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1.
Toxicol Lett ; 341: 1-10, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429014

RESUMO

Piscine cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes play an important role in the metabolism of xenobiotics. Xenobiotics often act as inducers of CYP1A1 and CYP3A expression and activity in fish. We compared constitutive mRNA expression of CYP1A1, CYP3A27, and CYP3A45 and catalytic activity of CYP1A (7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation, EROD) and CYP3A-like (benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin-O-debenzyloxylation, BFCOD) enzymes in the following six rainbow trout tissues: liver, gill, heart, brain, intestine, and gonad. mRNA expression and activity were present in all investigated tissues. The CYP1A1 mRNA expression was higher in the liver, gill, heart, and brain compared to gonad and intestine. The intestine was the main site of CYP3A27 and CYP3A45 expression. The highest EROD and BFCOD activity was observed in liver tissue followed in descending order by heart, brain, gill, intestine, and gonad. Such differences might be related to the role of CYP physiological functions in the specific tissue. Rainbow trout exposure to 50 mg/kg of ß-naphthoflavone for 48 h resulted in a 7.5- and 5.9-fold increase in liver EROD and BFCOD activity, respectively. In vitro EROD activity inhibition with ellipticine showed tissue-specific inhibition, while ketoconazole decreased BFCOD activity by 50-98 % in all tissues. Further studies are needed to identify all CYP isoforms that are responsible for these activities and modes of regulation.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Feminino , Brânquias/enzimologia , Intestinos/enzimologia , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Miocárdio/enzimologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Caracteres Sexuais
2.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115593, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254619

RESUMO

With increasing demand for aquaculture products, water reuse is likely to increase for aquaculture operations around the world. Herein, wastewater stabilization ponds (WSP) represents low cost and sustainable treatment technologies to reduce nutrients and various contaminants of emerging concern from effluent. In the present study, we examined bioaccumulation of selected pharmaceuticals from several therapeutic classes by two important fish species in aquaculture with different feeding preferences (Cyprinus carpio and Sander lucioperca) and their common prey to test whether species specific accumulation occurs. Forty and nineteen from 66 selected pharmaceuticals and their metabolites were positively found in water and sediment samples, respectively from the representative WSP. After a six-month study, which corresponds to aquaculture operations, fourteen pharmaceuticals and their metabolites were detected (at a frequency of higher than 50% of samples) in at least one fish tissue collected from the WSP. We observed striking differences for species and organ specific BAFs among study compounds. Though muscle tissues consistently accumulated lower levels of the target analytes, several substances were elevated in brain, liver and kidney tissues (e.g., sertraline) of both species. Low residual concentrations of these target analytes in aquaculture products (fish fillets) suggest WSPs are promising to support the water-food nexus in aquaculture.

3.
Molecules ; 25(11)2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531944

RESUMO

Water from wastewater treatment plants contains concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds as high as micrograms per liter, which can adversely affect fish health and behavior, and contaminate the food chain. Here, we tested the ability of the common carp hepatic S9 fraction to produce the main metabolites from citalopram, metoprolol, sertraline, and venlafaxine. Metabolism in fish S9 fractions was compared to that in sheep. The metabolism of citalopram was further studied in fish. Our results suggest a large difference in the rate of metabolites formation between fish and sheep. Fish hepatic S9 fractions do not show an ability to form metabolites from venlafaxine, which was also the case for sheep. Citalopram, metoprolol, and sertraline were metabolized by both fish and sheep S9. Citalopram showed concentration-dependent N-desmethylcitalopram formation with Vmax = 1781 pmol/min/mg and Km = 29.7 µM. The presence of ellipticine, a specific CYP1A inhibitor, in the incubations reduced the formation of N-desmethylcitalopram by 30-100% depending on the applied concentration. These findings suggest that CYP1A is the major enzyme contributing to the formation of N-desmethylcitalopram. In summary, the results from the present in vitro study suggest that common carp can form the major metabolites of citalopram, metoprolol, and sertraline.

