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1.
Br J Cancer ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901135

RESUMO

There are well-established disparities in cancer incidence and outcomes by race/ethnicity that result from the interplay between structural, socioeconomic, socio-environmental, behavioural and biological factors. However, large research studies designed to investigate factors contributing to cancer aetiology and progression have mainly focused on populations of European origin. The limitations in clinicopathological and genetic data, as well as the reduced availability of biospecimens from diverse populations, contribute to the knowledge gap and have the potential to widen cancer health disparities. In this review, we summarise reported disparities and associated factors in the United States of America (USA) for the most common cancers (breast, prostate, lung and colon), and for a subset of other cancers that highlight the complexity of disparities (gastric, liver, pancreas and leukaemia). We focus on populations commonly identified and referred to as racial/ethnic minorities in the USA-African Americans/Blacks, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians/other Pacific Islanders and Hispanics/Latinos. We conclude that even though substantial progress has been made in understanding the factors underlying cancer health disparities, marked inequities persist. Additional efforts are needed to include participants from diverse populations in the research of cancer aetiology, biology and treatment. Furthermore, to eliminate cancer health disparities, it will be necessary to facilitate access to, and utilisation of, health services to all individuals, and to address structural inequities, including racism, that disproportionally affect racial/ethnic minorities in the USA.

2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4423, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887889

RESUMO

Deciphering the shared genetic basis of distinct cancers has the potential to elucidate carcinogenic mechanisms and inform broadly applicable risk assessment efforts. Here, we undertake genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and comprehensive evaluations of heritability and pleiotropy across 18 cancer types in two large, population-based cohorts: the UK Biobank (408,786 European ancestry individuals; 48,961 cancer cases) and the Kaiser Permanente Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging cohorts (66,526 European ancestry individuals; 16,001 cancer cases). The GWAS detect 21 genome-wide significant associations independent of previously reported results. Investigations of pleiotropy identify 12 cancer pairs exhibiting either positive or negative genetic correlations; 25 pleiotropic loci; and 100 independent pleiotropic variants, many of which are regulatory elements and/or influence cross-tissue gene expression. Our findings demonstrate widespread pleiotropy and offer further insight into the complex genetic architecture of cross-cancer susceptibility.

3.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(17): 4651-4660, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651179

RESUMO

PURPOSE: African American (AFR) men have the highest mortality rate from prostate cancer (PCa) compared with men of other racial/ancestral groups. Differences in the spectrum of somatic genome alterations in tumors between AFR men and other populations have not been well-characterized due to a lack of inclusion of significant numbers in genomic studies. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To identify genomic alterations associated with race, we compared the frequencies of somatic alterations in PCa obtained from four publicly available datasets comprising 250 AFR and 611 European American (EUR) men and a targeted sequencing dataset from a commercial platform of 436 AFR and 3018 EUR men. RESULTS: Mutations in ZFHX3 as well as focal deletions in ETV3 were more frequent in tumors from AFR men. TP53 mutations were associated with increasing Gleason score. MYC amplifications were more frequent in tumors from AFR men with metastatic PCa, whereas deletions in PTEN and rearrangements in TMPRSS2-ERG were less frequent in tumors from AFR men. KMT2D truncations and CCND1 amplifications were more frequent in primary PCa from AFR men. Genomic features that could impact clinical decision making were not significantly different between the two groups including tumor mutation burden, MSI status, and genomic alterations in select DNA repair genes, CDK12, and in AR. CONCLUSIONS: Although we identified some novel differences in AFR men compared with other populations, the frequencies of genomic alterations in current therapeutic targets for PCa were similar between AFR and EUR men, suggesting that existing precision medicine approaches could be equally beneficial if applied equitably.

