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1.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 23(7): 408-411, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our hospital used to perform cesarean delivery under general anesthesia rather than neuraxial anesthesia, mostly because of patient refusal of members of the conservative Bedouin society. According to recommendations implemented by the Israeli Obstetric Anesthesia Society, which were implemented due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, we increased the rate of neuraxial anesthesia among deliveries. OBJECTIVES: To compare the rates of neuraxial anesthesia in our cesarean population before and during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. METHODS: We included consecutive women undergoing an elective cesarean delivery from two time periods: pre-SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (15 February 2019 to 14 April 2019) and during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (15 February 2020 to 15 April 2020). We collected demographic data, details about cesarean delivery, and anesthesia complications. RESULTS: We included 413 parturients undergoing consecutive elective cesarean delivery identified during the study periods: 205 before the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and 208 during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We found a statistically significant difference in neuraxial anesthesia rates between the groups: before the pandemic (92/205, 44.8%) and during (165/208, 79.3%; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that patient and provider education about neuraxial anesthesia can increase its utilization. The addition of a trained obstetric anesthesiologist to the team may have facilitated this transition.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução , Anestesia Geral , Anestesia Obstétrica , Cesárea , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento , Adulto , Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Anestesia por Condução/psicologia , Anestesia por Condução/estatística & dados numéricos , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Anestesia Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Anestesia Obstétrica/métodos , Anestesia Obstétrica/psicologia , Árabes/psicologia , Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Cesárea/métodos , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Salas de Parto/organização & administração , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Israel/epidemiologia , Inovação Organizacional , Gravidez , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/etnologia , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
J Vis Exp ; (171)2021 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028432

RESUMO

For many species, where status is a vital motivator that can affect health, social hierarchies influence behavior. Social hierarchies that include dominant-submissive relationships are common in both animal and human societies. These relationships can be affected by interactions with others and with their environment, making them difficult to analyze in a controlled study. Rather than a simple dominance hierarchy, this formation has a complicated presentation that allows rats to avoid aggression. Status can be stagnant or mutable, and results in complex societal stratifications. Here we describe a complex diving-for-food task to investigate rodent social hierarchy and behavioral interactions. This animal model may allow us to assess the relationship between a wide range of mental illnesses and social organization, as well as to study the effectiveness of therapy on social dysfunction.

3.
J Vis Exp ; (171)2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028433

RESUMO

Impairments to sensory, short-term, and long-term memory are common side effects after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Due to the ethical limitations of human studies, animal models provide suitable alternatives to test treatment methods, and to study the mechanisms and related complications of the condition. Experimental rodent models have historically been the most widely used due to their accessibility, low cost, reproducibility, and validated approaches. A metric test, which tests the ability to recall the placement of two objects at various distances and angles from one another, is a technique to study impairment in spatial working memory (SWM) after TBI. The significant advantages of metric tasks include the possibility of dynamic observation, low cost, reproducibility, relative ease of implementation, and low stress environment. Here, we present a metric test protocol to measure impairment of SWM in adult rats after TBI. This test provides a feasible way to evaluate physiology and pathophysiology of brain function more effectively.

4.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 35(2): 171-179, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030802

RESUMO

Since 2015, endovascular thrombectomy has been established as the standard of care for re-establishing cerebral blood flow in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Several retrospective observational studies and prospective clinical trials have investigated two anesthetic techniques for endovascular stroke therapy: general anesthesia (GA) and conscious sedation (CS). The recent randomized studies suggest that GA is associated with higher rates of successful recanalization and better functional independence at 3 months compared with the CS technique. However, CS techniques are highly variable, and there is currently a lack of consensus on which anesthetic approach is best in all patients. Numerous patient and procedural factors should ultimately guide the decision of whether GA or CS should be used for a particular patient.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/métodos , Isquemia Encefálica/cirurgia , Sedação Consciente/métodos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , AVC Isquêmico/cirurgia , Trombectomia/métodos , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Sedação Consciente/efeitos adversos , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico , AVC Isquêmico/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5557, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692418

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids might have significant influence on positive fluid balance, mostly due to their mineralocorticoid effect. We assessed the association between glucocorticoid therapy and fluid balance in septic patients, in the intensive care unit (ICU). We considered two definitions of exposure: daily exposure to glucocorticoids and glucocorticoid treatment at any time. Of 945 patients, 375 were treated with glucocorticoids in the ICU. We applied four regression models. In the first, fluid balance did not differ during days with and without glucocorticoid treatment, among patients treated and not treated with glucocorticoids in the ICU. In our second model, daily fluid balance was increased in patients who were ever treated with glucocorticoids during their ICU stay compared to untreated patients. In the third model, which included only patients treated with glucocorticoids during their ICU stay, glucocorticoid treatment days were not associated with daily fluid balance. In the last model, on "steroid-free days", patients who received glucocorticoid treatment during their ICU stay had a positive fluid balance compared to those who were never treated with steroids. Despite their known mineralocorticoid activity, glucocorticoids themselves appear not to contribute substantially to fluid retention. This work highlights the importance of precise selection of variables to mitigate biases.

