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1.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(10): 1585-1591, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606349

RESUMO

Reducing the rate of cesarean sections among women considered at low risk for delivery by that method is a goal of Healthy People 2030. Prior research suggests that perinatal mood and anxiety disorders increase the risk for cesarean section, but data are limited. This cross-sectional study of commercially insured women examined the relationship between perinatal depression and anxiety disorders and primary (first-time) cesarean section rates, using administrative claims data for US in-hospital deliveries from the period 2008-17. Of the 360,225 delivery hospitalizations among 317,802 unique women, 24.0 percent included a delivery by primary cesarean section, and 3.1 percent carried a diagnosis of depression, anxiety, or both made during the index pregnancy. Using an adjusted generalized estimating equation, we found that the predicted probability of primary cesarean section was 3.5 percentage points higher, on average, among women with these disorders compared with those without them. Our findings confirm the importance of pursuing research to identify mechanisms by which perinatal depression and anxiety disorders increase the risk for primary caesarean section among women otherwise considered at low risk for delivery by that method, as well as effective interventions.

2.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(10): 1663-1666, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606356

RESUMO

A psychiatry professor's recovery from perinatal depression drives her research to facilitate practice and policy change.

3.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(10): 1534-1542, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606359

RESUMO

One in five pregnant or postpartum people has a diagnosed mood or anxiety disorder, which are the most common mental health illnesses that occur during the perinatal period. Untreated perinatal mental health conditions, encompassing pregnancy and the first five years of a child's life, carry a societal burden of $14 billion per year in the US. This overview article describes the prevalence of perinatal mental health conditions; the implications of those conditions; and associated barriers to screening, treatment, and bias associated with mental health conditions. We offer six policy opportunities designed to overcome the barriers and support overall sexual and reproductive health: extending Medicaid coverage through twelve months postpartum; redesigning care and reimbursement through co-location of services; establishing coverage for home visiting and peer support programs; enhancing telehealth policies that support access and coverage beyond the COVID-19 pandemic; enhancing data, research, and accountability; and enacting social and economic policies that support families.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Mental , Criança , Humanos , Pandemias , Políticas , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Affect Disord ; 294: 337-345, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311334

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To reduce delays in referral to specialty mental health care, we evaluated clinical prediction models estimating the likelihood of response to primary care treatment of depression in the VA healthcare system. METHODS: We included patients with a primary care depression diagnosis between October 1, 2015 and December 31, 2017, an initial PHQ-9 score ≥ 10 within 30 days, a follow-up PHQ-9 score within 2-8 months, and no specialty mental health care within three months prior to depression diagnosis. We evaluated eight ordinary least squares regression models, each with a different procedure for selecting predictors of percentage change in PHQ-9 score from baseline to follow-up. Predictors included patient characteristics from electronic health records and neighborhood characteristics from US census data. We repeated each modeling procedure 1,000 times, using different training and validation sets of patients. We used R2, RMSE, and MAE to evaluate model performance. RESULTS: The final cohort included 3,464 patients. The two best performing models included multiple iterations of backwards stepwise variable selection with R2 of 0.07, RMSE of 41.45, MAE of 33.30; and R2 of 0.07, RMSE of 41.39, MAE of 33.28. LIMITATIONS: Wide follow-up interval, possibility of misclassification error due to use of EHR data. CONCLUSIONS: Model performance did not suggest its use as a guide in clinical decision-making. Future research should explore whether obtaining additional risk factor data from patients (e.g., duration of symptoms) or modeling PHQ-9 scores over a narrower time interval improves performance of clinical risk prediction tools for depression.