4.
Neuro Oncol ; 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ependymoma is a histologically defined central nervous system tumor most commonly occurring in childhood. Population-level incidence differences by race/ethnicity are observed, with individuals of European ancestry at highest risk. We aimed to determine whether extent of European genetic ancestry is associated with ependymoma risk in US populations. METHODS: In a multi-ethnic study of Californian children (327 cases, 1970 controls), we estimated the proportions of European, African, and Native American ancestry among recently admixed Hispanic and African American subjects and estimated European admixture among non-Hispanic white subjects using genome-wide data. We tested whether genome-wide ancestry differences were associated with ependymoma risk and performed admixture mapping to identify associations with local ancestry. We also evaluated race/ethnicity-stratified ependymoma incidence data from the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS). RESULTS: CBTRUS data revealed that African American and Native American children have 33% and 36%, respectively, reduced incidence of ependymoma compared with non-Hispanic whites. In genetic analyses, a 20% increase in European ancestry was associated with a 1.31-fold higher odds of ependymoma among self-reported Hispanics and African Americans (95% CI: 1.08-1.59, Pmeta = 6.7 × 10-3). Additionally, eastern European ancestral substructure was associated with increased ependymoma risk in non-Hispanic whites (P = 0.030) and in Hispanics (P = 0.043). Admixture mapping revealed a peak at 20p13 associated with increased local European ancestry, and targeted fine-mapping identified a lead variant at rs6039499 near RSPO4 (odds ratio = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.45-2.73; P = 2.2 × 10-5) but which was not validated in an independent set of posterior fossa type A patients. CONCLUSIONS: Interethnic differences in ependymoma risk are recapitulated in the genomic ancestry of ependymoma patients, implicating regions to target in future association studies.

5.
Blood Adv ; 4(12): 2789-2797, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569378

RESUMO

So far, 23 germline susceptibility loci have been associated with multiple myeloma (MM) risk. It is unclear whether the genetic variation associated with MM susceptibility also predisposes to its precursor, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Leveraging 2434 MM cases, 754 MGUS cases, and 2 independent sets of controls (2567/879), we investigated potential shared genetic susceptibility of MM and MGUS by (1) performing MM and MGUS genome-wide association studies (GWAS); (2) validating the association of a polygenic risk score (PRS) based on 23 established MM loci (MM-PRS) with risk of MM, and for the first time with MGUS; and (3) examining genetic correlation of MM and MGUS. Heritability and genetic estimates yielded 17% (standard error [SE] ±0.04) and 15% (SE ±0.11) for MM and MGUS risk, respectively, and a 55% (SE ±0.30) genetic correlation. The MM-PRS was associated with risk of MM when assessed continuously (odds ratio [OR], 1.17 per SD; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.21) or categorically (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.38-2.09 for highest; OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.55-0.90 for lowest compared with middle quintile). The MM-PRS was similarly associated with MGUS (OR, 1.19 per SD; 95% CI, 1.14-1.26 as a continuous measure, OR, 1.77, 95%CI: 1.29-2.43 for highest and OR, 0.70, 95%CI: 0.50-0.98 for lowest compared with middle quintile). MM and MGUS associations did not differ by age, sex, or MM immunoglobulin isotype. We validated a 23-SNP MM-PRS in an independent series of MM cases and provide evidence for its association with MGUS. Our results suggest shared common genetic susceptibility to MM and MGUS.

6.
Cancer Cell ; 37(5): 639-654.e6, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396860

RESUMO

We evaluated ancestry effects on mutation rates, DNA methylation, and mRNA and miRNA expression among 10,678 patients across 33 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We demonstrated that cancer subtypes and ancestry-related technical artifacts are important confounders that have been insufficiently accounted for. Once accounted for, ancestry-associated differences spanned all molecular features and hundreds of genes. Biologically significant differences were usually tissue specific but not specific to cancer. However, admixture and pathway analyses suggested some of these differences are causally related to cancer. Specific findings included increased FBXW7 mutations in patients of African origin, decreased VHL and PBRM1 mutations in renal cancer patients of African origin, and decreased immune activity in bladder cancer patients of East Asian origin.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459537