4.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124538, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454745

RESUMO

Although banned, dyes, such as Victoria pure blue BO (VPBO), are illicitly used in aquaculture to treat or prevent infections due to their therapeutic activities. The present study examined the formation of phase I and phase II metabolites derived from VPBO using trout liver microsomes and S9 proteins. The well-known malachite green (MG) dye was also studied as a positive control and to compare its metabolism with that of VPBO. First, we optimised the incubation conditions for the detection of VPBO and MG metabolites by studying the formation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) substrates. Using the determined conditions (2 h at 20 °C), we incubated VPBO with trout microsomal and S9 fractions induced with ß-naphtoflavone, and analysed the supernatant in a LC-LTQ-Orbitrap-HRMS system. The in vitro assays led to the detection of 16 VPBO metabolites from Phase I reactions, arising in particular from reactions with CYP1A. No metabolites were detected from Phase II reactions. The main metabolite detected, deethyl-VPBO, was CID-fragmented to determine its chemical structure, and thus recommend a potential biomarker for the control of VPBO in farmed fish foodstuffs.


Assuntos
Corantes/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos , Animais , Aquicultura , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo
5.
Chemosphere ; 235: 1022-1029, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561291

RESUMO

Chemical exposure during the early life stages of development may have long lasting effects on organisms that are rarely studied. The present work intended to evaluate the effect of embryonic exposure to the pesticide carbaryl on adult fish behavior. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed, for 4 days, to sublethal concentrations of carbaryl (0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L) plus a control and then kept in standard cultivation conditions until adulthood. A battery of behavioral tests was then performed to assess anxiety-like behavior (locomotor activity, thigmotaxis and novel tank diving test), social behavior, and feeding. Developmental exposure of zebrafish to sublethal concentrations of carbaryl produced important behavioral alterations in the adulthood. Main effects included decreased locomotion/hypoactivity (increase in slow movements and decrease of medium and rapid movements), especially in the light periods. Moreover, spatial pattern also changed: while during dark periods control fish increased activity in the outer zone of the tank, this was not observed in exposed fish. Overall, this demonstrated the importance of life stage exposure, clearly demonstrating long lasting effects of a (chemical) stress event at embryonic stages. This data supports the need of considering this scenario in environmental risk evaluations. Further work should focus on the mechanistic effects of developmental disruption responsible for the effects observed.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Carbaril/toxicidade , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Animais , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Chemosphere ; 222: 333-344, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30708167

RESUMO

Oxytetracycline (OTC) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic widely used in livestock production. Like many other pharmaceuticals, OTC is not completely metabolized by the organism and thus, increasing amounts of the compound are being detected in the aquatic environment. The assessment of the environmental risk of pharmaceuticals is hindered by their very low concentrations and specific modes of action and thus relevant exposure scenarios and sensitive endpoints are needed. Thus, this work aimed to study the long-term effect of OTC exposure in zebrafish (at behavior and biochemical levels) and associated bacterial communities (fish gut and water bacterial communities). Results revealed that at behavioral level, boldness increase (manifested by increased exploratory behavior of a new environment) was observed in fish exposed to low OTC concentrations. Moreover, changes in fish swimming pattern were observed in light periods (increased stress response: hyperactivity and freezing) probably due to photo-sensibility conferred by OTC exposure. Effects at biochemical level suggest that long-term exposure to OTC interfere with cellular energy allocation mainly by reducing lipids levels and increasing energy consumption. Moreover, evidences of oxidative damage were also observed (reduced levels of TG, GST and CAT). The analysis of water and gut microbiome revealed changes in the structure and diversity of bacterial communities potentially leading to changes in communities' biological function. Some of the effects were observed at the lowest concentration tested, 0.1 µg/L which is a concentration already detected in the environment and thus clearly demonstrating the need of a serious ecotoxicological assessment of OTC effects on non-target organisms.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Oxitetraciclina/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Bactérias/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxitetraciclina/toxicidade , Natação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 662: 655-661, 2019 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703723