5.
Am J Prev Med ; 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244005

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Experts recommend integrating smoking-cessation treatments within U.S. mental health settings, but the population health benefits of doing so have not been estimated. This study simulates the impact of widespread cessation treatment for patients with depression under best-case treatment and maximum potential cessation scenarios. METHODS: Cessation interventions were simulated for U.S. adult smokers seeing a health professional for depression from 2020 to 2100. Interventions included (1) Any Treatment (behavioral counseling, pharmacological, combination) and (2) Pharmacological Treatment (including counseling), combined with increased mental health service utilization each. These were compared with a maximum potential cessation scenario where all patients with major depression quit smoking. Analyses were conducted in 2016-2020. RESULTS: Widespread uptake of Any Treatment among patients with depression would avert 32,000 deaths and result in 138,000 life-years gained by 2100; Any Treatment combined with 100% mental health service utilization would result in 53,000 and 231,000, respectively. Pharmacological Treatment would avert 125,000 deaths, with 540,000 life-years gained. Pharmacological Treatment combined with 100% mental health service utilization would result in 203,000 deaths averted and 887,000 life-years gained. Health gains under best-case treatment scenarios represent modest fractions of those projected under maximum potential cessation scenarios at current mental health service utilization levels (835,000 deaths averted, 3.73 million life-years gained) and at 100% utilization (1.11 million deaths averted, 5.07 million life years gained). CONCLUSIONS: Providing smoking-cessation treatment to patients with depression and increasing mental health service utilization would reduce the toll of tobacco on this population. These gains would be considerably larger if cessation treatments were more effective.

6.
JAMA ; 326(2): 154-164, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255008

RESUMO

Importance: There is limited information about trends in the treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD) among Medicaid enrollees. Objective: To examine the use of medications for OUD and potential indicators of quality of care in multiple states. Design, Setting, and Participants: Exploratory serial cross-sectional study of 1 024 301 Medicaid enrollees in 11 states aged 12 through 64 years (not eligible for Medicare) with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9 or ICD-10) codes for OUD from 2014 through 2018. Each state used generalized estimating equations to estimate associations between enrollee characteristics and outcome measure prevalence, subsequently pooled to generate global estimates using random effects meta-analyses. Exposures: Calendar year, demographic characteristics, eligibility groups, and comorbidities. Main Outcomes and Measures: Use of medications for OUD (buprenorphine, methadone, or naltrexone); potential indicators of good quality (OUD medication continuity for 180 days, behavioral health counseling, urine drug tests); potential indicators of poor quality (prescribing of opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines). Results: In 2018, 41.7% of Medicaid enrollees with OUD were aged 21 through 34 years, 51.2% were female, 76.1% were non-Hispanic White, 50.7% were eligible through Medicaid expansion, and 50.6% had other substance use disorders. Prevalence of OUD increased in these 11 states from 3.3% (290 628 of 8 737 082) in 2014 to 5.0% (527 983 of 10 585 790) in 2018. The pooled prevalence of enrollees with OUD receiving medication treatment increased from 47.8% in 2014 (range across states, 35.3% to 74.5%) to 57.1% in 2018 (range, 45.7% to 71.7%). The overall prevalence of enrollees receiving 180 days of continuous medications for OUD did not significantly change from the 2014-2015 to 2017-2018 periods (-0.01 prevalence difference, 95% CI, -0.03 to 0.02) with state variability in trend (90% prediction interval, -0.08 to 0.06). Non-Hispanic Black enrollees had lower OUD medication use than White enrollees (prevalence ratio [PR], 0.72; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.81; P < .001; 90% prediction interval, 0.52 to 1.00). Pregnant women had higher use of OUD medications (PR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.11-1.25; P < .001; 90% prediction interval, 1.01-1.38) and medication continuity (PR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.10-1.17, P < .001; 90% prediction interval, 1.06-1.22) than did other eligibility groups. Conclusions and Relevance: Among US Medicaid enrollees in 11 states, the prevalence of medication use for treatment of opioid use disorder increased from 2014 through 2018. The pattern in other states requires further research.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/tendências , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicaid , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Naltrexona/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Int Rev Psychiatry ; 33(6): 553-556, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098849

RESUMO

Increases in postpartum maternal deaths, including a substantial number associated with behavioural health conditions, are a public health crisis and have contributed to overall increases in maternal mortality. A leading hypothesis to explain this pattern suggests lack of availability or continuity of resources for behavioural health treatment after delivery, often secondary to lapses in insurance coverage. Extending postpartum Medicaid coverage through the first year postpartum could mitigate excess morbidity and mortality among postpartum individuals, particularly those with behavioural health conditions.

