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1.
J Wildl Dis ; 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917634

RESUMO

There are many known species of Bartonella, Gram-negative bacteria that can cause febrile illness and fatality in humans and animals. These pathogens are often transmitted through hematophagous arthropod vectors such as fleas and lice. Despite increasing awareness about Bartonella spp. and their zoonotic potential, as well as existing literature on Bartonella spp. in cervids, little is known about the diversity of Bartonella spp. in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and their associated keds in the southeastern US. We examined the prevalence and diversity of Bartonella spp. in an enclosed herd of white-tailed deer and their ectoparasites, deer keds (Lipoptena mazamae), in Alabama. The overall prevalence of Bartonella infection in this population of deer was 16% (10/63) and 24% (23/96) in keds associated with deer that we sampled. Three species of Bartonella were identified in both deer and their keds: Bartonella bovis, Bartonella schoenbuchensis, and Bartonella sp. 1. Additionally, Bartonella melophagi was detected in white-tailed deer but not in the sampled keds. The detection of four Bartonella species in one population of white-tailed deer, three of which have known zoonotic potential, highlights the importance of Bartonella diversity within host species.

2.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 303(2): 295-307, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148418

RESUMO

Hapalemur sps. and Prolemur simus (bamboo lemurs, collectively) stand out from the relatively homogeneous lemurids because they are bamboo feeders and vertical clingers and leapers. This unique diet presents equally unique challenges, like its verticality, toughness, and toxicity. The bamboo lemurs share the generalized anatomy of the other lemurids, but also display some well-documented skeletal adaptations, perhaps to overcome the problems presented by their specialization. Soft-tissue adaptations, however, remain largely unexplored. Explored here are possible soft-tissue adaptations in Hapalemur griseus. We compare H. griseus with other lemurids, Propithecus, Galago, Tarsier, and a tree shrew. Based on the available anatomical and physiological data, we hypothesize that Hapalemur and Prolemur species will have differences in hindlimb morphology when compared with other lemurids. We predict that H. griseus will have more hindlimb muscle mass and will amplify muscle mass differences with increased type II muscle fibers. Relative hindlimb muscle mass in H. griseus is less than other prosimians sampled, yet relative sural muscle mass is significantly heavier (P < 0.01) in H. griseus. Results show that the soleus muscle of H. griseus has a higher amount of type II (fast) fibers in plantarflexors. These findings indicate although H. griseus shares some generalized lemurid morphology, its diet of bamboo may have pushed this generalized lemurid to an anatomical extreme. We suspect additional bamboo-specific adaptations in their anatomy and physiology will be uncovered with further examination into the anatomy of the bamboo lemurs. Anat Rec, 2019. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 303:295-307, 2020. © 2019 American Association for Anatomy.

3.
Mol Ecol ; 28(18): 4135-4137, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559659

RESUMO

Flies-a small name for an enormous taxonomic group of over 110,000 described species that have unique ecological roles. Nonbiting flies ingest organic material in faecal matter or carrion, which is rich in microbes and nutrients that benefit both adults and their offspring (maggots). These are often referred to as "filth flies" because they are often pests in human settlements and responsible for the spread of enteric pathogens. Filth flies associate with human populations; however, whether this association is simply due to the presence of organic waste produced, or if flies move with social groups remains unknown. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Gogarten et al. (2019) use a unique combination of field methods and molecular tools to show that filth flies (predominantly Muscidae [house flies] and Calliphoridae [blow flies]) associate and move with social nonhuman primate (NHP) groups (mangabeys and chimpanzees) for up to 12 days and over 1 km. Filth flies captured near these groups were found to have pathogen DNA on them from the causative agents of sylvatic anthrax and yaws. Furthermore, the authors were able to show that the anthrax bacteria on the flies was viable. Previous research emphasized sylvatic anthrax as a major conservation threat to wildlife at this field site (Hoffmann et al., 2017), highlighting the significance of filth flies as potential vectors of anthrax. The authors present a suite of methods and approaches that utilize flies to better understand rainforest biodiversity, pathogen transmission potential, and filth fly-host associations. This work represents new directions and opportunities to integrate entomology into field research and exploit the natural history of flies to understand the pathogen landscape and address outstanding questions in ecology and evolution.

