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1.
Bone ; 154: 116202, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534708

RESUMO

Contemporary intravenous iron formulations allow administration of high doses of elemental iron and enable correction of total iron deficit in one or two infusions. An important but underappreciated complication of certain formulations is hypophosphatemia caused by increased secretion of the phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). The pathophysiology of FGF23-induced hypophosphatemia due to certain intravenous iron formulations has been recently investigated in prospective clinical trials. To reach the correct diagnosis, clinicians must recognize the typical clinical manifestations of intravenous iron-induced hypophosphatemia and identify a specific pattern of biochemical changes (hyperphosphaturic hypophosphatemia triggered by high FGF23 that causes low 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D, hypocalcemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism). Physicians and patients should be aware of hypophosphatemia as a common complication of intravenous iron therapy and monitor serum phosphate concentrations in patients receiving repeated doses of specific intravenous iron formulations. Symptoms of hypophosphatemia are associated with severity and duration. Persistent hypophosphatemia can occur with iron therapy and can cause debilitating diseases including myopathy, osteomalacia and fractures. This review summarizes the current understanding of the iron-phosphate axis as well as complications of intravenous iron-induced hypophosphatemia.

2.
Eur J Radiol ; 142: 109898, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388628

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare liver stiffness (LS) in patients with suspected diffuse liver disease between gradient-recalled-echo magnetic resonance elastography (GRE-MRE) and different spin-echo echo-planar imaging (SE-EPI-MRE) sequences and to investigate confounding factors including fat, iron, age, and sex. METHOD: LS was measured at 1.5T using GRE-MRE, SE-EPI-MRE and short-TE-SE-EPI-MRE (hiSE-EPI-MRE) sequences and compared using Bland-Altman-plots together with concordance correlation coefficients (CCC). Success gradings were evaluated considering possible confounding factors. RESULTS: 305 patients (225 male, 80 females, mean age 51.12 years) were included. 109/305 showed hepatic iron overload, 183 hepatic steatosis. The mean difference (bias) in stiffness values between GRE-MRE and SE-EPI-MRE/hiSE-EPI-MRE was 0.15/0.2 kPa (LOA: -0.72,0.41 kPa/-0.94,0.55 kPa), between SE-EPI-MRE and hiSE-EPI-MRE 0.04 kPa (LOA: -0.62,0.53 kPa). The CCC for agreement between stiffness values for GRE-MRE and SE-EPI-MRE was 0.94 (0.92-0.95), 0.89 (0.86-0.91) for hiSE-EPI-MRE and GRE-MRE and 0.94 (0.92-0.95) for SE-EPI-MRE and hiSE-EPI-MRE. Using GRE-MRE, 72/305 showed unusable results whereby all these patients had high iron levels (mean R2*=209.7 1/s). For SE-EPI-MRE and hiSE-EPI-MRE only 10/305 and 8/305 were inconclusive respectively, corresponding to a significantly higher iron load (mean R2*= 549.2 1/s for SE-EPI-MRE and 570.7 1/s for hiSE-EPI-MRE). Concerning fat, age or sex no significant influence on success was observed for all sequences. CONCLUSIONS: Good agreement of LS values was observed between GRE-MRE and SE-EPI-MRE sequences. The number of successful exams, however, was considerably lower for GRE-MRE, mainly due to iron content. Study reference number: AN5093.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Hepatopatias , Imagem Ecoplanar , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
3.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(8): e21656, 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation (LT) is the only curative treatment for end-stage liver disease. Less than 10% of global transplantation needs are met worldwide, and the need for LT is still increasing. The death rates on the waiting list remain too high. OBJECTIVE: It is, therefore, critical to raise awareness among the public and health care providers and in turn increasingly acquire donors. METHODS: We performed a Google Trends search using the search terms liver transplantation and liver transplant on October 15, 2020. On the basis of the resulting monthly data, the annual average Google Trends indices were calculated for the years 2004 to 2018. We not only investigated the trend worldwide but also used data from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS), Spain, and Eurotransplant. Using pairwise Spearman correlations, Google Trends indices were examined over time and compared with the total number of liver transplants retrieved from the respective official websites of UNOS, the Organización Nacional de Trasplantes, and Eurotransplant. RESULTS: From 2004 to 2018, there was a significant decrease in the worldwide Google Trends index from 78.2 in 2004 to 20.5 in 2018 (-71.2%). This trend was more evident in UNOS than in the Eurotransplant group. In the same period, the number of transplanted livers increased worldwide. The waiting list mortality rate was 31% for Eurotransplant and 29% for UNOS. However, in Spain, where there are excellent awareness programs, the Google Trends index remained stable over the years with comparable, increasing LT numbers but a significantly lower waiting list mortality (15%). CONCLUSIONS: Public awareness in LT has decreased significantly over the past two decades. Therefore, novel awareness programs should be initialized.