9.
Mil Med ; 186(9-10): 850-857, 2021 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825897

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although the benefits of employment for veterans with mental health conditions are well-known, the effect of veterans' employment on a health system has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of veterans' employment (versus unemployment) on subsequent health care utilization in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study used a sample of 29,022 veterans with mental health and substance use disorders who were discharged from VHA's employment services programs between fiscal years 2006 and 2010. Veterans' employment status (employed/unemployed) upon discharge from VHA employment programs was ascertained from program discharge forms and linked with VHA administrative health care utilization data for the subsequent 1- and 5-year periods. RESULTS: Multivariable ordinary least-squares and logistic regression models adjusted for site clustering and covariates indicated that employment (versus unemployment) predicted less health care utilization 1 year and 5 years post-discharge from employment services, including fewer outpatient mental health visits, homelessness services visits, employment services visits, primary care visits, and lower odds of mental health hospitalizations, mental health or vocational rehabilitation residential stays, and medical hospitalizations. Employment did not predict emergency department visits. CONCLUSIONS: VHA's investment in employment services for veterans with mental health and substance use disorders could reduce health care utilization system wide.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Veteranos , Assistência ao Convalescente , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Alta do Paciente , Reabilitação Vocacional , Desemprego , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
10.
JAMA ; 325(10): 952-961, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687462

RESUMO

Importance: Community-dwelling older adults with dementia have a high prevalence of psychotropic and opioid use. In these patients, central nervous system (CNS)-active polypharmacy may increase the risk for impaired cognition, fall-related injury, and death. Objective: To determine the extent of CNS-active polypharmacy among community-dwelling older adults with dementia in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional analysis of all community-dwelling older adults with dementia (identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification or International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision diagnosis codes; N = 1 159 968) and traditional Medicare coverage from 2015 to 2017. Medication exposure was estimated using prescription fills between October 1, 2017, and December 31, 2018. Exposures: Part D coverage during the observation year (January 1-December 31, 2018). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the prevalence of CNS-active polypharmacy in 2018, defined as exposure to 3 or more medications for longer than 30 days consecutively from the following classes: antidepressants, antipsychotics, antiepileptics, benzodiazepines, nonbenzodiazepine benzodiazepine receptor agonist hypnotics, and opioids. Among those who met the criterion for polypharmacy, duration of exposure, number of distinct medications and classes prescribed, common class combinations, and the most commonly used CNS-active medications also were determined. Results: The study included 1 159 968 older adults with dementia (median age, 83.0 years [interquartile range {IQR}, 77.0-88.6 years]; 65.2% were female), of whom 13.9% (n = 161 412) met the criterion for CNS-active polypharmacy (32 139 610 polypharmacy-days of exposure). Those with CNS-active polypharmacy had a median age of 79.4 years (IQR, 74.0-85.5 years) and 71.2% were female. Among those who met the criterion for CNS-active polypharmacy, the median number of polypharmacy-days was 193 (IQR, 88-315 polypharmacy-days). Of those with CNS-active polypharmacy, 57.8% were exposed for longer than 180 days and 6.8% for 365 days; 29.4% were exposed to 5 or more medications and 5.2% were exposed to 5 or more medication classes. Ninety-two percent of polypharmacy-days included an antidepressant, 47.1% included an antipsychotic, and 40.7% included a benzodiazepine. The most common medication class combination included an antidepressant, an antiepileptic, and an antipsychotic (12.9% of polypharmacy-days). Gabapentin was the most common medication and was associated with 33.0% of polypharmacy-days. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional analysis of Medicare claims data, 13.9% of older adults with dementia in 2018 filled prescriptions consistent with CNS-active polypharmacy. The lack of information on prescribing indications limits judgments about clinical appropriateness of medication combinations for individual patients.


Assuntos
Fármacos do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Demência/tratamento farmacológico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Polimedicação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
11.
J Addict Med ; 15(5): 406-413, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560699

