outcomes. All potential donors are thoroughly screened, and donated products are cryopreserved in advance. Potential hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients are also screened, and most nonurgent transplant cases with low risk of progression and/or death are deferred. Current hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients should adhere to precaution and isolation measures, while their transplant units should also follow strict safety protocols, similar to other infectious outbreaks. The prolonged susceptibility of hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients to respiratory viral infections might necessitate extending these measures even after the peak of the outbreak until a gradually return to normality is possible.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Transplantados , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 69(1): e29425, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation (LT) is offered in cases of advanced disease for both pediatric patients with hepatoblastoma (HBL) and those with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Current United States organ allocation priorities differ between the two groups. METHODS: We retrospectively examined the waitlist and posttransplant outcomes of pediatric LT candidates with HBL and HCC using the United Network for Organ Sharing registry (February 2002 to September 2020). RESULTS: Six hundred sixty-eight children with HBL and 95 children with HCC listed for first LT were identified. Patients with HBL were younger (p < .001), had lower laboratory Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD)/Pediatric End-stage Liver Disease (PELD) scores (p < .001), and had lesser proportion with encephalopathy (p = .01). Patients with HCC had an increased risk of waitlist mortality in univariable (unadjusted subdistribution hazard ratio [sHR] = 4.37, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.01-9.51, p < .001) and multivariable competing risk regression (adjusted sHR = 3.08, 95% CI 1.13-8.37, p = .03) accounting for age and laboratory MELD/PELD score. Five hundred ninety-five children underwent LT for HBL and 76 for HCC. Patients transplanted for HBL had a significantly higher proportion with status 1B exception (71.3% vs. 7.9%, p < .001). No difference was observed in patient (unadjusted log-rank test, p = .52; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.77, 95% CI, 0.40-1.48, p = .43) or graft survival (unadjusted log-rank test, p = .93; adjusted HR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.42-1.33, p = .32) between HCC and HBL recipients. CONCLUSION: Waitlist mortality for pediatric LT candidates with HCC is significantly higher than for HBL, while posttransplant patient and graft survival are similar. This highlights an opportunity to improve equitable prioritization for children with HCC who may have reduced access to size-appropriate deceased donor organs and less effective bridge-to-transplant therapies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Doença Hepática Terminal , Hepatoblastoma , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Transplante de Fígado , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Criança , Hepatoblastoma/cirurgia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Eur Surg Res ; 63(2): 85-97, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pyometra (P) leads to sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogens which can cause P. The aim of this study was to investigate TLR-7 and -9 via the MYD88 pathway and the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) response in the uterus of a P mouse model before and after ovariohysterectomy (RP) as well as potential lung injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 200 female C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into groups (N = 10/subgroup; sham 1, 2, 3, 7; P1, 2, 3, 7; 1RP1, 2, 3, 7; 2RP1, 2, 3, 7; 3RP1, 2, 3, 7) according to the day of euthanasia. Pathogens were administrated in the groups P and RP in order to induce P. RESULTS: Alterations in blood chemistry, histopathology, and RT-qPCT analysis before (P) and after RP were observed. Significant correlations were also found between MYD88, NFκB, and TLR9 in P and RP groups in the lungs and in RP groups in the uterus, suggesting that the immune system responded via the TLR9-MYD88 pathway. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of immunohistochemical TLR-7 and -9 localization and of TLR-7, -9, MYD88, and NFκB mRNA expression in the uterus causing lung injury in a P mouse model.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar , Piometra , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Piometra/metabolismo , Piometra/patologia , RNA Mensageiro , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor Toll-Like 9/genética , Receptor Toll-Like 9/metabolismo
18.
Clin Transplant ; 36(4): e14579, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34964989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Careful graft and recipient selection have resulted in improved outcomes in liver transplantation (LT) using donation after cardiac death (DCD) organs. The UK DCD Risk Score was established as a risk stratification tool to guide selection. METHODS: We evaluated the applicability of the UK DCD Risk Score in a contemporary US cohort of adult DCD LT recipients using the United Network for Organ Sharing registry (2011-2020). RESULTS: A total of 3,899 DCD LTs were included in our study (UK DCD Risk Score 0-5 points: 1,438 [36.9%], 6-10 points: 2,034 [52.2%]; 11-20 points: 427 [11.0%]). Compared to a score of 6-10 points, a score of 0-5 points was associated with decreased risk of graft loss (HR = .79, 95%CI: .68-.93, p = .004), while a score of 11-20 points was associated with increased risk of graft loss (HR = 1.26, 95%CI: 1.01-1.56, p = .04). The 5-year graft survival for patients with risk scores of 0-5, 6-10, and 11-20 were 75.9%, 71.8%, and 66.5%, respectively. The C-statistic for the UK DCD Risk Score in our contemporary cohort was .611. CONCLUSIONS: The UK DCD Risk Score demonstrates a more limited ability to differentiate recipient outcomes in the modern era of DCD LT in the US. Acceptable long-term outcomes are achievable for patients stratified to the highest-risk group.


Assuntos
Transplante de Fígado , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Adulto , Morte , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Doadores de Tecidos , Reino Unido
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malignancy is one of the known leading causes of death among long-term liver transplantation (LT) survivors. Pancreatic cancer has an incidence of 7.6/100,000 in North America and constitutes a diagnostic challenge post-LT. METHODS: This is a single-center, retrospective review of the electronic health records (EHRs) of LT recipients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (1990-2019). The prevalence of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in our institutional non-LT population was assessed using an institutional de-identified database (Synthetic Derivative). RESULTS: Six out of 2,232 (0.27%) LT recipients were diagnosed with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Median age at diagnosis was 66.0 years (IQR, 57.8-71.8 years). Median time from LT to pancreatic adenocarcinoma diagnosis was 8.9 years (IQR, 4.7-16.2 years), the median size on imaging was 3.2 cm (IQR, 3.1-4.7 cm), and all tumors were located on the head of the pancreas. Three patients underwent surgical resection (one with adjuvant chemotherapy), two underwent palliative care, and one palliative chemotherapy with gemcitabine and abraxane. Over a median follow-up of 220.5 days (IQR, 144.8-399.5 days), all six patients died due to disease progression (100%). Pancreatic adenocarcinoma was diagnosed in 5,033 out of 2,484,772 (0.20%) individuals in the Synthetic Derivative. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings identified an increased incidence of pancreatic adenocarcinoma following LT compared to the general population.

20.
World J Transplant ; 11(9): 400-409, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34631471

RESUMO

Kasai procedure (KP) and liver transplantation (LT) represent the only therapeutic options for patients with biliary atresia (BA), the most common indication for LT in the pediatric population. However, KP represents by no means a radical option but rather a bridging one, as nearly all patients will finally require a liver graft. More and more experts in the field of transplant surgery propose that maybe it is time for a paradigm change in BA treatment and abandon KP as transplantation seems inevitable. Inadequacy of organs yet makes this option currently not feasible, so it seems useful to find ways to maximize the efficacy of KP. In previous decades, multiple studies tried to identify these factors which opt for better results, but in general, outcomes of KP have not improved to the level that was anticipated. This review provides the framework of conditions which favor native liver survival after KP and the ones which optimize a positive LT outcome. Strategies of transition of care at the right time are also presented, as transplantation plays a key role in the surgical treatment of BA. Future studies and further organization in the transplant field will allow for greater organ availability and better outcomes to be achieved for BA patients.

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