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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 632, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005813

RESUMO

APOBEC3G, a member of the double-domain cytidine deaminase (CD) APOBEC, binds RNA to package into virions and restrict HIV-1 through deamination-dependent or deamination-independent inhibition. Mainly due to lack of a full-length double-domain APOBEC structure, it is unknown how CD1/CD2 domains connect and how dimerization/multimerization is linked to RNA binding and virion packaging for HIV-1 restriction. We report rhesus macaque A3G structures that show different inter-domain packing through a short linker and refolding of CD2. The A3G dimer structure has a hydrophobic dimer-interface matching with that of the previously reported CD1 structure. A3G dimerization generates a surface with intensified positive electrostatic potentials (PEP) for RNA binding and dimer stabilization. Unexpectedly, mutating the PEP surface and the hydrophobic interface of A3G does not abolish virion packaging and HIV-1 restriction. The data support a model in which only one RNA-binding mode is critical for virion packaging and restriction of HIV-1 by A3G.

2.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 1584-1592, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682199

RESUMO

The genetic and/or antigenic differences between street rabies virus (RABV) and vaccine strains could potentially affect effectiveness of rabies vaccines. As such, it is important to continue monitoring the glycoprotein (G) of the street isolates. All RABVG sequences in public database were retrieved and analysed. Using a pseudovirus system, we investigated 99 naturally occurring mutants for their reactivities to well-characterized neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and vaccine-induced antisera. A divergence in G sequences was found between vaccine strains and recent street isolates, with mutants demonstrating resistance to neutralizing mAbs and vaccine-induced antibodies. Moreover, antigenic variants were observed in a wide range of animal hosts and geographic locations, with most of them emerging since 2010. As the number of antigenic variants has increased in recent years, close monitoring on street isolates should be strengthened.

3.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 3763, 2018 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29491387

RESUMO

APOBEC3H (A3H) is a member of the APOBEC3 subfamily of DNA cytosine deaminases that are important for innate immune defense and have been implicated in cancer biogenesis. To understand the structural basis for A3H biochemical function, we determined a high-resolution structure of human A3H and performed extensive biochemical analysis. The 2.49 Å crystal structure reveals a uniquely long C-terminal helix 6 (h6), a disrupted ß5 strand of the canonical five-stranded ß-sheet core, and a long loop 1 around the Zn-active center. Mutation of a loop 7 residue, W115, disrupted the RNA-mediated dimerization of A3H yielding an RNA-free monomeric form that still possessed nucleic acid binding and deaminase activity. A3H expressed in HEK293T cells showed RNA dependent HMW complex formation and RNase A-dependent deaminase activity. A3H has a highly positively charged surface surrounding the Zn-active center, and multiple positively charged residues within this charged surface play an important role in the RNA-mediated HMW formation and deaminase inhibition. Furthermore, these positively charged residues affect subcellular localization of A3H between the nucleus and cytosol. Finally, we have identified multiple residues of loop 1 and 7 that contribute to the overall deaminase activity and the methylcytosine selectivity.


Assuntos
5-Metilcitosina/metabolismo , Aminoidrolases/química , Aminoidrolases/metabolismo , Genômica , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Mutação , Multimerização Proteica , Aminoidrolases/genética , Células HEK293 , HIV/fisiologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Modelos Moleculares , Transporte Proteico , Especificidade por Substrato
5.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 45(12): 7494-7506, 2017 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28575276

RESUMO

The catalytic activity of human cytidine deaminase APOBEC3B (A3B) has been correlated with kataegic mutational patterns within multiple cancer types. The molecular basis of how the N-terminal non-catalytic CD1 regulates the catalytic activity and consequently, biological function of A3B remains relatively unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of a soluble human A3B-CD1 variant and delineate several structural elements of CD1 involved in molecular assembly, nucleic acid interactions and catalytic regulation of A3B. We show that (i) A3B expressed in human cells exists in hypoactive high-molecular-weight (HMW) complexes, which can be activated without apparent dissociation into low-molecular-weight (LMW) species after RNase A treatment. (ii) Multiple surface hydrophobic residues of CD1 mediate the HMW complex assembly and affect the catalytic activity, including one tryptophan residue W127 that likely acts through regulating nucleic acid binding. (iii) One of the highly positively charged surfaces on CD1 is involved in RNA-dependent attenuation of A3B catalysis. (iv) Surface hydrophobic residues of CD1 are involved in heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) binding to A3B. The structural and biochemical insights described here suggest that unique structural features on CD1 regulate the molecular assembly and catalytic activity of A3B through distinct mechanisms.