4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 606146, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354697

RESUMO

In search for novel biomarkers to assess graft quality, we investigated whether defined candidate genes are predictive for outcome after liver transplantation (LT). Zero-hour liver biopsies were obtained from 88 livers. Gene expression of selected candidate markers was analyzed and correlated with clinical parameters as well as short and long-term outcomes post LT. Whereas both, the calculated Eurotransplant Donor-Risk-Index and the donor body mass index, had either a poor or no predictive value concerning serum levels indicative for liver function (ALT, AST, GGT, bilirubin) after 6 months, chronological donor age was weakly predictive for serum bilirubin (AUC=0.67). In contrast, the major histcompatibility complex class I related chain A (MICA) mRNA expression demonstrated a high predictive value for serum liver function parameters revealing an inverse correlation (e.g. for ALT: 3 months p=0.0332; 6 months p=0.007, 12 months 0.0256, 24 months p=0.0098, 36 months, p=0.0153) and proved significant also in a multivariate regression model. Importantly, high expression of MICA mRNA revealed to be associated with prolonged graft survival (p=0.024; log rank test) after 10 years of observation, whereas low expression was associated with the occurrence of death in patients with transplant related mortality (p=0.031). Given the observed correlation with short and long-term graft function, we suggest MICA as a biomarker for pre-transplant graft evaluation.

5.
Cell Syst ; 12(8): 780-794.e7, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139154

RESUMO

COVID-19 is highly variable in its clinical presentation, ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe organ damage and death. We characterized the time-dependent progression of the disease in 139 COVID-19 inpatients by measuring 86 accredited diagnostic parameters, such as blood cell counts and enzyme activities, as well as untargeted plasma proteomes at 687 sampling points. We report an initial spike in a systemic inflammatory response, which is gradually alleviated and followed by a protein signature indicative of tissue repair, metabolic reconstitution, and immunomodulation. We identify prognostic marker signatures for devising risk-adapted treatment strategies and use machine learning to classify therapeutic needs. We show that the machine learning models based on the proteome are transferable to an independent cohort. Our study presents a map linking routinely used clinical diagnostic parameters to plasma proteomes and their dynamics in an infectious disease.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , COVID-19/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Proteoma/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Gasometria , Ativação Enzimática , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Prognóstico , Proteômica , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia
6.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 20(7): 757-769, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993818

RESUMO

Introduction: The newest intravenous (IV) iron products show an improved safety profile over predecessors, allowing for the rapid administration of relatively high doses. Ferric derisomaltose (FDI; also known as iron isomaltoside), ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), and ferumoxytol (FER), are successful treatments for iron deficiency (Europe; FDI and FCM) and iron deficiency anemia (US; FDI, FCM, and FER).Areas covered: This review focusses on the chemistry and structure of FDI, FCM, and FER, and on three key aspects of IV iron safety: (1) hypersensitivity; (2) hypophosphatemia and sequelae; (3) cardiovascular safety.Expert opinion: Although the safety of modern IV iron has improved, immediate infusion reactions and the development of hypophosphatemia must be appreciated and recognized by those who prescribe and administer IV iron. Immediate infusion reactions can occur with any IV iron and are usually mild; severe reactions - particularly anaphylaxis - are extremely rare. The recognition and appropriate management of infusion reactions is an important consideration to the successful administration of IV iron. Severe, persistent, hypophosphatemia is a specific side effect of FCM. No cardiovascular safety signal has been identified for IV iron. Ongoing trials in heart failure will provide additional long-term efficacy and safety data.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/etiologia , Hipofosfatemia/induzido quimicamente , Compostos de Ferro/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Anemia Ferropriva/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Humanos , Compostos de Ferro/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Ferro/química
7.
Hepatology ; 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High serum ferritin is frequent among patients with chronic liver disease and commonly associated with hepatic iron overload. Genetic causes of high liver iron include homozygosity for the p.Cys282Tyr variant in homeostatic iron regulator (HFE) and rare variants in non-HFE genes. The aims of the present study were to describe the landscape and frequency of mutations in hemochromatosis genes and determine whether patient selection by noninvasive hepatic iron quantification using MRI improves the diagnostic yield of next-generation sequencing (NGS) in patients with hyperferritinemia. APPROACH AND RESULTS: A cohort of 410 unselected liver clinic patients with high serum ferritin (defined as ≥200 µg/L for women and ≥300 µg/L for men) was investigated by HFE genotyping and abdominal MRI R2*. Forty-one (10%) patients were homozygous for the p.Cys282Tyr variant in HFE. Of the remaining 369 patients, 256 (69%) had high transferrin saturation (TSAT; ≥45%) and 199 (53%) had confirmed hepatic iron overload (liver R2* ≥70 s-1 ). NGS of hemochromatosis genes was carried out in 180 patients with hepatic iron overload, and likely pathogenic variants were identified in 68 of 180 (38%) patients, mainly in HFE (79%), ceruloplasmin (25%), and transferrin receptor 2 (19%). Low spleen iron (R2* <50 s-1 ), but not TSAT, was significantly associated with the presence of mutations. In 167 patients (93%), no monogenic cause of hepatic iron overload could be identified. CONCLUSIONS: In patients without homozygosity for p.Cys282Tyr, coincident pathogenic variants in HFE and non-HFE genes could explain hyperferritinemia with hepatic iron overload in a subset of patients. Unlike HFE hemochromatosis, this type of polygenic hepatic iron overload presents with variable TSAT. High ferritin in blood is an indicator of the iron storage disease, hemochromatosis. A simple genetic test establishes this diagnosis in the majority of patients affected. MRI of the abdomen can guide further genetic testing.

