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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807661


The aim of this study was to assess the health risks that may arise from the implementation of greywater reuse and rainwater harvesting for household use, especially for toilet flushing. In addition, the risk of cross connections between these systems and the drinking water system was considered. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a method that uses mathematical modelling to estimate the risk of infection when exposure to pathogens happens and was used in this study to assess the health risks. The results showed that using rainwater without prior treatment for toilet flushing poses an annual infection risk from L. pneumophila at 0.64 per-person-per-year (pppy) which exceeds the Dutch standard of 10-4 pppy. The use of untreated greywater showed a risk that is below the standard. However, treatment is recommended due to the ability of P. aeruginosa to grow in the reuse system. Moreover, showering and drinking with cross-connected water has a high annual infection risk that exceeds the standard due to contact with Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli O157:H7. Several measures can be implemented to mitigate the risks such as treating the greywater and rainwater with a minimum of 5-log removal, closing the toilet lid while flushing, good design of greywater and rainwater collection systems, and rigorous plumbing installation procedures.

Water Res ; 173: 115519, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006809


Recovering resources from wastewater systems is increasingly being emphasised. Many technologies exist or are under development for recycling nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater to agriculture. Planning and design methodologies are needed to identify and deploy the most sustainable solutions in given contexts. For the environmental sustainability dimension, life cycle assessment (LCA) can be used to assess environmental impact potentials of wastewater-based nutrient recycling alternatives, especially nitrogen and phosphorus recycling. This review aims to evaluate how well the LCA methodology has been adapted and applied for assessing opportunities of wastewater-based nutrient recycling in the form of monomineral, multimineral, nutrient solution and organic solid. We reviewed 65 LCA studies that considered nutrient recycling from wastewater for agricultural land application. We synthesised some of their insights and methodological practices, and discussed the future outlook of using LCA for wastewater-based nutrient recycling. In general, more studies suggested positive environmental outcomes from wastewater-based nutrient recycling, especially when chemical inputs are minimised, and source separation of human excreta is achieved. The review shows the need to improve methodological consistency (e.g., multifunctionality, fertiliser offset accounting, contaminant accounting), ensure transparency of inventory and methods, consider uncertainty in comparative LCA context, integrate up-to-date cross-disciplinary knowledge (e.g., agriculture science, soil science) into LCA models, and consider the localised impacts of recycled nutrient products. Many opportunities exist for applying LCA at various scales to support decisions on wastewater-based nutrient recycling - for instance, performing "product perspective" LCA on recycled nutrient products, integrating "process perspective" LCA with other systems approaches for selecting and optimising individual recovery processes, assessing emerging nutrient recovery technologies and integrated resource recovery systems, and conducting systems analysis at city, national and global level.

Reciclagem , Águas Residuárias , Agricultura , Cidades , Humanos , Nutrientes