Assuntos
Citidina Desaminase/química , DNA/química , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas/química , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/química , RNA Mensageiro/química , Triptofano/química , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Biocatálise , Domínio Catalítico , Clonagem Molecular , Cristalografia por Raios X , Citidina Desaminase/genética , Citidina Desaminase/metabolismo , DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas/metabolismo , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Cinética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Eletricidade Estática , Especificidade por Substrato , Triptofano/metabolismo
6.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 69(3): 270-7, 2015 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25751231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV-1 gp120/gp41 is heavily modified by n-linked carbohydrates that play important roles either in correct folding or in shielding vulnerable viral protein surfaces from antibody recognition. METHODS: In our previous work, 25 potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS) of a CRF07_BC isolate of HIV-1 were individually mutated, and the resulting effects on infectivity and antibody-mediated neutralization were evaluated. To further understand the functional role of these PNGS, we generated double and multiple mutants from selected individual PNGS mutants. The effects were then evaluated by examining infectivity and sensitivity to antibody-mediated neutralization by neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nMAbs) and serum antibodies from HIV-1 positive donors. RESULTS: Infectivity results showed that, among the 12 combined PNGS mutants, only 197M.1 (N197D/N301Q) lost infectivity completely, whereas all others (except for 197M.6) showed reduced viral infectivity. In terms of neutralization sensitivity to known nMAbs, we found that adding N463Q mutation to all the gp120 mutants containing N197D significantly increased neutralization sensitivity to VRC01 and VRC03, suggesting N197 and N463 have a strong synergistic effect in regulating the neutralizing sensitivity of HIV-1 to the anti-CD4bs nMAbs VRC01/VRC03. Structural analysis based on the available structures of gp120 alone and in complex with CD4 and various nMAbs elucidates a molecular rationale for this experimental observation. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that N463 plays an important role in regulating the CD4bs MAbs VRC01/VRC03 sensitivity in the genetic background of N197D mutation of gp120, which should provide valuable information for a better understanding of the interplay between HIV-1 and VRC01/03.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/genética , HIV-1/metabolismo , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Sítios de Ligação de Anticorpos , Antígenos CD4/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Glicosilação , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/química , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Mutação , Dobramento de Proteína
7.
Dev Dyn ; 243(12): 1606-18, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25258326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Specific molecules involved in early inductive signaling from anterior neural tissue to the placodal ectoderm to establish a lens-forming bias, as well as their regulatory factors, remain largely unknown. In this study, we sought to identify and characterize these molecules. RESULTS: Using an expression cloning strategy to isolate genes with lens-inducing activity, we identified the transcriptional cofactor ldb1. This, together with evidence for its nuclear dependence, suggests its role as a regulatory factor, not a direct signaling molecule. We propose that ldb1 mediates induction of early lens genes in our functional assay by transcriptional activation of lens-inducing signals. Gain-of-function assays demonstrate that the inductive activity of the anterior neural plate on head ectodermal structures can be augmented by ldb1. Loss-of-function assays show that knockdown of ldb1 leads to decreased expression of early lens and retinal markers and subsequently to defects in eye development. CONCLUSIONS: The functional cloning, expression pattern, overexpression, and knockdown data show that an ldb1-regulated mechanism acts as an early signal for Xenopus lens induction.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Ectoderma/embriologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Cápsula do Cristalino/embriologia , Organogênese/fisiologia , Proteínas de Xenopus/biossíntese , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Ectoderma/citologia , Embrião não Mamífero/citologia , Embrião não Mamífero/embriologia , Cápsula do Cristalino/citologia , Crista Neural/citologia , Crista Neural/embriologia , Retina/citologia , Retina/embriologia , Proteínas de Xenopus/genética , Xenopus laevis
8.
J Virol ; 88(5): 2426-41, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24335316

RESUMO

Antibodies m66.6 and 2F5 are the only effective human HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies reported thus far to recognize the N-terminal region of the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the gp41 subunit of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. Although 2F5 has been extensively characterized, much less is known about antibody m66.6 or antibody m66, a closely related light-chain variant. Here, we report the crystal structure of m66 in complex with its gp41 epitope, along with unbound structures of m66 and m66.6. We used mutational and binding analyses to decipher antibody elements critical for their recognition of gp41 and determined the molecular basis that underlies their neutralization of HIV-1. When bound by m66, the N-terminal region of the gp41 MPER adopts a conformation comprising a helix, followed by an extended loop. Comparison of gp41-bound m66 to unbound m66.6 identified three light-chain residues of m66.6 that were confirmed through mutagenesis to underlie the greater breadth of m66.6-mediated virus neutralization. Recognition of gp41 by m66 also revealed similarities to antibody 2F5 both in the conformation of crucial epitope residues as well as in the angle of antibody approach. Aromatic residues at the tip of the m66.6 heavy-chain third complementarity-determining region, as in the case of 2F5, were determined to be critical for virus neutralization in a manner that correlated with antibody recognition of the MPER in a lipid context. Antibodies m66, m66.6, and 2F5 thus utilize similar mechanistic elements to recognize a common gp41-MPER epitope and to neutralize HIV-1.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/metabolismo , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/química , Regiões Determinantes de Complementaridade/química , Regiões Determinantes de Complementaridade/genética , Regiões Determinantes de Complementaridade/metabolismo , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/química , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/metabolismo , Proteína gp41 do Envelope de HIV/química , Proteína gp41 do Envelope de HIV/imunologia , Proteína gp41 do Envelope de HIV/metabolismo , HIV-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Testes de Neutralização , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/imunologia , Ligação Proteica/imunologia , Conformação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas/imunologia
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