8.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(17): 2039-2053, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34007138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-dose intravenous iron is an effective treatment option for iron deficiency (ID) or ID anaemia (IDA) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, treatment with ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) has been associated with the development of hypophosphatemia. AIM: To investigate mechanisms behind the development of hypophosphatemia after intravenous iron treatment, and disclose symptoms and clinical manifestations related to hypophosphatemia short-term. METHODS: A prospective observational study of adult IBD patients with ID or IDA was conducted between February 1, 2017 and July 1, 2018 at two separate university hospitals in the southeast region of Norway. Patients received one dose of 1000 mg of either FCM or ferric derisomaltose (FDI) and were followed for an observation period of at least 7 wk. Blood and urine samples were collected for relevant analyses at baseline, week 2 and at week 6. Clinical symptoms were assessed at the same timepoints using a respiratory function test, a visual analogue scale, and a health-related quality of life questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 106 patients was available for analysis in this study. The FCM treatment group consisted of 52 patients and hypophosphatemia was present in 72.5% of the patients at week 2, and in 21.6% at week 6. In comparison, the FDI treatment group consisted of 54 patients and 11.3% of the patients had hypophosphatemia at week 2, and 3.7% at week 6. The difference in incidence was highly significant at both week 2 and 6 (P < 0.001 and P < 0.013, respectively). We observed a significantly higher mean concentration of intact fibroblast growth factor 23 (P < 0.001), a significant rise in mean urine fractional excretion of phosphate (P = 0.004), a significant decrease of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (P < 0.001) and of ionised calcium levels (P < 0.012) in the FCM-treated patients compared with patients who received FDI. No clinical symptoms could with certainty be related to hypophosphatemia, since neither the respiratory function test, SF-36 (36-item short form health survey) or the visual analogue scale scores resulted in significant differences between patients who developed hypophosphatemia or not. CONCLUSION: Fibroblast growth factor 23 has a key role in FCM induced hypophosphatemia, probably by inducing loss of phosphate in the urine. Short-term clinical impact of hypophosphatemia was not demonstrated.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva , Hipofosfatemia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Adulto , Anemia Ferropriva/diagnóstico , Anemia Ferropriva/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia Ferropriva/etiologia , Compostos Férricos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipofosfatemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipofosfatemia/diagnóstico , Hipofosfatemia/epidemiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Ferro , Noruega , Qualidade de Vida
9.
Gastroenterology ; 160(7): 2367-2382.e1, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Both existing clinical criteria and genetic testing have significant limitations for the diagnosis of Wilson disease (WD), often creating ambiguities in patient identification and leading to delayed diagnosis and ineffective management. ATP7B protein concentration, indicated by direct measurement of surrogate peptides from patient dried blood spot samples, could provide primary evidence of WD. ATP7B concentrations were measured in patient samples from diverse backgrounds, diagnostic potential is determined, and results are compared with biochemical and genetic results from individual patients. METHODS: Two hundred and sixty-four samples from biorepositories at 3 international and 2 domestic academic centers and 150 normal controls were obtained after Institutional Review Board approval. Genetically or clinically confirmed WD patients with a Leipzig score >3 and obligate heterozygote (carriers) from affected family members were included. ATP7B peptide measurements were made by immunoaffinity enrichment mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Two ATP7B peptides were used to measure ATP7B protein concentration. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis generates an area under the curve of 0.98. ATP7B peptide analysis of the sequence ATP7B 887 was found to have a sensitivity of 91.2%, specificity of 98.1%, positive predictive value of 98.0%, and a negative predictive value of 91.5%. In patients with normal ceruloplasmin concentrations (>20 mg/dL), 14 of 16 (87.5%) were ATP7B-deficient. In patients without clear genetic results, 94% were ATP7B-deficient. CONCLUSIONS: Quantification of ATP7B peptide effectively identified WD patients in 92.1% of presented cases and reduced ambiguities resulting from ceruloplasmin and genetic analysis. Clarity is brought to patients with ambiguous genetic results, significantly aiding in noninvasive diagnosis. A proposed diagnostic score and algorithm incorporating ATP7B peptide concentrations can be rapidly diagnostic and supplemental to current Leipzig scoring systems.

