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1.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769173

RESUMO

"An International Meeting on Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome (WHS)" was held at The University Hospital La Paz in Madrid, Spain (October 13-14, 2017). One hundred and twenty-five people, including physicians, scientists and affected families, attended the meeting. Parent and patient advocates from the Spanish Association of WHS opened the meeting with a panel discussion to set the stage regarding their hopes and expectations for therapeutic advances. In keeping with the theme on therapeutic development, the sessions followed a progression from description of the phenotype and definition of therapeutic endpoints, to definition of genomic changes. These proceedings will review the major points of discussion.

3.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(8): e845, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Activating pathogenic variants in PIK3CA gene usually occur at a mosaic status and underlie a variety of segmental overgrowth phenotypes. Germline variants in PIK3CA have been rarely reported, described in a total of 12 patients with macrocephaly to date. Clinical and prognostic features of these germline variants have not been described in detail yet. METHODS: Targeted deep sequencing by custom panel of the 21 genes involved in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway was performed in a 13-year-old boy with macrocephaly and physical overgrowth. PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway analysis was performed in fibroblasts by Western blot. The effects of miransertib (AKT inhibitor) and rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor) were assessed. RESULTS: A de novo pathogenic variant (c.1090G>C; p.Gly364Arg) in PIK3CA gene was detected in a non-mosaic status in peripheral blood cells, buccal smears, and skin fibroblasts. Increased levels of phosphorylated AKT residues were observed in fibroblasts, rescued by miransertib. CONCLUSION: Germline variants in PIK3CA are associated to a mild phenotype characterized by overgrowth, severe macrocephaly, mild intellectual disability, and few dysmorphic features. Investigations of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway should be performed in patients with severe macrocephaly and unspecific physical overgrowth. Longitudinal studies to assess prognosis and cancer predisposition are recommended.

4.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(7): 1179-1185, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No standard treatment has been defined for metastatic uveal melanoma (mUM). Although clinical trials testing Nivolumab/Pembrolizumab for cutaneous melanoma did not include mUM, anti PD-1 agents are commonly used for this disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective observational cohort single arm study, we investigated efficacy and safety of Pembrolizumab as first-line therapy for mUM. The efficacy was evaluated in terms of progression-free survival (PFS), response rate and overall survival (OS). Toxicity was also assessed. RESULTS: Seventeen patients were enrolled. A median of 8 cycles were administered (range 2-28). Two patients achieved partial response (11.7%), 6 a disease stabilization (35.3%), whereas 9 (53%) had a progression. No complete response was observed. PFS of the overall population was 3.8 months. PFS was 9.7 months for patients with an interval higher than 5 years from diagnosis of primary tumor to metastatic disease and 2.6 months for patients with an interval lower than 5 years [p = 0.039, HR 0.2865 (95% CI 0.0869-0.9443)]. Median OS was not reached. The two responding patients were still on treatment with Pembrolizumab at the time of data analysis. Survival was 12.8 months for patients with clinical benefit, while OS for progressive patients was 3.1 months. PD-L1 expression and genomic abnormalities predictive of relapse after diagnosis of primary tumor were not associated with PFS. Toxicity was mild, without grade 3-4 side effects. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of Pembrolizumab does not seem particularly different when compared to other agents for mUM, but responding patients had a remarkable disease control.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Uveais/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias Uveais/imunologia , Neoplasias Uveais/mortalidade
5.
Neurobiol Aging ; 2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000212

RESUMO

Variants in tank-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) are responsible for a significant proportion of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases. In the present study, we analyzed variants in TBK1 extracted by targeted sequencing of 32 genes in a group of 406 Italian patients with ALS. We identified 7 different TBK1 variants in 7 sporadic cases, resulting in a frequency of 1.7%. Three patients had missense variants (p.R357Q, p.R358H, and p.R724C), one patient had a small deletion (p.E618del), and 3 had truncating variants (p.Y482*, p.R229*, and p.N681*). Notably, we found that 4 patients had an additional variant in ALS-related genes: 2 in OPTN and 2 in the 3'UTR region of FUS. By studying an independent group of 7 TBK1-mutated patients previously reported, we found another variant in the 3'UTR region of FUS in one patient. The presence of a second variant in TBK1 variant carriers is an interesting finding that needs to be investigated in larger cohorts of patients. These findings suggest that TBK1 belongs to the category of genes conferring a significantly increased risk but not sufficient to cause disease.