6.
Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther ; 53(1): 25-29, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586421

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rib fracture fixation is becoming more popular and widely accepted among trauma surgeons worldwide as the recommended treatment method for flail chest injury. Recent data demonstrate improved results when compared with non-operative treatment. Improved outcomes were reported regarding ICU stay, need for tracheostomy, length of hospital stay, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and even death. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether clinical respiratory para-meters are improved after rib fracture fixation procedure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a prospective study using a retrospective cohort for control, which took place at the Soroka University Medical Centre, Israel. Inclusion criteria included all patients over 18 years of age with flail chest injury or multiple ribs fractures, who were admitted to the General Intensive Care Unit (GICU). Between October 2015 and December 2018, we identified 24 patients who had their rib fractures operatively fixed and compared them to 61 patients with flail chest and multiple rib fractures, who were admitted to our GICU between the years 2010 and 2015 and were treated non-opera-tively. In all the surgical cases operations were performed within 72 hours of arrival in accordance with our treatment algorithm. All fractures were fixed using specialised anatomic locking plates/nails. Demographic data were collected, and respiratory parameters before and after the surgery were recorded and analysed. RESULTS: We compared patients who had had their rib fractures fixed with a cohort group of patients who had been treated non-operatively in the past. No demographic differences were found between the 2 groups, nor were there any differences in their clinical trauma scoring, mechanical ventilation days, length of ICU stay, VAP, and death rates. The respiratory parameters (paO2/FiO2 ratio and chest wall compliance) were significantly higher during the 3 ensuing days after surgery and continued to improve in Group 1 (rib fixation group), in comparison to group 2 (non-operative) patients (P = 0.007 and P < 0.0001, respectively). The peak inspiratory pressure and PEEP para-meters were significantly lower in group 1 in comparison to group 2 during the 3 days, in favour of the operated group, with significant improvement noted over the 3 days post-surgery (P = 0.007 and P = 0.02, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that surgical treatment of flail chest and multiple rib fractures has clinical benefit and improves respiratory parameters even in the presence of multiple trauma injuries.

7.
J Vis Exp ; (164)2020 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165329

RESUMO

One of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide is ischemic stroke. Historically, an animal model used to stimulate ischemic stroke involves middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Infarct zone, brain edema and blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown are measured as parameters that reflect the extent of brain injury after MCAO. A significant limitation to this method is that these measurements are normally obtained in different rat brain samples, leading to ethical and financial burdens due to the large number of rats that need to be euthanized for an appropriate sample size. Here we present a method to accurately assess brain injury following MCAO by measuring infarct zone, brain edema and BBB permeability in the same set of rat brains. This novel technique provides a more efficient way to evaluate the pathophysiology of stroke.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Edema Encefálico/complicações , Edema Encefálico/metabolismo , Infarto Encefálico/complicações , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/complicações , Masculino , Permeabilidade , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
8.
Neurosci Lett ; 737: 135296, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity. The currently available non-invasive therapeutic options are not sufficiently efficacious. Post-ischemic brain is characterized by a prominent inflammatory response. Little is known about the involvement of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 in the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke. OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to examine the effects of a highly selective COX-1 inhibitor - mofezolac - on clinical outcomes and brain inflammatory markers in post-stroke rats. METHODS: Stroke was induced by subjecting rats to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Control rats underwent a sham surgery. Rats were treated with mofezolac (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [ip]) once daily for 14 days. Control animals were treated with vehicle. Body temperature (BT), neurological score (NS) and cumulative mortality were monitored at different time points. At the end of the experiment, rats were euthanized and three brain regions (hypothalamus, hippocampus and frontal cortex) were extracted. Levels of interleukin (IL)-6, prostaglandin (PG)E2 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in these brain regions were determined by ELISA kits. RESULTS: BT, NS and cumulative mortality were all significantly higher in post-MCAO rats than in sham-operated rats, irrespective of the treatment given. BT, NS and mortality rate did not differ significantly between mofezolac-treated and vehicle-treated sham-operated animals. BT was significantly lower in mofezolac-treated as compared to vehicle-treated post-MCAO rats. Mofezolac did not significantly alter NS in post-MCAO rats at any time-point. Cumulative 14-day mortality was non-significantly higher in mofezolac-treated as compared to vehicle-treated post-MCAO rats (48 % vs. 21 %, respectively; P = 0.184). Mostly, IL-6 and TNF-α levels did not differ between post-MCAO and sham-operated rats and were not affected by mofezolac treatment. In contrast, mofezolac significantly decreased PGE2 levels in post-MCAO rats' brains. CONCLUSION: Overall, these results suggest that chronic treatment with the selective COX-1 inhibitor mofezolac did not reduce morbidity or mortality in post-stroke rats.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/uso terapêutico , AVC Isquêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , AVC Isquêmico/mortalidade , AVC Isquêmico/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
9.
J Vis Exp ; (158)2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32420997