10.
Gut ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a common, potentially lethal inborn disorder caused by mutations in alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT). Homozygosity for the 'Pi*Z' variant of AAT (Pi*ZZ genotype) causes lung and liver disease, whereas heterozygous 'Pi*Z' carriage (Pi*MZ genotype) predisposes to gallstones and liver fibrosis. The clinical significance of the more common 'Pi*S' variant remains largely undefined and no robust data exist on the prevalence of liver tumours in AATD. DESIGN: Baseline phenotypes of AATD individuals and non-carriers were analysed in 482 380 participants in the UK Biobank. 1104 participants of a multinational cohort (586 Pi*ZZ, 239 Pi*SZ, 279 non-carriers) underwent a comprehensive clinical assessment. Associations were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, diabetes and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Among UK Biobank participants, Pi*ZZ individuals displayed the highest liver enzyme values, the highest occurrence of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis (adjusted OR (aOR)=21.7 (8.8-53.7)) and primary liver cancer (aOR=44.5 (10.8-183.6)). Subjects with Pi*MZ genotype had slightly elevated liver enzymes and moderately increased odds for liver fibrosis/cirrhosis (aOR=1.7 (1.2-2.2)) and cholelithiasis (aOR=1.3 (1.2-1.4)). Individuals with homozygous Pi*S mutation (Pi*SS genotype) harboured minimally elevated alanine aminotransferase values, but no other hepatobiliary abnormalities. Pi*SZ participants displayed higher liver enzymes, more frequent liver fibrosis/cirrhosis (aOR=3.1 (1.1-8.2)) and primary liver cancer (aOR=6.6 (1.6-26.9)). The higher fibrosis burden was confirmed in a multinational cohort. Male sex, age ≥50 years, obesity and the presence of diabetes were associated with significant liver fibrosis. CONCLUSION: Our study defines the hepatobiliary phenotype of individuals with the most relevant AATD genotypes including their predisposition to liver tumours, thereby allowing evidence-based advice and individualised hepatological surveillance.

11.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 53(7): 830-843, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cirrhosis develops in <10% of individuals homozygous for the C282Y variant in the homeostatic iron regulator (HFE) gene. Carriage of PCSK7:rs236918 is associated with an increased risk of cirrhosis in this population. AIM: To determine if genetic variants significantly associated with the risk of alcohol- and NAFLD-related cirrhosis also modulate the cirrhosis risk in C282Y homozygotes. METHODS: Variants in PCSK7, PNPLA3, TM6SF2, MBOAT7 and HSD17B13 were genotyped in 1319 C282Y homozygotes, from six European countries, of whom 171 (13.0%) had cirrhosis. Genotypic and allelic associations with the risk for developing cirrhosis were assessed, adjusting for age and sex. Fixed effects meta-analyses of the adjusted summary data for each country were performed. Post hoc association testing was undertaken in the 131 (76.6%) cases and 299 (26.0%) controls with available liver histology. RESULTS: Significant associations were observed between PCSK7:rs236918 (OR = 1.52 [95% CI 1.06-2.19]; P = 0.022; I2  = 0%); PNPLA3:rs738409 (OR = 1.60 [95% CI 1.22-2.11]; P = 7.37 × 10-4 ; I2  = 45.5%) and TM6SF2:rs58542926 (OR = 1.94 [95% CI 1.28-2.95]; P = 1.86 × 10-3 ; I2  = 0%) and the cirrhosis risk in C282Y homozygotes. These findings remained significant in the subpopulation with available liver histology. The population-attributable fractions were 5.6% for PCSK7:rs236918, 13.8% for PNPLA3:rs738409, 6.5% for TM6SF2:rs58542926 and 24.0% for carriage of all three variants combined. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of cirrhosis associated with carriage of PCSK7:rs236918 was confirmed in this much larger population of C282Y homozygotes. In addition, PNPLA3:rs738409 and TM6SF2:rs58542926 were established as significant additional risk factors. More detailed genetic testing of C282Y homozygotes would allow risk stratification and help guide future management.