4.
J Med Entomol ; 56(6): 1745-1749, 2019 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268136

RESUMO

Mosquito-borne diseases are on the rise globally, and have the potential to thrive along the Gulf Coast of the United States, where subtropical conditions may facilitate the introduction or movement of mosquito vectors. Despite surveillance efforts, Aedes aegypti (L.) had not been detected in the Gulf state of Alabama for nearly three decades. The detection of Ae. aegypti in Alabama may suggest remnant or reemergent populations of this vector. We conducted adult sampling between May and August of 2018 to capture mosquitoes during a time frame when all species should be active. This was to ensure no species were missed due to overwintering and to identify the distributions of Aedes mosquitoes of medical importance. No Ae. aegypti were detected in Alabama over the period of this study. We detected Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in 65 counties and the recently invasive Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) in 30 counties across the state. These results indicate that while Ae. aegypti was recently reported from parts of Alabama, the state is not experiencing a major resurgence of the species, whereas Ae. albopictus remains ubiquitous. Further, results indicate that a third wave of Aedes invasion may be occurring, that of Ae. japonicus japonicus. All three of these species are medically important vectors and may pose threats to the public health of the Gulf Coast of the United States.

5.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 987, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Gulf Coast of the United States is home to mosquito vectors that may spread disease causing pathogens, and environmental conditions that are ideal for the sustained transmission of mosquito-borne pathogens. Understanding public perceptions of mosquito-borne diseases and mosquito prevention strategies is critical for the development of effective vector control strategies and public health interventions. Here, we present a survey conducted in Mobile, Alabama along the Gulf Coast to better understand public perceptions of mosquito-borne diseases, mosquito control activities, and potential risk factors. METHODS: Using Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAPs) assessments, we surveyed populations living in 12 zip codes in Mobile, Alabama using a 7-point Likert scale and frequency assessments. Survey participants were asked about vector control efforts, knowledge of mosquito-borne diseases, and understanding of mosquito ecology and breeding habitats. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-six surveys were completed in Mobile, Alabama, revealing that 73% of participants reported being bitten by a mosquito in the last 30 days and mosquitoes were frequently seen in their homes. Ninety-four percent of respondents had heard of Zika Virus at the time of the survey, and respondents reported being least familiar with dengue virus and chikungunya virus. CONCLUSIONS: Chikungunya virus, dengue virus, malaria, West Nile virus, and Zika virus have been documented in the Gulf Coast of the United States. The mosquitoes which vector all of these diseases are presently in the Gulf Coast meaning all five diseases pose a potential risk to human health. The results of this survey emphasize knowledge gaps that public health officials can address to empower the population to reduce their risk of these mosquito-borne diseases. Each species of mosquito has specific preferences for breeding and feeding and there is no one size fits all prevention approach, educating people on the need for a variety of approaches in order to address all species will further empower them to control mosquitoes where they live and further reduce their risk of disease.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores , Alabama , Vírus Chikungunya , Vírus da Dengue , Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Zika virus
6.
J Parasitol ; 105(3): 459-468, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251702