6.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2043-2058, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842647

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Microcephaly is a sign of many genetic conditions but has been rarely systematically evaluated. We therefore comprehensively studied the clinical and genetic landscape of an unselected cohort of patients with microcephaly. METHODS: We performed clinical assessment, high-resolution chromosomal microarray analysis, exome sequencing, and functional studies in 62 patients (58% with primary microcephaly [PM], 27% with secondary microcephaly [SM], and 15% of unknown onset). RESULTS: We found severity of developmental delay/intellectual disability correlating with severity of microcephaly in PM, but not SM. We detected causative variants in 48.4% of patients and found divergent inheritance and variant pattern for PM (mainly recessive and likely gene-disrupting [LGD]) versus SM (all dominant de novo and evenly LGD or missense). While centrosome-related pathways were solely identified in PM, transcriptional regulation was the most frequently affected pathway in both SM and PM. Unexpectedly, we found causative variants in different mitochondria-related genes accounting for ~5% of patients, which emphasizes their role even in syndromic PM. Additionally, we delineated novel candidate genes involved in centrosome-related pathway (SPAG5, TEDC1), Wnt signaling (VPS26A, ZNRF3), and RNA trafficking (DDX1). CONCLUSION: Our findings enable improved evaluation and genetic counseling of PM and SM patients and further elucidate microcephaly pathways.

7.
Clin Genet ; 95(4): 462-478, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677142

RESUMO

Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, specific facial features, and marked autonomic nervous system dysfunction, especially with disturbances of regulating respiration and intestinal mobility. It is caused by variants in the transcription factor TCF4. Heterogeneity in the clinical and molecular diagnostic criteria and care practices has prompted a group of international experts to establish guidelines for diagnostics and care. For issues, for which there was limited information available in international literature, we collaborated with national support groups and the participants of a syndrome specific international conference to obtain further information. Here, we discuss the resultant consensus, including the clinical definition of PTHS and a molecular diagnostic pathway. Recommendations for managing particular health problems such as dysregulated respiration are provided. We emphasize the need for integration of care for physical and behavioral issues. The recommendations as presented here will need to be evaluated for improvements to allow for continued optimization of diagnostics and care.

8.
Brain ; 141(9): 2576-2591, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107533

RESUMO

Synaptotagmin 1 (SYT1) is a critical mediator of fast, synchronous, calcium-dependent neurotransmitter release and also modulates synaptic vesicle endocytosis. This paper describes 11 patients with de novo heterozygous missense mutations in SYT1. All mutations alter highly conserved residues, and cluster in two regions of the SYT1 C2B domain at positions Met303 (M303K), Asp304 (D304G), Asp366 (D366E), Ile368 (I368T) and Asn371 (N371K). Phenotypic features include infantile hypotonia, congenital ophthalmic abnormalities, childhood-onset hyperkinetic movement disorders, motor stereotypies, and developmental delay varying in severity from moderate to profound. Behavioural characteristics include sleep disturbance and episodic agitation. Absence of epileptic seizures and normal orbitofrontal head circumference are important negative features. Structural MRI is unremarkable but EEG disturbance is universal, characterized by intermittent low frequency high amplitude oscillations. The functional impact of these five de novo SYT1 mutations has been assessed by expressing rat SYT1 protein containing the equivalent human variants in wild-type mouse primary hippocampal cultures. All mutant forms of SYT1 were expressed at levels approximately equal to endogenous wild-type protein, and correctly localized to nerve terminals at rest, except for SYT1M303K, which was expressed at a lower level and failed to localize at nerve terminals. Following stimulation, SYT1I368T and SYT1N371K relocalized to nerve terminals at least as efficiently as wild-type SYT1. However, SYT1D304G and SYT1D366E failed to relocalize to nerve terminals following stimulation, indicative of impairments in endocytic retrieval and trafficking of SYT1. In addition, the presence of SYT1 variants at nerve terminals induced a slowing of exocytic rate following sustained action potential stimulation. The extent of disturbance to synaptic vesicle kinetics is mirrored by the severity of the affected individuals' phenotypes, suggesting that the efficiency of SYT1-mediated neurotransmitter release is critical to cognitive development. In summary, de novo dominant SYT1 missense mutations are associated with a recognizable neurodevelopmental syndrome, and further cases can now be diagnosed based on clinical features, electrophysiological signature and mutation characteristics. Variation in phenotype severity may reflect mutation-specific impact on the diverse physiological functions of SYT1.