Assuntos
Hemocromatose , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Europa (Continente) , Genótipo , Humanos , Lipase/genética , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Subtilisinas
12.
J Pathol ; 254(1): 80-91, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586163

RESUMO

Protein accumulation is the hallmark of various neuronal, muscular, and other human disorders. It is also often seen in the liver as a major protein-secretory organ. For example, aggregation of mutated alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT), referred to as PiZ, is a characteristic feature of AAT deficiency, whereas retention of hepatitis B surface protein (HBs) is found in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. We investigated the interaction of both proteotoxic stresses in humans and mice. Animals overexpressing both PiZ and HBs (HBs-PiZ mice) had greater liver injury, steatosis, and fibrosis. Later they exhibited higher hepatocellular carcinoma load and a more aggressive tumor subtype. Although PiZ and HBs displayed differing solubility properties and distinct distribution patterns, HBs-PiZ animals manifested retention of AAT/HBs in the degradatory pathway and a marked accumulation of the autophagy adaptor p62. Isolation of p62-containing particles revealed retained HBs/AAT and the lipophagy adapter perilipin-2. p62 build-up led to activation of the p62-Nrf2 axis and emergence of reactive oxygen species. Our results demonstrate that the simultaneous presence of two prevalent proteotoxic stresses promotes the development of liver injury due to protein retention and activation of the p62-Nrf2 axis. In humans, the PiZ variant was over-represented in CHB patients with advanced liver fibrosis (unadjusted odds ratio = 9.92 [1.15-85.39]). Current siRNA approaches targeting HBs/AAT should be considered for these individuals. © 2021 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. on behalf of The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

13.
Gut ; 70(3): 585-594, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699098

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) is a global healthcare problem with limited treatment options. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT, encoded by SERPINA1) shows potent anti-inflammatory activities in many preclinical and clinical trials. In our study, we aimed to explore the role of AAT in ALD. DESIGN: An unselected cohort of 512 patients with cirrhosis was clinically characterised. Survival, clinical and biochemical parameters including AAT serum concentration were compared between patients with ALD and other aetiologies of liver disease. The role of AAT was evaluated in experimental ALD models. RESULTS: Cirrhotic ALD patients with AAT serum concentrations less than 120 mg/dL had a significantly higher risk for death/liver transplantation as compared with patients with AAT serum concentrations higher than 120 mg/dL. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that low AAT serum concentration was a NaMELD-independent predictor of survival/transplantation. Ethanol-fed wild-type (wt) mice displayed a significant decline in hepatic AAT compared with pair-fed mice. Therefore, hAAT-Tg mice were ethanol-fed, and these mice displayed protection from liver injury associated with decreased steatosis, hepatic neutrophil infiltration and abated expression of proinflammatory cytokines. To test the therapeutic capability of AAT, ethanol-fed wt mice were treated with human AAT. Administration of AAT ameliorated hepatic injury, neutrophil infiltration and steatosis. CONCLUSION: Cirrhotic ALD patients with AAT concentrations less than 120 mg/dL displayed an increased risk for death/liver transplantation. Both hAAT-Tg mice and AAT-treated wt animals showed protection from ethanol-induced liver injury. AAT could reflect a treatment option for human ALD, especially for alcoholic hepatitis.