RESUMO

Human infestation with head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, is the most prevalent ectoparasitic condition in the modern world. The purpose of this study was to test human head lice from Madagascar for infection with 2 louse-borne bacteria, Bartonella quintana and Acinetobacter spp. including Acinetobacter baumannii, to assess the potential risk of exposure to these pathogens in rural populations experiencing head-louse pediculosis. A second aim was to determine the occurrence of a biomarker for permethrin resistance in head lice from 6 isolated human communities in Madagascar. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of B. quintana was detected using species-specific Fab3 gene TaqMan in 12.6% of lice from 4 villages. DNA of Acinetobacter spp. was detected using rpoB TaqMan in 42.1% of lice collected from all locations; 58.3% of rpoB-positive lice had the blaOXA51-like enzyme gene specific for A. baumannii. The kdr-resistant allele was detected in 70% of lice tested and was found in lice from each location. These results provide the first information regarding these combined characteristics of head-louse infestations in Madagascar. This approach can be applied to larger and broader surveys of lice from pediculosis capitis occurring in other geographic locations.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/farmacologia , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , Permetrina/farmacologia , Ftirápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Ftirápteros/genética , Acinetobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Acinetobacter/genética , Acinetobacter/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Biomarcadores , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA/análise , DNA/química , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Madagáscar , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ftirápteros/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216794, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Much work has been done in recent years to determine the vector competence of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) for Zika virus (ZIKV). If competent, Ae. albopictus could become an important vector in the spread of ZIKV to areas which until now have been considered safe from the virus. Despite much speculation about Ae. albopictus' competence for ZIKV, there have been, to date, no quantitative syntheses of Ae. albopictus' competence, nor have the potentially confounding differences between studies been addressed. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: This study represents a quantitative meta-analysis of the literature surrounding this topic by examining infection rates (IR) and transmission rates (TR) among sample populations of Ae. albopictus at 7 and 14 days post infection (dpi) across 15 journal articles comprising 23 studies. Our analyses examined potentially confounding variables in the studies contained therein, including: geographic origin of viral strain or mosquito population tested, whether sympatry of the tested viral strain and mosquito population was important, and freshness of blood meal. Our results suggest 1) Ae albopictus is a competent vector for ZIKV and 2) that origin of Ae. albopictus population and origin of viral strain had significant effects on the competence of Ae. albopictus to transmit ZIKV. CONCLUSIONS/ SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate a need to further explore the effects of methodology on vector competence studies and to examine in more detail the geographic variation in the competence of Ae. albopictus for ZIKV as well as the underlying causes of said variation. The ability of Ae. albopictus to carry and transmit ZIKV also points to a need to create new vector control strategies in case of a ZIKV outbreak in an area where Ae. albopictus is prominent. Finally, this study represents a potential template for future meta-analyses in the field of vector competence, where this type of study has been under-utilized despite the abundance of relevant studies.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Zika virus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
8.
Trends Parasitol ; 35(6): 399-408, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053334

RESUMO

Global habitat fragmentation is associated with the emergence of infectious diseases of wildlife origins in human populations. Despite this well-accepted narrative, the underlying mechanisms driving this association remain unclear. We introduce a nuanced hypothesis, the 'coevolution effect'. The central concept is that the subdivision of host populations which occurs with habitat fragmentation causes localized coevolution of hosts, obligate parasites, and pathogens which act as 'coevolutionary engines' within each fragment, accelerating pathogen diversification, and increasing pathogen diversity across the landscape. When combined with a mechanism to exit a fragment (e.g., mosquitoes), pathogen variants will spill over into human communities. Through this combined ecoevolutionary approach we may be able to understand the fine-scale mechanisms that drive disease emergence in the Anthropocene.

9.
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl ; 9: 119-121, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061793

RESUMO

The lemurs of Madagascar are threatened by human activities. We present the first molecular detection of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) in a wild non-human primate, the mouse lemur (Microcebus rufus). Zoonotic D. immitis infection has been associated with clinical pathology that includes serious and often fatal cardiac and pulmonary reactions. With human encroachment and associated increases in free-roaming dog populations in Madagascar, we examined lemurs for zoonotic canid pathogens. D. immitis presents a new potential conservation threat to lemurs. We highlight the need for wide-ranging and effective interventions, particularly near protected areas, to address this growing conservation issue.