9.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(9): 1991-1995, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30088855

RESUMO

KBG syndrome is characterized by short stature, distinctive facial features, and developmental/cognitive delay and is caused by mutations in ANKRD11, one of the ankyrin repeat-containing cofactors. After the advent of whole exome sequencing, the number of clinical reports with KBG diagnosis has increased, leading to a revision of the phenotypic spectrum associated with this syndrome. Here, we report a female child showing clinical features of the KBG syndrome in addition to a caudal appendage at the coccyx with prominent skin fold and a peculiar calcaneus malformation. Exons and exon-intron junctions targeted resequencing of SH3PXD2B and MASP1 genes, known to be associated with prominent coccyx, gave negative outcome, whereas sequencing of ANKRD11 whose mutations matched the KBG phenotype of the proband showed a de novo heterozygous frameshift variant c.4528_4529delCC in exon 9 of ANKRD11. This report contributes to expand the knowledge of the clinical features of KBG syndrome and highlights the need to search for vertebral anomalies and suspect this condition in the presence of a prominent, elongated coccyx.

10.
Eur J Med Genet ; 2018 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29959045

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: MED13L-related intellectual disability is characterized by moderate intellectual disability (ID), speech impairment, and dysmorphic facial features. We present 8 patients with MED13L-related intellectual disability and review the literature for phenotypical and genetic aspects of previously described patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the search for genetic aberrations in individuals with ID, two of the patients were identified by chromosomal microarray analysis, and five by exome sequencing. One of the individuals, suspected of MED13L-related intellectual disability, based on clinical features, was identified by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: All 8 individuals had de novo MED13L aberrations, including two intragenic microdeletions, two frameshift, three nonsense variants, and one missense variant. Phenotypically, they all had intellectual disability, speech and motor delay, and features of the mouth (open mouth appearance, macroglossia, and/or macrostomia). Two individuals were diagnosed with autism, and one had autistic features. One had complex congenital heart defect, and one had persistent foramen ovale. The literature was reviewed with respect to clinical and dysmorphic features, and genetic aberrations. CONCLUSIONS: Even if most clinical features of MED13L-related intellectual disability are rather non-specific, the syndrome may be suspected in some individuals based on the association of developmental delay, speech impairment, bulbous nasal tip, and macroglossia, macrostomia, or open mouth appearance.

11.
EMBO Mol Med ; 10(9)2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012579

RESUMO

The diverse clinical phenotypes of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) are the result of haploinsufficiency of several genes, one of which, LETM1, encodes a protein of the mitochondrial inner membrane of uncertain function. Here, we show that LETM1 is associated with mitochondrial ribosomes, is required for mitochondrial DNA distribution and expression, and regulates the activity of an ancillary metabolic enzyme, pyruvate dehydrogenase. LETM1 deficiency in WHS alters mitochondrial morphology and DNA organization, as does substituting ketone bodies for glucose in control cells. While this change in nutrient availability leads to the death of fibroblasts with normal amounts of LETM1, WHS-derived fibroblasts survive on ketone bodies, which can be attributed to their reduced dependence on glucose oxidation. Thus, remodeling of mitochondrial nucleoprotein complexes results from the inability of mitochondria to use specific substrates for energy production and is indicative of mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the dysfunction could be mitigated by a modified diet-for WHS, one high in lipids and low in carbohydrates.