14.
Eur Radiol ; 31(1): 494-503, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749590

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the coronary atherosclerosis profile by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) in patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) due to alcohol-related liver disease (ARLD) evaluated for liver transplantation (LT), in a retrospective matched case-controlled cohort study. METHODS: One hundred forty patients (age 60.6 years ± 9.8, 20.7% females) who underwent coronary CTA were included. Seventy patients with ESLD due to ARLD (ESLD-alc) were propensity score (1:1) matched for age, gender, and the major 5 cardiovascular risk factors with healthy controls. CTA analysis included the following: stenosis severity according to CAD-RADS as (0) = no, (1) minimal < 25%, (2) mild 25-50%, (3) moderate 50-70%, and (4) severe > 70% stenosis, total mixed plaque burden weighted for non-calcified component (G-score) and high-risk plaque criteria (Napkin-Ring, low attenuation plaque, spotty calcification, positive remodeling). RESULTS: Prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) was high (84.4%) in the ESLD-alc group but similar to controls. Stenosis severity was similar (CAD-RADS, 1.9 vs. 2.2, p = 0.289). High-grade stenosis (> 70%) was observed in 12.5% of ESLD-alc patients. High-risk plaques were less frequent in the ESLD-alc cohort as compared to controls (4.5% vs. 37.5%, p < 0.001), and total mixed plaque burden was lower (G-score, 4.9 versus 7.4, p = 0.001). Plaque density was lower in controls (56.6HU ± 3.2 vs. 91.3HU ± 4.5, p = 0.007) indicating more lipid-rich in controls, but higher mixed fibro-calcific plaque component in those with alcohol-related ESLD. CONCLUSION: Patients with alcohol-related ESLD exhibit more mixed fibro-calcified plaques but less plaque with high-risk features and less fibro-fatty plaque burden, while total CAD prevalence is high. KEY POINTS: • Patients with ESLD prior to LT have a high total prevalence of CAD and stenosis severity, which is similar to those of healthy controls with an identical cardiovascular risk profile. • Patients with ESLD prior to LT due to alcohol abuse have more calcific but less fibro-fatty plaque and less high-risk plaque. • CTA seems to be a useful imaging technique for risk stratification prior to LT.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Estenose Coronária , Doença Hepática Terminal , Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico , Transplante de Fígado , Placa Aterosclerótica , Estudos de Coortes , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/epidemiologia , Vasos Coronários , Doença Hepática Terminal/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Eur Radiol ; 31(4): 2252-2262, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965571

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To prospectively evaluate a 3D-multiecho-Dixon sequence with inline calculation of proton density fat fraction (PDFF) and R2* (qDixon), and an improved version of it (qDixon-WIP), for the MR-quantification of hepatic iron in a clinical setting. METHODS: Patients with increased serum ferritin underwent 1.5-T MRI of the liver for the evaluation of hepatic iron overload. The imaging protocol for R2* quantification included as follows: (1) a validated, 2D multigradient-echo sequence (initial TE 0.99 ms, R2*-ME-GRE), (2) a 3D-multiecho-Dixon sequence with inline calculation of PDFF and R2* (initial TE 2.38 ms, R2*-qDixon), and optionally (3) a prototype (works-in-progress, WIP) version of the latter (initial TE 1.04 ms, R2*-qDixon-WIP) with improved water/fat separation and noise-corrected parameter fitting. For all sequences, three manually co-registered regions of interest (ROIs) were placed in the liver. R2* values were compared and linear regression analysis and Bland-Altman plots calculated. RESULTS: Forty-six out of 415 patients showed fat-water (F/W) swap with qDixon and were excluded. A total of 369 patients (mean age 52 years) were included; in 203/369, the optional qDixon-WIP was acquired, which showed no F/W swaps. A strong correlation was found between R2*-ME-GRE and R2*-qDixon (r2 = 0.92, p < 0.001) with Bland-Altman revealing a mean difference of - 3.82 1/s (SD = 21.26 1/s). Correlation between R2*-GRE-ME and R2*-qDixon-WIP was r2 = 0.95 (p < 0.001) with Bland-Altman showing a mean difference of - 0.125 1/s (SD = 30.667 1/s). CONCLUSIONS: The 3D-multiecho-Dixon sequence is a reliable tool to quantify hepatic iron. Results are comparable with established relaxometry methods. Improvements to the original implementation eliminate occasional F/W swaps and limitations regarding maximum R2* values. KEY POINTS: • The 3D-multiecho-Dixon sequence for 1.5 T is a reliable tool to quantify hepatic iron. • Results of the 3D-multiecho-Dixon sequence are comparable with established relaxometry methods. • An improved version of the 3D-multiecho-Dixon sequence eliminates minor drawbacks.