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Puerto Ricans have the highest childhood asthma prevalence in the United States (23.6%), however, the etiology is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we sought to uncover the genetic architecture of lung function in Puerto Rican youth with and without asthma who were recruited from the island (n=836). METHODS: We used admixture mapping and whole genome sequencing (WGS) data to discover genomic regions associated with lung function. Functional roles of the prioritized candidate SNPs were examined with chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq), RNA-seq, and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We discovered a genomic region at 1q32 that was significantly associated with a 0.12 liter decrease in the lung volume of exhaled air [95%CI: -0.17 to -0.07, p-value=6.62×10-8] with each allele of African ancestry. Within this region, two SNPs were eQTLs of TMEM9 in nasal airway epithelial cells and MROH3P in esophagus mucosa. The minor alleles of these SNPs were associated with significantly decreased lung function and decreased TMEM9 gene expression. Another admixture mapping peak was observed on chromosome 5q35.1, indicating that each Native American ancestry allele was associated with 0.15 liter increase in lung function [95%CI: 0.08 to 0.21, p-value=5.03 ×10-6]. The region-based association tests identified 4 suggestive windows that harbored candidate rare variants associated with lung function. CONCLUSIONS: We identified common and rare genetic variants that may play a critical role in lung function among Puerto Rican youth. We independently validated an inflammatory pathway that could potentially be used to develop more targeted treatments and interventions for patients with asthma.

8.
Genetics ; 215(3): 869-886, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327564

RESUMO

Baseline lung function, quantified as forced expiratory volume in the first second of exhalation (FEV1), is a standard diagnostic criterion used by clinicians to identify and classify lung diseases. Using whole-genome sequencing data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine project, we identified a novel genetic association with FEV1 on chromosome 12 in 867 African American children with asthma (P = 1.26 × 10-8, ß = 0.302). Conditional analysis within 1 Mb of the tag signal (rs73429450) yielded one major and two other weaker independent signals within this peak. We explored statistical and functional evidence for all variants in linkage disequilibrium with the three independent signals and yielded nine variants as the most likely candidates responsible for the association with FEV1 Hi-C data and expression QTL analysis demonstrated that these variants physically interacted with KITLG (KIT ligand, also known as SCF), and their minor alleles were associated with increased expression of the KITLG gene in nasal epithelial cells. Gene-by-air-pollution interaction analysis found that the candidate variant rs58475486 interacted with past-year ambient sulfur dioxide exposure (P = 0.003, ß = 0.32). This study identified a novel protective genetic association with FEV1, possibly mediated through KITLG, in African American children with asthma. This is the first study that has identified a genetic association between lung function and KITLG, which has established a role in orchestrating allergic inflammation in asthma.

9.
Cancer Res ; 80(9): 1893-1901, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245796

RESUMO

Women of Latin American origin in the United States are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced breast cancer and have a higher risk of mortality than non-Hispanic White women. Studies in U.S. Latinas and Latin American women have reported a high incidence of HER2 positive (+) tumors; however, the factors contributing to this observation are unknown. Genome-wide genotype data for 1,312 patients from the Peruvian Genetics and Genomics of Breast Cancer Study (PEGEN-BC) were used to estimate genetic ancestry. We tested the association between HER2 status and genetic ancestry using logistic and multinomial logistic regression models. Findings were replicated in 616 samples from Mexico and Colombia. Average Indigenous American (IA) ancestry differed by subtype. In multivariate models, the odds of having an HER2+ tumor increased by a factor of 1.20 with every 10% increase in IA ancestry proportion (95% CI, 1.07-1.35; P = 0.001). The association between HER2 status and IA ancestry was independently replicated in samples from Mexico and Colombia. Results suggest that the high prevalence of HER2+ tumors in Latinas could be due in part to the presence of population-specific genetic variant(s) affecting HER2 expression in breast cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: The positive association between Indigenous American genetic ancestry and HER2+ breast cancer suggests that the high incidence of HER2+ subtypes in Latinas might be due to population and subtype-specific genetic risk variants.

11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2055: 641-647, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502172

RESUMO

In this chapter, we consider some of the concepts behind multiplatform data integration. First, we examine the types of inferences that can be made using methods that integrate data types. Next, we discuss some broad considerations about methodologies. We conclude with the example of joint analyses of germ line genetic variation, gene expression and complex phenotypes. This chapter draws heavily from analyses that integrate datasets for inference on hereditary aspects of cancer susceptibility. However, these concepts should apply more broadly to other domains.