10.
Biol Lett ; 15(4): 20180840, 2019 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991913

RESUMO

Parasitic infection risks in domestic animals may increase as a result of outdoor activities, often leading to transmission events to and from owners, other domestic animals and wildlife. Furthermore, outdoor access has not been quantified in domestic animals as a risk factor with respect to latitude or parasite transmission pathway. Cats are an ideal model to test parasitic infection risk in outdoor animals because there have been many studies analysing this risk factor in this species; and there is a useful dichotomy in cat ownership between indoor-only cats and those with outdoor access. Thus, we used meta-analysis to determine whether outdoor access is a significant risk factor for parasitic infection in domestic pet cats across 19 different pathogens including many relevant to human, domestic animal and wildlife health, such as Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara cati. Cats with outdoor access were 2.77 times more likely to be infected with parasites than indoor-only cats. Furthermore, absolute latitude trended towards significance such that each degree increase in absolute latitude increased infection likelihood by 4%. Thus, restricting outdoor access can reduce the risk of parasitic infection in cats and reduce the risk of zoonotic parasite transmission, spillover to sympatric wildlife and negative impacts on feline health.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Parasitos , Doenças Parasitárias , Toxoplasma , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Animais Selvagens , Gatos , Humanos
11.
J Wildl Dis ; 55(1): 174-178, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096033

RESUMO

We documented ectoparasites found on wild black-and-white ruffed lemurs ( Varecia variegata) in the southeastern rain forests of Madagascar and describe trends in parasitism. In this study, 235 mesostigmatid mites (1 male, 87 females, 147 nymphs) identified as Liponyssella sp., in the acarine family Macronyssidae, were collected during 87% (34/39) of lemur examinations (mean number/host=7.9). The only other ectoparasite collected was the louse fly ( Allobosca crassipes; 3 males, 8 females) in the dipteran family Hippoboscidae, which was collected during 26% (10/39) of lemur examinations (mean number/host=1.1). The lemur most heavily parasitized by mites was an adult female with 29 adult females and 17 nymphs, all collected from the face.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Lemuridae/parasitologia , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Ácaros , Miíase/veterinária , Animais , Madagáscar/epidemiologia , Infestações por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Infestações por Ácaros/virologia , Miíase/epidemiologia , Miíase/parasitologia
12.
Trends Parasitol ; 34(8): 655-663, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29935995

RESUMO

Biological invasions have the potential to influence parasite dynamics by altering ecological interactions. Similarly, parasitism can influence invasion by aiding or limiting expansion. While many parasite-invasion relationships have been evaluated, many have not been described. Here, we present a conceptual framework of potential interactions, and introduce two new concepts. The first, disease facilitation, nested within the parasite spillback hypothesis, is when invasive species facilitate parasite transmission through habitat alteration or physical transfer. The second, suppressive spillover, is when the deleterious effects of parasitic infection limit the expansion of an introduced species (and hence invasion success). Taken together, the proposed framework may aide in our understanding of ecological drivers of invasion and parasite ecology and can be used to improve mitigation strategies.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Espécies Introduzidas , Animais , Parasitos/fisiologia
13.
J Med Entomol ; 55(5): 1319-1324, 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659928

RESUMO

With the establishment of Zika virus in the Americas, an accurate understanding of the geographic range of its primary vector, Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), is vital to assessing transmission risk. In an article published in June 2016, Hahn and colleagues compiled county-level records in the United States for the presence of Ae. aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) reported between January 1995 and March 2016. Despite ecological suitability for both mosquito species along the Gulf Coast, Ae. aegypti was not reported in Alabama during the time interval, a result consistent with research suggesting that interactions between these two species often result in displacement of Ae. aegypti. Herein, we report the detection of Ae. aegypti populations in Mobile, Alabama, after a 26-yr absence and present findings on human perceptions of Zika virus relevant to transmission. It is unclear whether the specimens (69 out of 1074) represent a recent re-introduction or belong to a previously undetected remnant population. Sequencing of mtDNA from identified Ae. aegypti matched closest to a specimen collected in Kerala, India. A survey of residents in the surveillance area suggests high encounter rates with mosquitoes in and around homes. Despite high self-reported knowledge about Zika virus, the survey revealed gaps in knowledge regarding its transmission cycle and relative degrees of vulnerability to serious illness among segments of the human population. These findings highlight the importance of continued surveillance, vector control, and public-health education in Gulf Coast states, as well as the potential threat of Ae. Aegypti-transmitted pathogens in southern Alabama.