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: State Medicaid programs are the largest single provider of healthcare for pregnant persons with opioid use disorder (OUD). Our objective was to provide comparable, multistate measures estimating the burden of OUD in pregnancy, medication for OUD (MOUD) in pregnancy, and related neonatal and child outcomes. METHODS: Drawing on the Medicaid Outcomes Distributed Research Network (MODRN), we accessed administrative healthcare data for 1.6 million pregnancies and 1.3 million live births in 9 state Medicaid populations from 2014 to 2017. We analyzed within- and between-state prevalences and time trends in the following outcomes: diagnosis of OUD in pregnancy, initiation, and continuity of MOUD in pregnancy, Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome (NOWS), and well-child visit utilization among children with NOWS. RESULTS: OUD diagnosis increased from 49.6 per 1000 to 54.1 per 1000 pregnancies, and the percentage of those with any MOUD in pregnancy increased from 53.4% to 57.9%, during our study time period. State-specific percentages of 180-day continuity of MOUD ranged from 41.2% to 84.5%. The rate of neonates diagnosed with NOWS increased from 32.7 to 37.0 per 1000 live births. State-specific percentages of children diagnosed with NOWS who had the recommended well-child visits in the first 15 months ranged from 39.3% to 62.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Medicaid data, which allow for longitudinal surveillance of care across different settings, can be used to monitor OUD and related pregnancy and child health outcomes. Findings highlight the need for public health efforts to improve care for pregnant persons and children affected by OUD.

13.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 76(6): 1218-1230, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777052

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Whether the Affordable Care Act (ACA) insurance expansions improved access to care and health for adults aged 51-64 years has not been closely examined. This study examined longitudinal changes in access, utilization, and health for low-socioeconomic status adults aged 51-64 years before and after the ACA Medicaid expansion. METHODS: Longitudinal difference-in-differences (DID) study before (2010-2014) and after (2016) Medicaid expansion, including N = 2,088 noninstitutionalized low-education adults aged 51-64 years (n = 633 in Medicaid expansion states, n = 1,455 in nonexpansion states) from the nationally representative biennial Health and Retirement Study. Outcomes included coverage (any, Medicaid, and private), access (usual source of care, difficulty finding a physician, foregone care, cost-related medication nonadherence, and out-of-pocket costs), utilization (outpatient visit and hospitalization), and health status. RESULTS: Low-education adults aged 51-64 years had increased rates of Medicaid coverage (+10.6 percentage points [pp] in expansion states, +3.2 pp in nonexpansion states, DID +7.4 pp, p = .001) and increased likelihood of hospitalizations (+9.2 pp in expansion states, -1.1 pp in nonexpansion states, DID +10.4 pp, p = .003) in Medicaid expansion compared with nonexpansion states after 2014. Those in expansion states also had a smaller increase in limitations in paid work/housework over time, compared to those in nonexpansion states (+3.6 pp in expansion states, +11.0 pp in nonexpansion states, DID -7.5 pp, p = .006). There were no other significant differences in access, utilization, or health trends between expansion and nonexpansion states. DISCUSSION: After Medicaid expansion, low-education status adults aged 51-64 years were more likely to be hospitalized, suggesting poor baseline access to chronic disease management and pent-up demand for hospital services.

14.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 78(2): 171-176, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206140

RESUMO

Importance: Suicide deaths are a leading cause of maternal mortality in the US, yet the prevalence and trends in suicidality (suicidal ideation and/or intentional self-harm) among childbearing individuals remain poorly described. Objective: To characterize trends in suicidality among childbearing individuals. Design, Setting, and Participants: This serial cross-sectional study analyzed data from a medical claims database for a large commercially insured population in the US from January 2006 to December 2017. There were 2714 diagnoses of suicidality 1 year before or after 698 239 deliveries among 595 237 individuals aged 15 to 44 years who were continuously enrolled in a single commercial health insurance plan. Data were analyzed from October 2019 to September 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was diagnosis of suicidality in childbearing individuals 1 year before or after birth based on the identification of relevant International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) and ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes during at least 1 inpatient or 2 outpatient visits. Results: Of 595 237 included childbearing individuals, the mean (SD) age at delivery was 31.9 (6.4) years. A total of 40 568 individuals (6.8%) were Asian, 52 613 (8.6%) were Black, 73 172 (12.1%) were Hispanic, 369 501 (63.1%) were White, and 59 383 (9.5%) had unknown or missing race/ethnicity data. A total of 2683 individuals were diagnosed with suicidality 1 year before or after giving birth for a total of 2714 diagnoses. The prevalence of suicidal ideation increased from 0.1% per 100 individuals in 2006 to 0.5% per 100 individuals in 2017 (difference, 0.4%; SE, 0.03; P < .001). Intentional self-harm prevalence increased from 0.1% per 100 individuals in 2006 to 0.2% per 100 individuals in 2017 (difference, 0.1%; SE, 0.02; P < .001). Suicidality prevalence increased from 0.2% per 100 individuals in 2006 to 0.6% per 100 individuals in 2017 (difference, 0.4%; SE, 0.04; P < .001). Diagnoses of suicidality with comorbid depression or anxiety increased from 1.2% per 100 individuals in 2006 to 2.6% per 100 individuals in 2017 (difference, 1.4%; SE, 0.2; P < .001). Diagnoses of suicidality with comorbid bipolar or psychotic disorders increased from 6.9% per 100 individuals in 2006 to 16.9% per 100 individuals in 2017 (difference, 10.1%; SE, 0.2; P < .001). Non-Hispanic Black individuals, individuals with lower income, and younger individuals experienced larger increases in suicidality over the study period. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of US childbearing individuals, the prevalence of suicidal ideation and intentional self-harm occurring in the year preceding or following birth increased substantially over a 12-year period. Policy makers, health plans, and clinicians should ensure access to universal suicidality screening and appropriate treatment for pregnant and postpartum individuals and seek health system and policy avenues to mitigate this growing public health crisis, particularly for high-risk groups.