12.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer susceptibility have been identified; these SNPs can be combined into polygenic risk scores (PRS) to predict breast cancer risk. Since most SNPs were identified in predominantly European populations, little is known about the performance of PRS in non-Europeans. We tested the performance of a 180-SNP PRS in Latinas, a large ethnic group with variable levels of Indigenous American, European, and African ancestry. METHODS: We conducted a pooled case-control analysis of U.S. Latinas and Latin-American women (4,658 cases, 7,622 controls). We constructed a 180-SNP PRS consisting of SNPs associated with breast cancer risk (p < 5 x 10-8). We evaluated the association between the PRS and breast cancer risk using multivariable logistic regression and assessed discrimination using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). We also assessed PRS performance across quartiles of Indigenous American genetic ancestry. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Of 180 SNPs tested, 142 showed directionally consistent associations compared with European populations, and 39 were nominally statistically significant (p < 0.05). The PRS was associated with breast cancer risk, with an odds ratio (OR) per standard deviation increment of 1.58 (95% CI 1.52 to 1.64) and AUCROC of 0.63 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.64). The discrimination of the PRS was similar between the top and bottom quartiles of Indigenous American ancestry. CONCLUSIONS: The 180-SNP PRS predicts breast cancer risk in Latinas, with similar performance as reported for Europeans. The performance of the PRS did not vary substantially according to Indigenous American ancestry.

14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3948, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462633

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3107, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308362

RESUMO

Here we train cis-regulatory models of prostate tissue gene expression and impute expression transcriptome-wide for 233,955 European ancestry men (14,616 prostate cancer (PrCa) cases, 219,339 controls) from two large cohorts. Among 12,014 genes evaluated in the UK Biobank, we identify 38 associated with PrCa, many replicating in the Kaiser Permanente RPGEH. We report the association of elevated TMPRSS2 expression with increased PrCa risk (independent of a previously-reported risk variant) and with increased tumoral expression of the TMPRSS2:ERG fusion-oncogene in The Cancer Genome Atlas, suggesting a novel germline-somatic interaction mechanism. Three novel genes, HOXA4, KLK1, and TIMM23, additionally replicate in the RPGEH cohort. Furthermore, 4 genes, MSMB, NCOA4, PCAT1, and PPP1R14A, are associated with PrCa in a trans-ethnic meta-analysis (N = 9117). Many genes exhibit evidence for allele-specific transcriptional activation by PrCa master-regulators (including androgen receptor) in Position Weight Matrix, Chip-Seq, and Hi-C experimental data, suggesting common regulatory mechanisms for the associated genes.


Assuntos
Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
17.
Hum Mutat ; 40(9): 1612-1622, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241222