RESUMO

Acute liver injury (ALI) plays a crucial role in the development of hepatic failure, which is characterized by severe liver dysfunction including complications such as hepatic encephalopathy and impaired protein synthesis. Appropriate animal models are vital to test the mechanism and pathophysiology of ALI and investigate different hepatoprotective strategies. Due to its ability to perform chemical transformations, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is widely used in the liver to induce ALI through the formation of reactive oxygen species. CCl4 exposure can be performed intraperitoneally, by inhalation, or through a nasogastric or orogastric tube. Here, we describe a rodent model, in which ALI is induced by CCl4 exposure through an orogastric tube. This method is inexpensive, easily performed, and has minimal hazard risk. The model is highly reproducible and can be widely used to determine the efficacy of potential hepatoprotective strategies and assess markers of liver injury.


Assuntos
Tetracloreto de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/complicações , Intubação Gastrointestinal/instrumentação , Fígado/lesões , Doença Aguda , Animais , Masculino , Pirróis , Ratos
10.
Ther Adv Psychopharmacol ; 10: 2045125320903951, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110376

RESUMO

Post-stroke depression (PSD) is a major complication of stroke that significantly impacts functional recovery and quality of life. While the exact mechanism of PSD is unknown, recent attention has focused on the association of the glutamatergic system in its etiology and treatment. Minimizing secondary brain damage and neuropsychiatric consequences associated with excess glutamate concentrations is a vital part of stroke management. The blood glutamate scavengers, oxaloacetate and pyruvate, degrade glutamate in the blood to its inactive metabolite, 2-ketoglutarate, by the coenzymes glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT), respectively. This reduction in blood glutamate concentrations leads to a subsequent shift of glutamate down its concentration gradient from the blood to the brain, thereby decreasing brain glutamate levels. Although there are not yet any human trials that support blood glutamate scavengers for clinical use, there is increasing evidence from animal research of their efficacy as a promising new therapeutic approach for PSD. In this review, we present recent evidence in the literature of the potential therapeutic benefits of blood glutamate scavengers for reducing PSD and other related neuropsychiatric conditions. The evidence reviewed here should be useful in guiding future clinical trials.

11.
J Clin Neurosci ; 74: 247-249, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with GBS may develop hypoalbuminemia following treatment with Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG), which is related to a poorer outcome. This report presents a patient with GBS and his clinical response to two courses of IVIG treatments in association with his albumin level. CASE REPORT: A previously healthy 21-year-old male was admitted to the GICU due to GBS with severity grade 5 (required assisted ventilation). IVIG treatment was initiated. Over the next two weeks there was no clinical improvement and Albumin level dropped from 4.5 gr/dL to a nadir of 2.3 gr/dL. A second course of IVIG was initiated. After initiation of the second course the patient's albumin began rising to 3.0 gr/dL and a clinical improvement followed this rise. Subsequently, he was weaned from mechanical ventilation within a few days. CONCLUSIONS: When considering a second course of IVIG treatment, serum albumin levels may be considered a biomarker as part of the decision algorithm.