15.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(12): e18345, 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), mental health providers (MHPs) report the second highest level of burnout after primary care physicians. Burnout is defined as increased emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and decreased sense of personal accomplishment at work. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to characterize variation in MHP burnout by VHA facility over time, identifying workplace characteristics and practices of high-performing facilities. METHODS: Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, we will evaluate factors that influence MHP burnout and their effects on patient outcomes. We will compile annual survey data on workplace conditions and annual staffing as well as productivity data to assess same and subsequent year provider and patient outcomes reflecting provider and patient experiences. We will conduct interviews with mental health leadership at the facility level and with frontline MHPs sampled based on our quantitative findings. We will present our findings to an expert panel of operational partners, Veterans Affairs clinicians, administrators, policy leaders, and experts in burnout. We will reengage with facilities that participated in the earlier qualitative interviews and will hold focus groups that share results based on our quantitative and qualitative work combined with input from our expert panel. We will broadly disseminate these findings to support the development of actionable policies and approaches to addressing MHP burnout. RESULTS: This study will assist in developing and testing interventions to improve MHP burnout and employee engagement. Our work will contribute to improvements within VHA and will generate insights for health care delivery, informing efforts to address burnout. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first comprehensive, longitudinal, national, mixed methods study that incorporates different types of MHPs. It will engage MHP leadership and frontline providers in understanding facilitators and barriers to effectively address burnout. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): PRR1-10.2196/18345.

17.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 216: 108236, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The contribution of substance use disorders to the burden of severe maternal morbidity in the United States is poorly understood. The objective was to estimate the independent association between substance use disorders during pregnancy and risk of severe maternal morbidity. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a weighted 53.4 million delivery hospitalizations from 2003 to 2016 among females aged>18 in the National Inpatient Sample. We constructed measures of substance use disorders using diagnostic codes for cannabis, opioids, and stimulants (amphetamines or cocaine) abuse or dependence during pregnancy. The outcome was the presence of any of the 21 CDC indicators of severe maternal morbidity. Using weighted multivariable logistic regression, we estimated the association between substance use disorders and adjusted risk of severe maternal morbidity. Because older age at delivery is predictive of severe maternal morbidity, we tested for effect modification between substance use and maternal age by age group (18-34 y vs >34 y). RESULTS: Pregnant women with an opioid use disorder had an increased risk of severe maternal morbidity compared with women without an opioid use disorder (18-34 years: aOR: 1.51; 95 % CI: 1.41,1.61, >34 years: aOR: 1.17; 95 % CI: 1.00,1.38). Compared with their counterparts without stimulant use disorders, pregnant women with a simulant use disorder (amphetamines, cocaine) had an increased risk of severe maternal morbidity (18-34 years: aOR: 1.92; 95 % CI: 1.80,2.0, >34 years: aOR: 1.85; 95 % CI: 1.66,2.06). Cannabis use disorders were not associated with an increased risk of severe maternal morbidity. CONCLUSION: Substance use disorders during pregnancy, particularly opioids, amphetamines, and cocaine use disorders, may contribute to severe maternal morbidity in the United States.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Idade Materna , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Prev Med ; 140: 106241, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860820