13.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(2): 455-459, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29226580

RESUMO

KAT6B sequence variants have been identified in both patients with the Say-Barber-Biesecker-Young-Simpson syndrome (SBBYSS) and in the genitopatellar syndrome (GPS). In SBBYSS, they were reported to affect mostly exons 16-18 of KAT6B, and the predicted mechanism of pathogenesis was haploinsufficiency or a partial loss of protein function. Truncating variants in KAT6B leading to GPS appear to cluster within the proximal portion of exon 18, associated with a dominant-negative effect of the mutated protein, most likely. Although SBBYSS and GPS have been initially considered allelic disorders with distinctive genetic and clinical features, there is evidence that they represent two ends of a spectrum of conditions referable as KAT6B-related disorders. We detected a de novo truncating variant within exon 7 of KAT6B in a 8-year-old female who presented with mild intellectual disability, facial dysmorphisms highly consistent with SBBYSS, and skeletal anomalies including exostosis, that are usually considered component manifestations of GPS. Following the clinical diagnosis driven by the striking facial phenotype, we analyzed the KAT6B gene by NGS techniques. The present report highlights the pivotal role of clinical genetics in avoiding clear-cut genotype-phenotype categories in syndromic forms of intellectual disability. In addition, it further supports the evidence that a continuum exists within the clinical spectrum of KAT6B-associated disorders.

14.
Neurobiol Aging ; 64: 157.e1-157.e5, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29274668

RESUMO

To clarify the possible involvement of intermediate ATXN1 alleles as risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we tested ATXN1 in a cohort of 1146 Italian ALS patients, previously screened for variants in other ALS genes, and in 529 controls. We detected ATXN1 alleles with ≥33 polyglutamine repeats in 105 of 1146 patients (9.16%) and 29 of 529 controls (5.48%) (p = 0.003). The frequency of ATXN1 alleles with ≥33 polyglutamine repeats was particularly high in the group of ALS patients carrying the C9orf72 expansion (12/59, 20.3%). We confirmed this result in an independent cohort of C9orf72 Italian patients (10/80 cases, 12.5%), thus finding a cumulative frequency of ATXN1 expansion of 15.82% in C9orf72 carriers (p = 2.40E-05). Our results strongly support the hypothesis that ATXN1 could act as a disease risk gene in ALS, mostly in C9orf72 expansion carriers. Further studies are needed to confirm our results and to define the mechanism by which ATXN1 might contribute to neuronal degeneration leading to ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/etiologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Ataxina-1/genética , Expansão das Repetições de DNA/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Peptídeos/genética , Alelos , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Degeneração Neural/genética , Fatores de Risco
15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(2): 409-414, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29193639

RESUMO

Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a rare chromosomal disorder caused by a partial deletion of chromosome 4 (4p16.3p16.2). We describe a case of a male 9 years old children with WHS proteinuria and hypertension. Laboratory data showed creatinine 1.05 mg/dl, GFR 65.9 ml/min/1.73 m2 , cholesterol 280 mg/dl, triglyceride 125 mg/dl with electrolytes in the normal range. Urine collection showed protein 2.72 g/L with a urine protein/creatinine ratio (UP /UCr ratio) of 4.2 and diuresis of 1,100 ml. Renal ultrasound showed reduced kidney dimensions with diffusely hyperechogenic cortex and poorly visualized pyramids. Renal biopsy showed oligonephronia with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis associated with initial tubulointerstitial sclerotic atrophy. The child began therapy with Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-inhibitors) to reduce proteinuria and progression of chronic kidney disease. In the literature the anomalies of number of glomeruli oligonephronia and oligomeganephronia (OMN) are described in two forms, one without any associated anomalies, sporadic, and solitary and the other with one or more anomalies. Our review of the literature shows that the pathogenesis of this anomaly is unknown but the role of chromosome 4 is very relevant. Many cases of OMN are associated with anomalies on this chromosome, in the literature cases series we observed this association in 14/48 cases (29.2%) and in 7 of these 14 cases with WHS. Our case and the review of literature demonstrate how periodic urinalysis and renal ultrasound monitoring is recommended in patients affected by WHS and the renal biopsy must be performed when there is the onset of proteinuria.