Assuntos
Albuminas/análise , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/terapia , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Masculino , Respiração Artificial , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 46(5): 1175-1181, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758536

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dynamic changes in urine output and neurological status are the recognized clinical signs of hemodynamically significant hemorrhage. In the present study, we analyzed the dynamic minute-to-minute changes in the UFR and also the changes in its minute-to-minute variability in a group of critically ill multiple trauma patients whose blood pressures were normal on admission to the ICU but who subsequently developed hypotension within the first few hours of their ICU admission. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was retrospective and observational. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from the computerized register information systems initially; the clinical and laboratory data of 100 critically ill patients with multiple trauma who were admitted to the ICU during the study period were analyzed. Of this group, ten patients were eventually included in the study on the basis of the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: The minute-to-minute urine flow rate (UFR) and urine flow rate variability (UFRV) both decreased significantly during the periods of hypotension (p values 0.001 and 0.006, respectively). Notably, the decrease in UFRV preceded by at least 30 min a corresponding decline in the systolic and mean arterial blood pressures, which manifested as a flattening of UFRV amplitude which was observed prior to the occurrence of the lowest recorded systolic and mean arterial blood pressures. Statistical analysis by the Pearson method demonstrated a strong direct correlation between the decrease in UFRV and the decrease in the MAP (R = 0.9, p = 0.001), and SBP (R = 0.86, p = 0.001) and the decreasing urine output per hour (R = 0.88, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: We found that changes in UFRV correlate strongly with systolic and mean arterial blood pressures. We feel that this parameter could potentially serve as an early signal of hemodynamic deterioration due to occult bleeding in critically ill trauma patients, and might also be able to identify the optimal end-point of hemodynamic resuscitative measures in these patients.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Hipotensão/urina , Traumatismo Múltiplo/urina , Micção , APACHE , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Israel , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sinais Vitais
13.
Am J Infect Control ; 48(5): 517-521, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare covert closed-circuit television (CCTV) monitoring to standard overt observation in assessing the hand hygiene (HH) conduct of health care workers (HCWs) caring for patients infected with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). This was a cross-sectional study in a general intensive care unit of a 1,000-bed university hospital. METHODS: Forty-six general intensive care unit HCWs (staff physicians, registered nurses, and auxiliary workers) caring for contact isolation MDRO-infected patients. The study incorporated the following 3 phases: phase 1, establishment of interrater reliability between 2 simultaneous observers using the overt observation method; phase 2, establishment of interrater reliability between 2 simultaneous observers using the CCTV method; and phase 3, simultaneous monitoring of HH by both methods to evaluate the suitability of CCTV as an alternative to direct observation of the HH conduct of HCWs caring for MDRO-infected patients. RESULTS: Overall, 1,104 opportunities to perform HH were documented during 49 observation sessions. The compliance rate observed by the overt method (37.3%) was significantly higher than that observed when only the covert method was used (26.5%). However, simultaneous overt-covert observations were found to have intraclass correlation coefficients of >0.85. CONCLUSIONS: Covert CCTV observation of HCW HH compliance appears to provide a truer and more realistic picture than overt observation, probably because of its ability to neutralize the Hawthorne effect of overt observation. The high intraclass correlation coefficients between covert observation and overt observation supports this conclusion.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene das Mãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Modificador do Efeito Epidemiológico , Feminino , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções/microbiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Televisão
14.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 1105, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680838

RESUMO

Stroke is a major cause of global morbidity and mortality. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) has historically been the most common animal model of simulating ischemic stroke. The extent of neurological injury after MCAO is typically measured by cerebral edema, infarct zone, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. A significant limitation of these methods is that separate sets of brains must be used for each measurement. Here we examine an alternative method of measuring cerebral edema, infarct zone and BBB permeability following MCAO in the same set of brain samples. Ninety-six rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups. Group 1 (n = 27) was used for the evaluation of infarct zone and brain edema in rats post-MCAO (n = 17) vs. sham-operated controls (n = 10). Group 2 (n = 27) was used for the evaluation of BBB breakdown in rats post-MCAO (n = 15) vs. sham-operated controls (n = 10). In Group 3 (n = 42), all three parameters were measured in the same set of brain slices in rats post-MCAO (n = 26) vs. sham-operated controls (n = 16). The effect of Evans blue on the accuracy of measuring infarct zone by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining was determined by measuring infarct zone with and without an applied blue filter. The effects of various concentrations of TTC (0, 0.05, 0.35, 0.5, 1, and 2%) on the accuracy of measuring BBB permeability was also assessed. There was an increase in infarct volume (p < 0.01), brain edema (p < 0.01) and BBB breakdown (p < 0.01) in rats following MCAO compared to sham-operated controls, whether measured separately or together in the same set of brain samples. Evans blue had an effect on measuring infarct volume that was minimized by the application of a blue filter on scanned brain slices. There was no difference in the Evans blue extravasation index for the brain tissue samples without TTC compared to brain tissue samples incubated in TTC. Our results demonstrate that measuring cerebral edema, infarct zone and BBB permeability following MCAO can accurately be measured in the same set of brain samples.