RESUMO

Although pharmaceuticals are recognized as a major threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide, little is known about their ecological effect on aquatic biota and ecosystems. Drug-induced behaviour changes could have a substantial impact on consumer-resource interactions influencing stability of the community and ecosystem. We combined laboratory experiments and functional response modelling to investigate effects of real wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, as well as environmentally relevant concentrations of the antidepressants citalopram and opioid pain medication tramadol, on trophic interactions. Our biological system consisted of dragonfly Aeshna cyanea larvae as predator of common carp Cyprinus carpio fry. Exposure to WWTP effluent significantly increased A. cyanea maximum feeding rate, while those parameters in tramadol and citalopram-exposed larvae were significantly lower from unexposed control group. This suggested the potential of all tested pollutants to have an effect on consumer-resource equilibrium in aquatic ecosystems. While WWTP effluent strengthened interaction strength (IS) of consumer-resource interaction dynamics making the food web more vulnerable to fluctuation and destabilization, tramadol and citalopram could inhibit the potential oscillations of the consumer-resource system by weakening the IS. Similar studies to reveal the potential of pervasive pharmaceuticals to change of consumer-resource interactions dynamics are needed, especially when real WWTP effluent consisting of mixture of various pharmaceuticals displayed very different effect from single compounds tested.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Carpas/fisiologia , Citalopram/efeitos adversos , Odonatos/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório/efeitos dos fármacos , Tramadol/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Modelos Biológicos , Ninfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/fisiologia , Odonatos/efeitos dos fármacos , Odonatos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Recaptação de Serotonina e Norepinefrina/efeitos adversos , Águas Residuárias/análise
8.
Toxicol Lett ; 303: 67-71, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30599194

RESUMO

The hepatic cytochrome p450 enzymes 1 A, 2A19 and 2E1 is very important for the elimination of skatole from the body of pigs. Impaired skatole metabolism, results in skatole accumulation, which give rise to off flavor of the meat. Several metabolites of skatole has been identified, however the role of these metabolites in the inhibition of the skatole metabolizing enzymes are not documented. Using microsomes from pigs and fish, we determined the ability of several skatole metabolites to inhibit CYP1 A, CYP2A19 and CYP2E1 dependent activity. Our results show that 2-aminoacetophenone is an inhibitor of porcine CYP2A19 and CYP2E1 activity, but not the piscine orthologues. In conclusion, there is species specific differences in the inhibition of CYP1 A and CYP2A19 dependent metabolism of probe substrates. This is relevant to the evaluation of different model systems and to the reduction of off flavor of meat.


Assuntos
Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP2E1/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Escatol/toxicidade , Acetofenonas/toxicidade , Animais , Cumarínicos/toxicidade , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/antagonistas & inibidores , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP2E1/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Peixes , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Microssomos Hepáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrofenóis/toxicidade , Oxazinas/toxicidade , Carne Vermelha/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Especificidade da Espécie , Suínos
9.
Environ Manage ; 63(4): 466-484, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29159481

RESUMO

This study characterized changes in biomarker responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) upon exposure to effluent water discharged from a sewage treatment plant (STP) under real conditions. Fish were exposed to contamination in Cezarka pond, which receives all of its water input from the STP in the town of Vodnany, Czech Republic. Five sampling events were performed at day 0, 30, 90, 180, and 360 starting in April 2015. In total, 62 pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) were detected in the polar organic chemical integrative sampler. Compared to a control pond, the total concentration of PPCPs was 45, 16, 7, and 7 times higher in Cezarka pond at day 30, 90, 180, and 360, respectively. The result of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme biomarkers indicated alterations in the liver and intestine tissues of fish from Cezarka pond at day 30 and 360, respectively. High plasma vitellogenin levels were observed in both exposed females (180 and 360 days) and males (360 days) compared with their respective controls. However, only exposed female fish had higher vitellogenin mRNA expression than the control fish in these periods. Exposed female fish showed irregular structure of the ovary with scattered oocytes, which further developed to a vitellogenic stage at day 360. Low white blood cell levels were indicated in all exposed fish. Despite numerous alterations in exposed fish, favorable ecological conditions including high availability of food resulted in a better overall condition of the exposed fish after 1 year of exposure compared to the controls.


Assuntos
Carpas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Esgotos , Vitelogeninas
10.
Environ Manage ; 63(4): 485, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29404738

RESUMO

The original version of this Article unfortunately contained an error. The authors' given and family names were transposed erroneously. It has been corrected now in this Erratum.