Assuntos
Aedes , Distribuição Animal , Idoso , Alabama , Animais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
J Med Entomol ; 55(4): 910-914, 2018 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659934

RESUMO

Lemurpediculus madagascariensis sp. nov. (Phthiraptera: Anoplura: Polyplacidae) is described from the Gray Mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus (J. F. Miller) (Primates: Cheirogaleidae), from Ankarafantsika National Park, Madagascar. Lemurs were trapped using Sherman Live Traps and visually inspected for lice, which were preserved in 90% ethanol. Adults of both sexes and the third-instar nymph of the new species are illustrated and distinguished from the four previously known species of Lemurpediculus: L. verruculosus (Ward); L. petterorum Paulian; L. claytoni Durden, Blanco, and Seabolt; and L. robbinsi Durden, Blanco, and Seabolt. It is not known if the new species of louse is a vector of any pathogens or parasites.


Assuntos
Anoplura/classificação , Cheirogaleidae , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , Animais , Anoplura/anatomia & histologia , Anoplura/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anoplura/fisiologia , Feminino , Madagáscar , Masculino , Ninfa/anatomia & histologia , Ninfa/classificação , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/fisiologia
15.
Vet Parasitol ; 249: 98-101, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29279094

RESUMO

Amoebiasis, caused by Entamoeba histolytica, affects 50 million people worldwide, and results in 100,000 deaths annually. It is particularly prevalent in developing nations where poverty and poor sanitation contribute to contamination of food and water. E. histolytica is also a zoonotic protozoan parasite with the potential to infect non-human primates. Lemurs, primates endemic to Madagascar, are the most threatened mammalian group in the world due to habitat loss. As forests disappear, humans and lemurs come into more frequent contact, and the potential for E. histolytica to infect lemurs intensifies. Consequently, we screened 176 fecal samples from seven lemur species at eight sites in the rain forests of southeastern Madagascar for E. histolytica to determine if human proximity influenced lemur infection. Of samples examined, 4.0% (from three lemur species) were positive for E. histolytica. Of lemurs infected with E. histolytica, three (43%) exhibited diarrheal feces. Distance to human settlements explained the variation in E. histolytica infection seen in lemurs. These results provide the first evidence of E. histolytica in wild lemurs and highlight the need for additional work to better understand the eco-epidemiology of this potential threat to these species.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Ecossistema , Entamebíase/veterinária , Lemur/parasitologia , Animais , Entamoeba histolytica/fisiologia , Entamebíase/epidemiologia , Humanos
16.
Curr Biol ; 27(21): 3384-3389.e2, 2017 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29107552

RESUMO

Animals with dietary specializations can be used to link climate to specific ecological drivers of endangerment. Only two mammals, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in Asia and the greater bamboo lemur (Prolemur simus) in Madagascar, consume the nutritionally poor and mechanically challenging culm or trunk of woody bamboos [1-3]. Even though the greater bamboo lemur is critically endangered, paleontological evidence shows that it was once broadly distributed [4, 5]. Here, integrating morphological, paleontological, and ecological evidence, we project the effects of climate change on greater bamboo lemurs. Both the giant panda and the greater bamboo lemur are shown to share diagnostic dental features indicative of a bamboo diet, thereby providing an ecometric indicator [6, 7] of diet preserved in the fossil record. Analyses of bamboo feeding in living populations show that bamboo culm is consumed only during the dry season and that the greater bamboo lemur is currently found in regions with the shortest dry season. In contrast, paleontological localities of the greater bamboo lemurs have the longest dry seasons. Future projections show that many present-day greater bamboo lemur populations will experience prolonged dry seasons similar to those of the localities where only fossils of the greater bamboo lemur are found. Whereas abundant foods such as bamboo allow feeding specialists to thrive, even a moderate change in seasonality may outstrip the capacity of greater bamboo lemurs to persist on their mechanically demanding food source. Coupling known changes in species distribution with high-resolution ecological and historical data helps to identify extinction risks.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Dentição , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Lemur/fisiologia , Animais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Extinção Biológica , Madagáscar , Sasa , Estações do Ano
17.
Genetics ; 206(2): 651-664, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28592502