15.
Neuropharmacology ; 155: 173-184, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153808

RESUMO

Post-stroke depression (PSD) is a common and serious complication following stroke. Both stroke and depression have independently been associated with pathologically elevated glutamate levels in the brain's extra-cerebral fluid (ECF). Here we evaluate an alternative therapeutic approach to PSD with pyruvate. Rats were randomly assigned into one of 3 groups: Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO) plus pyruvate treatment, MCAO plus placebo treatment, and sham operated rats. Post-MCAO depressive and anxiety-like behavior was assessed, along with neurological status, brain infarct zone, brain edema, blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, cerebrospinal fluid and blood glutamate levels. Anxiety-like behavior and levels of blood alanine and α-ketoglutarate were measured in naïve rats treated with pyruvate, as a control. Post-stroke neurological deficit with concurrent elevation in glutamate levels were demonstrated, with peak glutamate levels 24 h after MCAO. Treatment with pyruvate led to reduced glutamate levels 24 h after MCAO and improved neurologic recovery. Pyruvate treatment reduced lesion volume, brain edema and the extent of BBB permeability 24 h post-MCAO. Naïve rats treated with pyruvate showed increased levels of α-ketoglutarate. Rats demonstrated post-stroke depressive behavior that was improved by the administration of pyruvate. There was less anxiety-like behavior in post-stroke rats treated with placebo in comparison to the post-stroke rats treated with pyruvate or sham operated rats. Glutamate scavenging with pyruvate appears to be an effective as a method in providing neuroprotection following stroke and as a therapeutic option for the treatment of PSD by reducing the consequent elevations in CNS glutamate levels.


Assuntos
Depressão/sangue , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Pirúvico/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Depressão/psicologia , Ácido Glutâmico/sangue , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/sangue , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/psicologia , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia
16.
Behav Brain Res ; 372: 112025, 2019 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254880

RESUMO

Maternal-deprivation of rodent pups is a relevant model of extreme early-life stress that can be relevant to the understanding of long-term effects of war, migration, parental loss and displacement. Although even mild stress during infancy affects brain development and behavior, the current study focused on the effects of six hour daily maternal-separation, a model that reflects the severe distress often experienced in those circumstances. This study emphasizes the effect of maternal separation on social behavior in the context of a variety of factors that measure cognitive and emotional behavior which were subject to principle component analysis. Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from the dam for 6 h each day during the first 3-weeks of life and underwent a battery of behavioral tests at 3-months of age. We found that rodents exposed to postnatal maternal deprivation displayed submissive behavior in resident-intruder and dominant-submissive tests, as well as significantly more anxiety and anhedonia than control rats. The results of multivariate statistical analysis show that the dominant-submissive behavior correlates with depressive, anxiety and social behavior and can be predicted with an accuracy of 86.2%. The increased submissive behavior in male rats that had been subjected to severe postnatal stress suggests that exposure to stress during infancy and childhood could have long-term effects on social relationships. The mechanism of the long-term effects on depression, anxiety and submissive behavior requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Predomínio Social , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Ansiedade/psicologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Privação Materna , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Comportamento Social , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo
17.
J Vis Exp ; (147)2019 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180343

RESUMO

Post-stroke depression (PSD) is the most recurrent of all psychiatric complications resulting from an ischemic stroke. A greater majority (about 60%) of all ischemic stroke patients suffer from PSD, a disorder considered to be an ischemic stroke-related precursor for increased death and degradation in health. The pathophysiology of PSD is still obscure. To study the mechanism of development and occurrence of PSD further, and to find out a therapy, we attempted to develop a new protocol that requires occluding the middle cerebral artery (MCA) via the internal carotid artery (ICA) in rats. This protocol describes a model of PSD induced in rats through the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Also used in the experiment are the Porsolt forced swim test and the sucrose preference test to confirm and evaluate the depressive mood of the rats under investigation. Rather than inserting the catheter through the external carotid artery (ECA), as stipulated for the original procedure, this MCAO technique has the monofilament passing directly through the ICA. This MCAO technique was developed a few years ago and leads to a reduction in mortality and variability. It is generally accepted that the criteria used are preferred in the selection of biological models. The data obtained with this protocol show that this model of MCAO could be a way of inducing PSD in rats and could potentially lead to the understanding of the pathophysiology and the future development of new drugs and other neuroprotective agents.