11.
Folia Microbiol (Praha) ; 64(1): 9-17, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29909524

RESUMO

A robust and widely applicable method for sampling of aquatic microbial biofilm and further sample processing is presented. The method is based on next-generation sequencing of V4-V5 variable regions of 16S rRNA gene and further statistical analysis of sequencing data, which could be useful not only to investigate taxonomic composition of biofilm bacterial consortia but also to assess aquatic ecosystem health. Five artificial materials commonly used for biofilm growth (glass, stainless steel, aluminum, polypropylene, polyethylene) were tested to determine the one giving most robust and reproducible results. The effect of used sampler material on total microbial composition was not statistically significant; however, the non-plastic materials (glass, metal) gave more stable outputs without irregularities among sample parallels. The bias of the method is assessed with respect to the employment of a non-quantitative step (PCR amplification) to obtain quantitative results (relative abundance of identified taxa). This aspect is often overlooked in ecological and medical studies. We document that sequencing of a mixture of three merged primary PCR reactions for each sample and further evaluation of median values from three technical replicates for each sample enables to overcome this bias and gives robust and repeatable results well distinguishing among sampling localities and seasons.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Microbiota/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Microbiologia da Água , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Manejo de Espécimes
12.
Chemosphere ; 216: 234-247, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384292

RESUMO

Erythromycin (ERY) is one of the most common antibiotics used in human and veterinary practices, leading to ubiquitous environmental distribution and possible toxicity to non-target organisms. The purpose of this study was to determine sub-lethal effects of ERY towards the marine fish Sparus aurata (gilthead seabream). S. aurata were acutely (0.3-323 µg/L, 96 h) and chronically (0.7-8.8 µg/L, 28 d) exposed to ERY. Detoxification [7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), uridine-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)], oxidative stress [catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRed)], lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances - (TBARS)], genotoxicity [genetic damage index (GDI) and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENAs)], neurotransmission [acetylcholinesterase (AChE)] and energy metabolism [lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)] biomarkers were evaluated. Results showed that ERY did not promote significant effects in detoxification biomarkers, but induced slight pro-oxidative effects (decrease of GPx activity in the liver after acute exposure and an increase in gills after chronic exposure; and an increase of hepatic GRed activity following chronic exposure). There was a significant decrease in TBARS after chronic exposure, which contradicts a full scenario of oxidative stress. In terms of genotoxicity, both ERY exposures caused only a significant increase of GDI. Neurotransmission and energy metabolism were not also affected by ERY. Although few toxic effects of ERY have been previously documented (involving different metabolic pathways, as tested in this work), these were mainly observed for freshwater species. These findings suggest low vulnerability of S. aurata to ERY at levels close to the ones found in the wild.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Dourada/fisiologia , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Animais , Humanos
13.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 62: 199-202, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30077163

RESUMO

Naturally- and anthropogenically-produced cresols could pose serious risks to fish health. In this study, three piscine CYP isoforms were investigated for their abilities to interact with p-cresol. Therefore, the activity of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin O-debenzylase (BFCOD), and p-nitrophenol hydroxylase (PNPH) were evaluated in the hepatic microsomes of juvenile rainbow trout. Results showed that EROD activity was inhibited in a competitive manner, BFCOD activity was inhibited in presence the highest tested p-cresol concentration and PNPH activity was not affected. These results indicate that p-cresol might affect the ability of fish to metabolize numerous aromatic hydrocarbons and dioxin compounds, which are present in the aquatic environment.


Assuntos
Cresóis/toxicidade , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 164: 92-99, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098510

RESUMO

Monitoring the contamination level in aquatic environments and assessing the impact on aquatic life occurs throughout the world. In the present study, an approach based on a combination of biomarkers and the distribution of various industrial and municipal pollutants was used to investigate the effect of aquatic environmental contamination on fish. Monitoring was performed in ten rivers in the Czech Republic (Berounka, Dyje, Elbe, Luznice, Odra, Ohre, Otava, Sázava, Svratka, and Vltava rivers, with one or two locations in each river) at the same sites that were regularly monitored within the Czech National Monitoring Program in 2007-2011. Health status, hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, total cytochrome P450 content, and the plasma vitellogenin concentration were assessed in wild chub (Squalius cephalus) males caught at the monitored sites. The contamination level was the highest in the Svratka River downstream of Brno. Among all measured persistent organic pollutants (POPs), polychlorinated biphenyls and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites were the major contributors of POPs in fish muscle. Elbe, Odra, and Svratka rivers were identified as the most polluted. Fish from these locations showed reduced gonad size, increased vitellogenin concentration in male plasma, EROD, and total cytochrome P450 content. These biomarkers can be used for future environmental monitoring assessments. Overall, this study improves our understanding of the relationship between human activities and pollutant loads and further contributes to the decision to support local watershed managers to protect water quality in this region.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , República Tcheca , DDT/análise , Poluição Ambiental , Peixes/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Vitelogeninas/sangue , Qualidade da Água
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 625: 1494-1509, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29996446