RESUMO

Tobacco-related health disparities disproportionately affect smokers with major depression (MD). Although tobacco simulation models have been applied to general populations, to date they have not considered populations with a comorbid mental health condition. We developed and calibrated a simulation model of smoking and MD comorbidity for the US adult population using the 2005-2018 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We use this model to evaluate trends in smoking prevalence, smoking-attributable mortality and life-years lost among adults with MD, and changes in smoking prevalence by mental health status from 2018 to 2060. The model integrates known interaction effects between smoking initiation and cessation, and MD onset and recurrence. We show that from 2018 to 2060, smoking prevalence will continue declining among those with current MD. In the absence of intervention, people with MD will be increasingly disproportionately affected by smoking compared to the general population; our model shows that the smoking prevalence ratio between those with current MD and those without a history of MD increases from 1.54 to 2.42 for men and from 1.81 to 2.73 for women during this time period. From 2018 to 2060, approximately 484,000 smoking-attributable deaths will occur among adults with current MD, leading to 11.3 million life-years lost. Ambitious tobacco control efforts could alter this trajectory. With aggressive public health efforts, up to 264,000 of those premature deaths could be avoided, translating into 7.5 million life years gained. This model can compare the relative health gains across different intervention strategies for smokers with MD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Adulto , Depressão , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fumar , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar Tabaco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 150, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: National estimates of perinatal mood and anxiety disorders (PMAD) and serious mental illness (SMI) among delivering women over time, as well as associated outcomes and costs, are lacking. The prevalence of perinatal mood and anxiety disorders and serious mental illness from 2006 to 2015 were estimated as well as associated risk of adverse obstetric outcomes, including severe maternal morbidity and mortality (SMMM), and delivery costs. METHODS: The study was a serial, cross-sectional analysis of National Inpatient Sample data. The prevalence of PMAD and SMI was estimated among delivering women as well as obstetric outcomes, healthcare utilization, and delivery costs using adjusted weighted logistic with predictive margins and generalized linear regression models, respectively. RESULTS: The study included an estimated 39,025,974 delivery hospitalizations from 2006 to 2015 in the U.S. PMAD increased from 18.4 (95% CI 16.4-20.0) to 40.4 (95% CI 39.3-41.6) per 1000 deliveries. SMI also increased among delivering women over time, from 4.2 (95% CI 3.9-4.6) to 8.1 (95% CI 7.9-8.4) per 1000 deliveries. Medicaid covered 72% (95% CI 71.2-72.9) of deliveries complicated by SMI compared to 44% (95% CI 43.1-45.0) and 43.5% (95% CI 42.5-44.5) among PMAD and all other deliveries, respectively. Women with PMAD and SMI experienced higher incidence of SMMM, and increased hospital transfers, lengths of stay, and delivery-related costs compared to other deliveries (P < .001 for all). CONCLUSION: Over the past decade, the prevalence of both PMAD and SMI among delivering women increased substantially across the United States, and affected women had more adverse obstetric outcomes and delivery-related costs compared to other deliveries.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mortalidade Materna , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Parto , Assistência Perinatal , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
J Am Coll Health ; : 1-10, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529930

RESUMO

Objective: To assess mental health symptoms, suicidal ideation/behaviors, and treatment among a nationally representative probability sample of student veterans. Participants: Student veterans enrolled in post-secondary educational institutions and matched comparison students. Methods: Sampled participants completed an online survey (n = 1,838). Analyses accounted for the complex sample design and non-response. Results: Substantial percentages of student veterans screened positive for: depression (36.9%, 95% CI: 31.1-42.7), PTSD (35.7%, 95% CI 29.9-41.5), anxiety (29.5%, 95% CI 26.8-32.2), and suicidal ideation (14.6%, 95% CI 12.1-17.1), with student veterans having odds ratios between 1.7 to 2.4 for positive screens compared to non-veteran students. Only 41.5% (95% CI 33.0-50.0) of student veterans with positive screens received treatment, although they had 50% higher odds of receiving treatment than non-veteran students. Conclusions: Student veterans have high rates of mental health symptoms and low rates of treatment. However, they are more likely to receive treatment than comparison students.

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