Assuntos
Depressão/etiologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/complicações , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Animais , Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Depressão/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Natação/psicologia
18.
Behav Brain Res ; 370: 111953, 2019 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is common and results in a significant morbidity and economic burden. Depression is associated with pervasive impairments in social functioning, and antidepressant treatments are highly variable in improving these impairments. The objectives of this study were to test the effects of depression on social organization and behavior in a rodent model of depression, and to study the effectiveness of antidepressant medication in improving both symptoms of depression and the social function of depressed animals. METHODS: One hundred-twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly and equally divided between the control group and depression group. After induction of depression by 5 weeks of chronic unpredictable stress, rats received either antidepressant treatment or placebo. In parallel with the initiation of drug therapy, 20 social groups of six rats were subjected to the complex diving-for-food situation to evaluate their social functioning. Four behavioral tests evaluated symptoms of depression and anxiety at 3 different time points. RESULTS: We found that 1) depressed rats were significantly more active and aggressive in all parameters of social organization test compared with the control and antidepressant treatment groups, 2) depressed rats that received antidepressant treatment exhibited social behaviors like the control group, and 3) depression in the experimental groups was not accompanied by symptoms of anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that depression can significantly alter the social behavior and hierarchy in the social group in rats. Investigations of complex social group dynamics offer novel opportunities for translational studies of mood and psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/psicologia , Imipramina/farmacologia , Animais , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hierarquia Social , Masculino , Psicoterapia/métodos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Comportamento Social
19.
Biol Proced Online ; 21: 9, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130825

RESUMO

Background: A common experimental rodent model for stroke includes induction by a technique in which middle cerebral artery is transiently (MCAO-t) or permanently (MCAO-p) occluded by catheterization. However, this model has prominent disadvantages which consist of the high variability of localization and size of the ischemic area, cases of intracranial hemorrhage and high mortality. Furthermore, the duration of a single MCAO operation takes about thirty minutes and requires highly trained staff. In this article, we propose an alternative method, which is based on laser-induced stroke in the motor cortex. In our research, we compared the original MCAO-p and MCAO-t models and a novel laser model. Results: Compared with the impact of original MCAO-p and MCAO-t technique on brain tissue, the minimally invasive laser model demonstrated a decrease in: variability in body temperature, percent of infarcted volume, blood brain barrier breakdown and brain edema, as well as a prominent decrease of mortality and intracranial hemorrhage. Among other findings of this article, it can be noted that damage to the brain tissue in laser groups occurred only in the region of the motor cortex, without involving the striatal area. Conclusions: The data presented in this paper show that the model of laser irradiation can serve as an effective method of inducible brain cortical infarction and may lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke and the future development of new drugs and other neuro-protective agents.

20.
Brain Res ; 1718: 12-21, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026458

RESUMO

Stroke plays a role in high morbidity and mortality. Deciphering its mechanisms and pathophysiology is critical for the creation of new drugs and therapies. Most of the previous animal models of stroke, aimed at identifying the extent and location of brain injury following stroke, require animal sacrifice, which, besides ethical considerations, also negates the ability for follow up studies with the same rats. Because of these failures, the use of clinical magnetic resonance scanners for evaluating small animal models has been increasing. Magnetic resonance imaging scanners used particularly for small-bore animals are eligible for use in high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of rodent brains. However, high costs and scarcity factor heavily in the rare availability of these scanners. In our investigation, we sought to establish a unitary magnetic resonance imaging protocol for stroke assessment in rats. We made use of a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging clinical scanner, as well as another clinical equipment, with the purpose of increasing its reproducibility. The results of inquest validated a new magnetic resonance imaging protocol, comparing a magnetic resonance imaging-measured infarcted zone to the "gold standard" of histological examination. We carried out the experimental procedure on a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging clinical scanner using a conventional eight-channel receive-only coil. The two methods produced remarkable quantitative and qualitative correlations between them. Conclusively, we showed the clinical magnetic resonance imaging scanner to be a high-precision and sensitive image analysis instrument for evaluating both the infarct zone and the brain edema in a stroke experimental rat model.


Assuntos
Edema Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema Encefálico/patologia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Animais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Lesões Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Encefálicas/patologia , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
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