Assuntos
Sobrecarga de Ferro , Ferro , Biópsia , Humanos , Sobrecarga de Ferro/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Dig Liver Dis ; 53(2): 158-165, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A cytokine storm conceivably contributes to manifestations of corona virus disease (COVID-19). Inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) cause acute liver injury while serum detectability indicates systemic inflammation. AIMS: We explored a link between systemic IL-6, related acute phase proteins and liver injury in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: 655 patients with suspected COVID-19 were screened in the emergency department at the University Hospital of Innsbruck, Austria, between February and April 2020. 96 patients (∼15%) were hospitalized with COVID-19. 15 patients required intensive-care treatment (ICT). Plasma aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, and gamma glutamyl transferase, as well as IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined by standard clinical assays. RESULTS: Of all hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 41 (42%) showed elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentration. COVID-19 patients with elevated AST exhibited significantly higher IL-6 (p < 0.001), ferritin (p < 0.001), LDH (p < 0.001) and CRP (p < 0.05) serum concentrations compared to patients with normal AST. Liver injury correlated with systemic IL-6 (p < 0.001), CRP (p < 0.001), ferritin (p < 0.001) and LDH (p < 0.001) concentration. In COVID-19 patients requiring ICT, correlations were more pronounced. CONCLUSION: Systemic inflammation could be a fuel for hepatic injury in COVID-19.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Fase Aguda/análise , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , COVID-19 , Citocinas/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Hepatopatias , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/imunologia , Correlação de Dados , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Hepatopatias/sangue , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
J Hepatol ; 74(5): 1097-1108, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Acute decompensation (AD) of cirrhosis may present without acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) (AD-No ACLF), or with ACLF (AD-ACLF), defined by organ failure(s). Herein, we aimed to analyze and characterize the precipitants leading to both of these AD phenotypes. METHODS: The multicenter, prospective, observational PREDICT study (NCT03056612) included 1,273 non-electively hospitalized patients with AD (No ACLF = 1,071; ACLF = 202). Medical history, clinical data and laboratory data were collected at enrolment and during 90-day follow-up, with particular attention given to the following characteristics of precipitants: induction of organ dysfunction or failure, systemic inflammation, chronology, intensity, and relationship to outcome. RESULTS: Among various clinical events, 4 distinct events were precipitants consistently related to AD: proven bacterial infections, severe alcoholic hepatitis, gastrointestinal bleeding with shock and toxic encephalopathy. Among patients with precipitants in the AD-No ACLF cohort and the AD-ACLF cohort (38% and 71%, respectively), almost all (96% and 97%, respectively) showed proven bacterial infection and severe alcoholic hepatitis, either alone or in combination with other events. Survival was similar in patients with proven bacterial infections or severe alcoholic hepatitis in both AD phenotypes. The number of precipitants was associated with significantly increased 90-day mortality and was paralleled by increasing levels of surrogates for systemic inflammation. Importantly, adequate first-line antibiotic treatment of proven bacterial infections was associated with a lower ACLF development rate and lower 90-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified precipitants that are significantly associated with a distinct clinical course and prognosis in patients with AD. Specific preventive and therapeutic strategies targeting these events may improve outcomes in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. LAY SUMMARY: Acute decompensation (AD) of cirrhosis is characterized by a rapid deterioration in patient health. Herein, we aimed to analyze the precipitating events that cause AD in patients with cirrhosis. Proven bacterial infections and severe alcoholic hepatitis, either alone or in combination, accounted for almost all (96-97%) cases of AD and acute-on-chronic liver failure. Whilst the type of precipitant was not associated with mortality, the number of precipitant(s) was. This study identified precipitants that are significantly associated with a distinct clinical course and prognosis of patients with AD. Specific preventive and therapeutic strategies targeting these events may improve patient outcomes.