16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(12): 3216-3220, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29136354

RESUMO

We report on a patient with terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 14 displaying brain interhemispheric fusion limited to the midline anterior frontal cortex associated with hypoplastic corpus callosum and incomplete rotation of the left hippocampus in a clinical setting of motor and intellectual disability with poor language, and social behavior abnormalities with aggressiveness. Some possible correlations between clinical signs and symptoms and various aspects of the complex brain malformation are briefly discussed and compared with other known abnormalities of chromosome 14. The different neuropathology of the most common forms and the new forms of holoprosencephaly recently described is also discussed and leads us to suggest classifying the interhemispheric fusion of this case as a "minimal" form of holoprosencephaly. This appears to be the first description in a 14q deletion patient.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 14/genética , Holoprosencefalia/genética , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Holoprosencefalia/classificação , Holoprosencefalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Neuroimagem , Adulto Jovem
17.
Front Neurosci ; 11: 587, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29093661

RESUMO

Craniosynostosis is a heterogeneous condition caused by the premature fusion of cranial sutures, occurring mostly as an isolated anomaly. Pathogenesis of non-syndromic forms of craniosynostosis is largely unknown. In about 15-30% of cases craniosynostosis occurs in association with other physical anomalies and it is referred to as syndromic craniosynostosis. Syndromic forms of craniosynostosis arise from mutations in genes belonging to the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) family and the interconnected molecular pathways in most cases. However it can occur in association with other gene variants and with a variety of chromosome abnormalities as well, usually in association with intellectual disability (ID) and additional physical anomalies. Evaluating the molecular properties of the genes undergoing intragenic mutations or copy number variations (CNVs) along with prevalence of craniosynostosis in different conditions and animal models if available, we made an attempt to define two distinct groups of unusual syndromic craniosynostosis, which can reflect direct effects of emerging new candidate genes with roles in suture homeostasis or a non-specific phenotypic manifestation of pleiotropic genes, respectively. RASopathies and 9p23p22.3 deletions are reviewed as examples of conditions in the first group. In particular, we found that craniosynostosis is a relatively common component manifestation of cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome. Chromatinopathies and neurocristopathies are presented as examples of conditions in the second group. We observed that craniosynostosis is uncommon on average in these conditions. It was randomly associated with Kabuki, Koolen-de Vries/KANSL1 haploinsufficiency and Mowat-Wilson syndromes and in KAT6B-related disorders. As an exception, trigonocephaly in Bohring-Opitz syndrome reflects specific molecular properties of the chromatin modifier ASXL1 gene. Surveillance for craniosynostosis in syndromic forms of intellectual disability, as well as ascertainment of genomic CNVs by array-CGH in apparently non-syndromic craniosynostosis is recommended, to allow for improvement of both the clinical outcome of patients and the accurate individual diagnosis.

18.
Eur J Med Genet ; 60(11): 565-571, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28807867

RESUMO

Pitt-Hopkins syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe intellectual disability and a distinctive facial gestalt. It is caused by haploinsufficiency of the TCF4 gene. The TCF4 protein has different functional domains, with the NLS (nuclear localization signal) domain coded by exons 7-8 and the bHLH (basic Helix-Loop-Helix) domain coded by exon 18. Several alternatively spliced TCF4 variants have been described, allowing for translation of variable protein isoforms. Typical PTHS patients have impairment of at least the bHLH domain. To which extent impairment of the remaining domains contributes to the final phenotype is not clear. There is recent evidence that certain loss-of-function variants disrupting TCF4 are associated with mild ID, but not with typical PTHS. We describe a frameshift-causing partial gene deletion encompassing exons 4-6 of TCF4 in an adult patient with mild ID and nonspecific facial dysmorphisms but without the typical features of PTHS, and a c.520C > T nonsense variant within exon 8 in a child presenting with a severe phenotype largely mimicking PTHS, but lacking the typical facial dysmorphism. Investigation on mRNA, along with literature review, led us to suggest a preliminary phenotypic map of loss-of-function variants affecting TCF4. An intragenic phenotypic map of loss-of-function variants in TCF4 is suggested here for the first time: variants within exons 1-4 and exons 4-6 give rise to a recurrent phenotype with mild ID not in the spectrum of Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (biallelic preservation of both the NLS and bHLH domains); variants within exons 7-8 cause a severe phenotype resembling PTHS but in absence of the typical facial dysmorphism (impairment limited to the NLS domain); variants within exons 9-19 cause typical Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (impairment of at least the bHLH domain). Understanding the TCF4 molecular syndromology can allow for proper nosology in the current era of whole genomic investigations.