RESUMO

Systematic genetic studies of a handful of diverse organisms over the past 50 years have transformed our understanding of biology. However, many aspects of primate biology, behavior, and disease are absent or poorly modeled in any of the current genetic model organisms including mice. We surveyed the animal kingdom to find other animals with advantages similar to mice that might better exemplify primate biology, and identified mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp.) as the outstanding candidate. Mouse lemurs are prosimian primates, roughly half the genetic distance between mice and humans. They are the smallest, fastest developing, and among the most prolific and abundant primates in the world, distributed throughout the island of Madagascar, many in separate breeding populations due to habitat destruction. Their physiology, behavior, and phylogeny have been studied for decades in laboratory colonies in Europe and in field studies in Malagasy rainforests, and a high quality reference genome sequence has recently been completed. To initiate a classical genetic approach, we developed a deep phenotyping protocol and have screened hundreds of laboratory and wild mouse lemurs for interesting phenotypes and begun mapping the underlying mutations, in collaboration with leading mouse lemur biologists. We also seek to establish a mouse lemur gene "knockout" library by sequencing the genomes of thousands of mouse lemurs to identify null alleles in most genes from the large pool of natural genetic variants. As part of this effort, we have begun a citizen science project in which students across Madagascar explore the remarkable biology around their schools, including longitudinal studies of the local mouse lemurs. We hope this work spawns a new model organism and cultivates a deep genetic understanding of primate biology and health. We also hope it establishes a new and ethical method of genetics that bridges biological, behavioral, medical, and conservation disciplines, while providing an example of how hands-on science education can help transform developing countries.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Cheirogaleidae/genética , Genoma , Primatas/genética , Animais , Cheirogaleidae/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Filogenia , Primatas/fisiologia
18.
Malar J ; 15: 114, 2016 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26944051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deforestation and land-use change have the potential to alter human exposure to malaria. A large percentage of Madagascar's original forest cover has been lost to slash-and-burn agriculture, and malaria is one of the top causes of mortality on the island. In this study, the influence of land-use on the distribution of Plasmodium vectors and concomitant Plasmodium infection in humans and mosquito vectors was examined in the southeastern rainforests of Madagascar. METHODS: From June to August 2013, health assessments were conducted on individuals living in sixty randomly selected households in six villages bordering Ranomafana National Park. Humans were screened for malaria using species-specific rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), and surveyed about insecticide-treated bed net (ITN) usage. Concurrently, mosquitoes were captured in villages and associated forest and agricultural sites. All captured female Anopheline mosquitoes were screened for Plasmodium spp. using a circumsporozoite enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (csELISA). RESULTS: Anopheles spp. dominated the mosquito communities of agricultural and village land-use sites, accounting for 41.4 and 31.4 % of mosquitoes captured respectively, whereas Anopheles spp. accounted for only 1.6 % of mosquitoes captured from forest sites. Interestingly, most Anopheles spp. (67.7 %) were captured in agricultural sites in close proximity to animal pens, and 90.8 % of Anopheles mosquitoes captured in agricultural sites were known vectors of malaria. Three Anopheline mosquitoes (0.7 %) were positive for malaria (Plasmodium vivax-210) and all positive mosquitoes were collected from agricultural or village land-use sites. Ten humans (3.7 %) tested were positive for P. falciparum, and 23.3 % of those surveyed reported never sleeping under ITNs. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents the first report of malaria surveillance in humans and the environment in southeastern Madagascar. These findings suggest that even during the winter, malaria species are present in both humans and mosquitoes; with P. falciparum found in humans, and evidence of P. vivax-210 in mosquito vectors. The presence of P. vivax in resident vectors, but not humans may relate to the high incidence of humans lacking the Duffy protein. The majority of mosquito vectors were found in agricultural land-use sites, in particular near livestock pens. These findings have the potential to inform and improve targeted malaria control and prevention strategies in the region.