RESUMO

The availability of disease-specific genomic data is critical for developing new computational methods that predict the pathogenicity of human variants and advance the field of precision medicine. However, the lack of gold standards to properly train and benchmark such methods is one of the greatest challenges in the field. In response to this challenge, the scientific community is invited to participate in the Critical Assessment for Genome Interpretation (CAGI), where unpublished disease variants are available for classification by in silico methods. As part of the CAGI-5 challenge, we evaluated the performance of 18 submissions and three additional methods in predicting the pathogenicity of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2) for cases of breast cancer in Hispanic females. As part of the assessment, the efficacy of the analysis method and the setup of the challenge were also considered. The results indicated that though the challenge could benefit from additional participant data, the combined generalized linear model analysis and odds of pathogenicity analysis provided a framework to evaluate the methods submitted for SNV pathogenicity identification and for comparison to other available methods. The outcome of this challenge and the approaches used can help guide further advancements in identifying SNV-disease relationships.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
18.
Cancer ; 125(16): 2829-2836, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer and related cause of mortality among Hispanics, yet susceptibility has been understudied. BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) mutations explain less than one-half of hereditary BC, and the proportion associated with other BC susceptibility genes is unknown. METHODS: Germline DNA from 1054 BRCA-mutation-negative Hispanic women with hereditary BC (BC diagnosed at age <51 years, bilateral BC, breast and ovarian cancer, or BC diagnosed at ages 51-70 years with ≥2 first-degree or second-degree relatives who had BC diagnosed at age <70 years), 312 local controls, and 887 multiethnic cohort controls was sequenced and analyzed for 12 known and suspected, high-penetrance and moderate-penetrance cancer susceptibility genes (ataxia telangiectasia mutated [ATM], breast cancer 1 interacting protein C-terminal helicase 1 [BRIP1], cadherin 1 [CDH1], checkpoint kinase 2 [CHEK2], nibrin [NBN], neurofibromatosis type 1 [NF1], partner and localizer of BRCA2 [PALB2], phosphatase and tensin homolog [PTEN], RAD51 paralog 3 [RAD51C], RAD51D, serine/threonine kinase 11 [STK11], and TP53). RESULTS: Forty-nine (4.6%) pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants (PVs) in 47 of 1054 participants (4.5%), including 21 truncating frameshift, 20 missense, 5 nonsense, and 4 splice variants, were identified in CHEK2 (n = 20), PALB2 (n = 18), ATM (n = 5), TP53 (n = 3), BRIP1 (n = 2), and CDH1 and NF1 (both n = 1) and none were identified in NBN, PTEN, STK11, RAD51C, or RAD51D. Nine participants carried the PALB2 c.2167_2168del PV (0.85%), and 14 carried the CHEK2 c.707T>C PV (1.32%). CONCLUSIONS: Of 1054 BRCA-negative, high-risk Hispanic women, 4.5% carried a PV in a cancer susceptibility gene, increasing understanding of hereditary BC in this population. Recurrent PVs in PALB2 and CHEK2 represented 47% (23 of 49) of the total, suggesting a founder effect. Accurate classification of variants was enabled by carefully controlling for ancestry and the increased identification of at-risk Hispanics for screening and prevention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Idoso , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética
19.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 131, 2019 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113486

RESUMO

Tumor immunology has changed the landscape of cancer treatment. Yet, not all patients benefit as cancer immune responsiveness (CIR) remains a limitation in a considerable proportion of cases. The multifactorial determinants of CIR include the genetic makeup of the patient, the genomic instability central to cancer development, the evolutionary emergence of cancer phenotypes under the influence of immune editing, and external modifiers such as demographics, environment, treatment potency, co-morbidities and cancer-independent alterations including immune homeostasis and polymorphisms in the major and minor histocompatibility molecules, cytokines, and chemokines. Based on the premise that cancer is fundamentally a disorder of the genes arising within a cell biologic process, whose deviations from normality determine the rules of engagement with the host's response, the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) convened a task force of experts from various disciplines including, immunology, oncology, biophysics, structural biology, molecular and cellular biology, genetics, and bioinformatics to address the complexity of CIR from a holistic view. The task force was launched by a workshop held in San Francisco on May 14-15, 2018 aimed at two preeminent goals: 1) to identify the fundamental questions related to CIR and 2) to create an interactive community of experts that could guide scientific and research priorities by forming a logical progression supported by multiple perspectives to uncover mechanisms of CIR. This workshop was a first step toward a second meeting where the focus would be to address the actionability of some of the questions identified by working groups. In this event, five working groups aimed at defining a path to test hypotheses according to their relevance to human cancer and identifying experimental models closest to human biology, which include: 1) Germline-Genetic, 2) Somatic-Genetic and 3) Genomic-Transcriptional contributions to CIR, 4) Determinant(s) of Immunogenic Cell Death that modulate CIR, and 5) Experimental Models that best represent CIR and its conversion to an immune responsive state. This manuscript summarizes the contributions from each group and should be considered as a first milestone in the path toward a more contemporary understanding of CIR. We appreciate that this effort is far from comprehensive and that other relevant aspects related to CIR such as the microbiome, the individual's recombined T cell and B cell receptors, and the metabolic status of cancer and immune cells were not fully included. These and other important factors will be included in future activities of the taskforce. The taskforce will focus on prioritization and specific actionable approach to answer the identified questions and implementing the collaborations in the follow-up workshop, which will be held in Houston on September 4-5, 2019.

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