18.
J Hepatol ; 74(4): 801-810, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: There are limited data on patients with chronic HCV infection in whom combination voxilaprevir (VOX), velpatasvir (VEL), sofosbuvir (SOF) retreatment fails. Thus, we aimed to assess treatment failure and rescue treatment options in these patients. METHODS: Samples from 40 patients with HCV genotypes (GT) 1-4 in whom VOX/VEL/SOF retreatment failed were collected within the European Resistance Study Group. Population-based resistance analyses were conducted and clinical parameters and retreatment efficacies were evaluated retrospectively in 22 patients. RESULTS: Most VOX/VEL/SOF failure patients were infected with HCV GT3a (n = 18, 45%) or GT1a (n = 11, 28%) and had cirrhosis (n = 28, 70%). Previous treatments included an NS3-inhibitor (30%), an NS5A-inhibitor (100%) and SOF (85%). Baseline RAS data from a subgroup of patients before VOX/VEL/SOF retreatment (78%) showed few NS3 RASs apart from Q80K in GT1a (40%), typical NS5A RAS patterns in most patients (74%) and no S282T in NS5B. Sequencing after VOX/VEL/SOF failure was available in 98% of patients and showed only minor changes for NS3 and NS5A RASs. In 22 patients, rescue treatment was initiated with glecaprevir, pibrentasvir alone (n = 2) or with SOF±ribavirin (n = 15), VOX/VEL/SOF±ribavirin (n = 4) or VEL/SOF and ribavirin (n = 1) for 12 to 24 weeks. Sustained virologic response was achieved in 17/21 (81%) patients with a final treatment outcome. Of these, 2 GT3a-infected patients had virologic failure after rescue treatment with VEL/SOF or glecaprevir/pibrentasvir+SOF+ribavirin, and 2 patients with cirrhosis died during treatment or before reaching SVR12. CONCLUSIONS: VOX/VEL/SOF failure was mainly observed in HCV GT3- and GT1a-infected patients with cirrhosis and was not associated with specific RAS patterns within NS3, NS5A or NS5B target regions. Rescue treatment with multiple targeted therapies was effective in most patients. LAY SUMMARY: The advent of direct-acting antivirals has enabled the effective cure of chronic hepatitis C in most patients. However, treatment failure occurs in some patients, who are often retreated with a combination regimen called VOX/VEL/SOF, which is associated with very high rates of cure. However, VOX/VEL/SOF retreatment also fails in some patients. Herein, we analysed samples from patients in whom VOX/VEL/SOF retreatment failed and we assessed the efficacy of different rescue therapies, showing that rescue treatment is effective in most patients (81%).

19.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(5): 2256-2273, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188534

RESUMO

AIMS: Hypophosphataemia is an increasingly recognized side-effect of ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) and possibly iron isomaltoside/ferric derisomaltose (IIM), which are used to treat iron deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine frequency, severity, duration and risk factors of incident hypophosphataemia after treatment with FCM and IIM. METHODS: A systematic literature search for articles indexed in EMBASE, PubMed and Web of Science in years 2005-2020 was carried out using the search terms 'ferric carboxymaltose' OR 'iron isomaltoside'. Prospective clinical trials reporting outcomes on hypophosphataemia rate, mean nadir serum phosphate and/or change in mean serum phosphate from baseline were selected. Hypophosphataemia rate and severity were compared for studies on IIM vs. FCM after stratification for chronic kidney disease. Meta-regression analysis was used to investigate risk factors for hypophosphataemia. RESULTS: Across the 42 clinical trials included in the meta-analysis, FCM induced a significantly higher incidence of hypophosphataemia than IIM (47%, 95% CI 36-58% vs. 4%, 95% CI 2-5%), and significantly greater mean decreases in serum phosphate (0.40 vs. 0.06 mmol/L). Hypophosphataemia persisted at the end of the study periods (maximum 3 months) in up to 45% of patients treated with FCM. Meta-regression analysis identified low baseline serum ferritin and transferrin saturation, and normal kidney function as significant predictors of hypophosphataemia. CONCLUSION: FCM is associated with a high risk of hypophosphataemia, which does not resolve for at least 3 months in a large proportion of affected patients. More severe iron deficiency and normal kidney function are risk factors for hypophosphataemia.

20.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 44(2): 376-387, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898308

RESUMO

Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by TYMP mutations and thymidine phosphorylase (TP) deficiency. Thymidine and deoxyuridine accumulate impairing the mitochondrial DNA maintenance and integrity. Clinically, patients show severe and progressive gastrointestinal and neurological manifestations. The onset typically occurs in the second decade of life and mean age at death is 37 years. Signs and symptoms of MNGIE are heterogeneous and confirmatory diagnostic tests are not routinely performed by most laboratories, accounting for common misdiagnosis. Factors predictive of progression and appropriate tests for monitoring are still undefined. Several treatment options showed promising results in restoring the biochemical imbalance of MNGIE. The lack of controlled studies with appropriate follow-up accounts for the limited evidence informing diagnostic and therapeutic choices. The International Consensus Conference (ICC) on MNGIE, held in Bologna, Italy, on 30 March to 31 March 2019, aimed at an evidence-based consensus on diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of MNGIE among experts, patients, caregivers and other stakeholders involved in caring the condition. The conference was conducted according to the National Institute of Health Consensus Conference methodology. A consensus development panel formulated a set of statements and proposed a research agenda. Specifically, the ICC produced recommendations on: (a) diagnostic pathway; (b) prognosis and the main predictors of disease progression; (c) efficacy and safety of treatments; and (f) research priorities on diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. The Bologna ICC on diagnosis, management and treatment of MNGIE provided evidence-based guidance for clinicians incorporating patients' values and preferences.

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