Assuntos
Anopheles/fisiologia , Anopheles/parasitologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium vivax , Adolescente , Adulto , Agricultura , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Madagáscar/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/transmissão , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Malária Vivax/transmissão , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 8: 145, 2015 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25889982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria is the 4(th) largest cause of mortality in Madagascar. To better understand malaria transmission dynamics, it is crucial to map the distribution of the malaria vectors, mosquitoes belonging to the genus Anopheles. To do so, it is important to have a strong Anopheles-specific lure to ensure the maximum number of captures. Previous studies have isolated volatiles from the human skin microbiota and found the compound 3-methyl-1-butanol to be the most attractive to the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, in a laboratory setting; and recommended 3-methyl-1-butanol as a compound to increase An. gambiae captures in the field. To date, this compound's ability to lure wild mosquitoes in differing land-use settings has not been tested. In this study, we evaluate the role of the synthetic compound, 3-methyl-1-butanol in combination with field produced CO(2) in attracting Anopheles mosquitoes in varying land-use sites in Madagascar. METHODS: CDC miniature light traps in combination with field produced CO(2) were deployed in and around six villages near Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. To test the role of 3-methyl-1-butanol in luring Anopheles mosquitoes, two traps were set in each land-use site (village, agricultural sites, and forested habitats affiliated with each village). One was baited with the synthetic odor and the other was kept as a non-baited control. RESULTS: While 3-methyl-1-butanol baited traps did capture An. gambiae s.l. in this study, we did not find traps baited with synthetic 3-methyl-1-butanol to be more successful in capturing Anopheles mosquitoes, (including Anopheles gambiae s.l.) than the non odor-baited control traps in any of the land-use sites examined; however, regardless of odor bait, trapping near livestock pens resulted in the capture of significantly more Anopheles specimens. CONCLUSIONS: A strong synthetic lure in combination with insecticide has great potential as a mosquito control. Our findings suggest that trapping mosquitoes near livestock in malaria endemic regions, such as Madagascar, may be more successful at capturing Anopheles mosquitoes than the proposed 3-1-methyl-butanol lure.


Assuntos
Anopheles/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Odorantes , Pentanóis/farmacologia , Animais , Madagáscar , Pentanóis/química , Feromônios
20.
PLoS One ; 9(10): e109528, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25354041

RESUMO

Mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp.) are an exciting new primate model for understanding human aging and disease. In captivity, Microcebus murinus develops human-like ailments of old age after five years (e.g., neurodegeneration analogous to Alzheimer's disease) but can live beyond 12 years. It is believed that wild Microcebus follow a similar pattern of senescence observed in captive animals, but that predation limits their lifespan to four years, thus preventing observance of these diseases in the wild. Testing whether this assumption is true is informative about both Microcebus natural history and environmental influences on senescence, leading to interpretation of findings for models of human aging. Additionally, the study of Microcebus longevity provides an opportunity to better understand mechanisms of sex-biased longevity. Longevity is often shorter in males of species with high male-male competition, such as Microcebus, but mouse lemurs are sexually monomorphic, suggesting similar lifespans. We collected individual-based observations of wild brown mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus) from 2003-2010 to investigate sex-differences in survival and longevity. Fecal testosterone was measured as a potential mechanism of sex-based differences in survival. We used a combination of high-resolution tooth wear techniques, mark-recapture, and hormone enzyme immunoassays. We found no dental or physical signs of senescence in M. rufus as old as eight years (N = 189, ages 1-8, mean = 2.59 ± 1.63 SE), three years older than captive, senescent congeners (M. murinus). Unlike other polygynandrous vertebrates, we found no sex difference in age-dependent survival, nor sex or age differences in testosterone levels. While elevated male testosterone levels have been implicated in shorter lifespans in several species, this is one of the first studies to show equivalent testosterone levels accompanying equivalent lifespans. Future research on captive aged individuals can determine if senescence is partially a condition of their captive environment, and studies controlling for various environmental factors will further our understanding of senescence.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Cheirogaleidae/fisiologia , Fezes/química , Testosterona/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida , Desgaste dos Dentes/metabolismo
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