RESUMO

Concerns about the effect of sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent on the health of freshwater ecosystems have increased. In this study, a unique approach was designed to show the effect of an STP effluent-dominated stream on native wild brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) exposed under fully natural conditions. Zivny stream is located in South Bohemia, Czech Republic. The downstream site of Zivny stream is an STP-affected site, which receives 25% of its water from Prachatice STP effluent. Upstream, however, is a minimally polluted water site and it is considered to be the control site. Native fish were collected from the upstream site, tagged, and distributed to both upstream and downstream sites. After 30, 90, and 180days, fish were recaptured from both sites to determine whether the downstream site of the Zivny stream is associated with the effects of environmental pollution. Several biomarkers indicating the oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities, cytochrome P450 activity, xenoestrogenic effects, bacterial composition, and lipid composition were investigated. Additionally, polar chemical contaminants (pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs)) were quantified using polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS). Fifty-three PPCPs were detected in the downstream site; 36 of those were constantly present during the 180-day investigation period. Elevated hepatic 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin-O-debenzyloxylase (BFCOD) (after 90days) and blood plasma vitellogenin concentrations in males were detected in fish downstream of the STP effluent during all sampling events. An increase in the fishes' total fat content was also observed, but with low levels of ω-3 fatty acid in muscle tissue. Two bacterial taxa related to activated sludge were found in the intestines of fish from downstream. Our results show that Prachatice STP is a major source of PPCPs in the Zivny stream, which has biological consequences on fish physiology.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Truta/fisiologia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , República Tcheca , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Rios/química , Esgotos , Truta/microbiologia , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 635: 1160-1169, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29710571

RESUMO

Sewage treatment plants (STPs) are one of the major source of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the aquatic environment. Generally, the effects of individual chemicals on fish are studied under laboratory conditions, which leads to results that are potentially not realistic regarding the effects of these chemicals under environmental conditions. Therefore, in this study, common carps were held in exposed pond that receive water from STP effluents for 360 days under natural conditions. Elimination of xenobiotics starts in the fish intestine, in which the microbial community strongly influences its function. Moreover, the fish intestine functions as crucial organ for absorbing lipids and fatty acids (FA), with consequent transport to the liver where their metabolism occurs. The liver is the primary organ performing xenobiotic metabolism in fish, and therefore, the presence of pollutants may interact with the metabolism of FA. The catalytic activity of CYP1A and CYP3A-like enzymes, their gene expression, FA composition and intestinal microbiome consortia were measured. The catalytic activity of enzymes and their gene and protein expression, were induced in hepatic and intestinal tissues of fish from the exposed pond. Also, fish from the exposed pond had different compositions of FA than those from the control pond: concentration of 18:1 n-9 and 18:2 n-6 were significantly elevated and the longer chain n-3 FA 20:5 n-3, 22:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 were significantly lowered. There were clear differences among microbiome consortia in fish intestines across control and exposed groups. Microbiome taxa measured in exposed fish were also associated with those found in STP activated sludge. This study reveals that treated STP water, which is assumed to be clean, affected measured biomarkers in common carp.


Assuntos
Carpas/fisiologia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Esgotos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Chemosphere ; 205: 380-386, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29704845

RESUMO

This study examined the ability of several human pharmaceuticals to modulate hepatic piscine CYP-mediated monooxygenase activities. Effects of six pharmaceuticals: diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, tramadol, carbamazepine, venlafaxine and nefazodone, were investigated in vitro in rainbow trout hepatic microsomes. The reactions of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin-O-debenzyloxylase (BFCOD), were used as markers for hepatic CYP1A and CYP3A-like activities, respectively. Our results showed that EROD and BFCOD activities were both affected by nefazodone. Nefazodone inhibited EROD in a dose dependent manner and was found to be a potent non-competitive inhibitor of EROD with a Ki value of 6.6 µM. BFCOD activity was inhibited non-competitively in the presence of nefazadone with Ki value of 30.7 µM. BFCOD activity was slightly reduced only by the highest concentration of carbamazepine. Diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, tramadol, and venlafaxine did not affect the activity of either EROD or BFCOD. We further exposed microsomal fraction to mixtures of six pharmaceuticals to investigate potential inhibition. The results showed that EROD and BFCOD activity was inhibited on 94% and 80%, respectively at higher tested concentration. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate an inhibitory effect of nefazodone on hepatic CYP1A and CYP3A-like proteins in rainbow trout.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Microssomos Hepáticos/enzimologia , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Piperazinas , Triazóis/farmacologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água
18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(8): 4889-4900, 2018 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29565569