Assuntos
Hiperventilação/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Fenótipo , Fator de Transcrição 4/genética , Processamento Alternativo , Criança , Códon sem Sentido , Facies , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Humanos , Hiperventilação/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Domínios Proteicos , Fator de Transcrição 4/química , Fator de Transcrição 4/metabolismo
19.
PLoS One ; 12(6): e0178113, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28604823

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether miscarried embryo/fetal crown rump length (CRL) measurement may yield a practical application for predicting a conclusive result at the cytogenetic analysis of miscarriage tissue. Our study might help in improving the cytogenetic method, the results of which may be affected by maternal cell contamination (MCC). In particular, we aimed at establishing whether the miscarried embryo/fetal CRL measurement shows accuracy in predicting the possibility of MCC and the scan cut-off value useful to this purpose and, as a result, suggest a multi-step procedure for the genetic ascertainment. METHODS: Women experiencing at least two miscarriages of less than 20 weeks size at the Pregnancy Loss Unit at Fondazione Policlinico A. Gemelli underwent a scan before surgery. The CRL value was recorded. After the dilatation and courettage (D&C) procedure, miscarriage tissue was processed through the proposed multi-step procedure before performing oligo-nucleotide-based and SNP (single nucleotide polymorphisms)-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH+SNP) microarray analysis. RESULTS: 63 women and 63 miscarriages met the criteria. By using the Receiving Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves, CRL showed an AUC of 0.816 (95%CI:0.703-0.928,p<0.001). A CRL≥24.5 mm cut-off value showed a higher positive likelihood ratio (5.27) but, conversely, a higher negative likelihood ratio (0.64) in predicting the possibility of MCC. Microarray analysis was successful in the totality of cases in which the embryo/fetal origin of miscarriage tissues was proven. CONCLUSIONS: The 24.5 mm CRL value emerges as the most suitable cut-off enabling the identification of cases in which the embryo-fetal component can be isolated in the absence of MCC and the chromosomal array provide informative results.


Assuntos
Feto Abortado , Aborto Espontâneo/genética , Estatura Cabeça-Cóccix , Análise Citogenética , Feto/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético , Humanos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Curva ROC , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
20.
Neurobiol Aging ; 49: 218.e1-218.e7, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28029397

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of motor neurons in the primary motor cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord. Recently, missense variants in MATR3 were identified in familial and sporadic ALS patients, but very few additional ALS patients have been reported so far. The p.S85C MATR3 variant was previously associated to a different phenotype, namely a distal myopathy associated with dysphagia and dysphonia. Here, we assessed the contribution of MATR3 variants in a cohort of 322 Italian ALS patients. We identified 5 different missense MATR3 variants (p.Q66K, p.G153C, p.E664A, p.S707L, and p.N787S) in 6 patients (1.9%). None of our patients showed signs of myopathy at electrophysiological examination. Muscle biopsy, performed in 2 patients, showed neurogenic changes and normal nuclear staining with anti-matrin 3 antibody. Our results confirm that MATR3 variants are associated with ALS and suggest that they are more frequent in Italian ALS patients. Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathogenic significance of identified variants in sporadic and familial ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Variação Genética/genética , Proteínas Associadas à Matriz Nuclear/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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