RESUMO

Anthropogenic activities increase pesticide contamination and biological invasions in freshwater ecosystems. Understanding their combined effects on community structure and on ecosystem functioning presents challenges for an improved ecological risk assessment. This study focuses on an artificial stream mesocosms experiment testing for direct and indirect effects of insecticide (chlorantraniliprole - CAP) exposure on the structure of a benthic macroinvertebrate freshwater community and on ecosystem functioning (leaf decomposition, primary production). To understand how predator identity and resource quality alter the community responses to chemical stress, the mediating effects of an invasive predator species (crayfish Procambarus clarkii) and detritus quality (tested by using leaves of the invasive Eucalyptus globulus) on insecticide toxicity were also investigated. Low concentrations of CAP reduced the abundance of shredders and grazers, decreasing leaf decomposition and increasing primary production. Replacement of autochthonous predators and leaf litter by invasive species decreased macroinvertebrate survival, reduced leaf decomposition, and enhanced primary production. Structural equation modeling (SEM) highlighted that CAP toxicity to macroinvertebrates was mediated by the presence of crayfish or eucalypt leaf litter which are now common in many Mediterranean freshwaters. In summary, our results demonstrate that the presence of these two invasive species alters the effects of insecticide exposure on benthic freshwater communities. The approach used here also allowed for a mechanistic evaluation of indirect effects of these stressors and of their interaction on ecosystem functional endpoint, emphasizing the value of incorporating biotic stressors in ecotoxicological experiments.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Inseticidas , Animais , Água Doce , Espécies Introduzidas , Folhas de Planta , Rios
19.
Water Res ; 134: 226-233, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29427964

RESUMO

The fate of fourteen target perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are described within a small stream affected by a sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent. Concentrations of target PFASs in samples of water, benthic macroinvertebrates and brown trout (Salmo trutta) are presented. Two hundred brown trout individuals originating from clean sites within the same stream were tagged and stocked into an experimental site affected by the STP's effluent. As a passive sampling approach, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were deployed in the water to reveal the water-macroinvertebrates-fish biotransformation processes of PFASs. Bioconcentration/bioaccumulation of target compounds was monitored one, three, and six months after stocking. Twelve of the fourteen target PFASs were found in concentration above the LOQ in at least one of the studied matrices. The compound pattern varied significantly between both the studied species and water samples. Concerning the accumulation of PFASs in fish, the highest concentrations were found in the liver of individuals sampled after three months of exposure. These concentrations rapidly decreased after six months although the water concentrations were slightly increasing during experiment.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Invertebrados , Truta , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Cadeia Alimentar , Fígado/química , Masculino , Rios , Esgotos
20.
J Hazard Mater ; 342: 401-407, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28854392

RESUMO

Although pharmaceuticals are frequently studied contaminants, their fate in the environment is still not completely clear. During a one year study, a complex approach including water, sediment and fish sampling was used to describe the behaviour of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites (PTMs) in the environment. Eighteen pharmaceuticals and seven of their metabolites were determined in a pond used for the tertiary treatment of wastewater effluent. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was applied to determine the PTMs concentrations in all matrices. Seasonal variations in concentrations were evaluated. The partitioning of contaminants between pond compartments was estimated by means of solid water distribution coefficients (Kd) and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) for the livers of fish. Kd values were almost stable throughout the year, which may be a sign of the continuous transport of PTMs between water and sediment under the experimental conditions. Almost all of the studied compounds, with exception of sertraline (BAF of 6200), were found to not be bioaccumulative in fish livers. The pond removal efficiency was calculated for all PTMs, and favourable conditions for natural pharmaceutical removal were proposed. Further aspects regarding fish pharmaceutical exposure need to be studied.


Assuntos
Peixes/metabolismo , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Águas Residuárias/análise , Água/análise , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Cromatografia Líquida , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Estações do Ano
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