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1.
Prev Vet Med ; 198: 105532, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34844124

RESUMO

In the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China, the yak is an animal of particular economic interest, which provides protein and income for herders in daily life. Brucellosis is a bacterial disease that can infect humans and animals, including yaks. It can damage the yak reproductive system, causing miscarriage and orchitis. At the same time, brucellosis threatens the health of herders. We performed this meta-analysis using R software to explore the combined prevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in yak in China. Variability was assessed by the I2 statistic and Cochran Q statistic. We identified 52 publications of related research from four databases (Wanfang Data, VIP Chinese Journal Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and of PubMed). The pooled prevalence of yak brucellosis was 8.39 %. Prevalence was highest in Southwestern China (11.1 %). The point estimate of brucellosis in yak from 2012 to 2016 was the highest (11.47 %). The point estimate of age ≤ 12 months (1.44 %) was lower than that of age > 12 months (15.6 %). This study shows that yak brucellosis is serious, and its incidence is higher than before 2012. We recommend carrying out large-scale yak brucellosis investigations in Western China and conducting comprehensive testing planning. The detection of brucellosis in adult animals should be strengthened to reduce the economic loss caused by brucellosis to herders and to improve public health.

2.
Microb Pathog ; 161(Pt A): 105170, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492305

RESUMO

Bluetongue is a viral disease transmitted by the bite of bloodsucking insects, which mainly occurs in sheep, goats, and cattle. Bluetongue is characterized by fever, leukopenia, and severe catarrhal inflammation of the oral and gastrointestinal mucosa. The present study aimed to evaluate and analyze the prevalence of bluetongue and its associated risk factors in sheep and goats in China. We collected 59 publications from 1988 to 2019 through searches at ScienceDirect, PubMed, the Chongqing VIP Chinese journal database, Wanfang database, and Chinese Web of knowledge. In these studies, a total of 123,982 sheep and goats across 7 regions of China were investigated, and the pooled prevalence of bluetongue in sheep and goats was 18.6%, as assessed using serological methods. The prevalence of bluetongue in Southern China was 30.3%, which was significantly higher than that in Northeastern China (4.7%). The prevalence of bluetongue between sheep (12.9%) and goats (28.1%) was significantly different (P < 0.05). Detection methods subgroup analysis showed that the prevalence of bluetongue was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the others group (43.8%) than in the agar immunodiffusion (15.9%) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay groups (20.5%). In addition, different geographical factors (latitude range, longitude range, altitude range, average precipitation, and average temperature) could affect the prevalence. Our results suggested that bluetongue is widespread in sheep and goats, and sheep and goats in contact with insect media, such as Culicoides, or in a warm and humid environment, could have an increased prevalence of bluetongue disease. Animal disease prevention and control departments should focus on continuous monitoring of the bluetongue epidemic in sheep and goats to prevent and control outbreaks.

3.
JACS Au ; 1(3): 282-293, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467293

RESUMO

A series of D-π-A + pyridinium compounds, in which D = -NPh2 and A+ = -PyMe+ are linked by various amounts of linear phenyl spacers, were strategically designed and synthesized. Their characterization revealed the presence of excited-state intramolecular charge transfer (ESICT) that triggers a corresponding response from the counterion. In medium and strong polar solvents, the fast solvent relaxation occurring after ESICT overwhelms the counterion effect, showing typical emission solvatochromism. In weakly polar solvents, ESICT induces counteranion migration for electrostatic stabilization, the time scale of which is dependent on the radius of the counteranion, the length of the π-linker, and the viscosity of the solvent. In low-viscosity organic solvents such as toluene, counteranion migration occurs within several tens to hundreds of picoseconds, resulting in a time-dependent continuous emission that can be resolved from the spectral temporal evolution. Concrete evidence for this is provided by the chemical synthesis of a D-π-A + pyridinium-sulfur trioxide- zwitterion, where anion migration is restricted due to its internally locked ion pair. As a result, only a single emission band can be observed. These comprehensive studies prove that the ion migration process may be significant for a wide range of ESICT-type ionic fluorophores. Such an ionic movement, triggered by optically pumped ESICT of the D-π-A + dyad, is similar to the molecular machine driven by the redox reaction, but with a facile access and fast response.

4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 225: 112770, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536793

RESUMO

Tritium is a water-soluble hydrogen isotope that releases beta rays during decay. In nature, tritium primarily exists as tritiated water (HTO), and its main source is nuclear power/processing plants. In recent decades, with the development of nuclear power industry, it is necessary to evaluate the impact of tritium on organisms. In this study, fertilized zebrafish embryos are treated with different HTO concentrations (3.7 × 103 Bq/ml, 3.7 × 104 Bq/ml, 3.7 × 105 Bq/ml). After treatment with HTO, the zebrafish embryos developed without evident morphological changes. Nevertheless, the heart rate increased and locomotor activity decreased significantly. In addition, RNA-sequencing shows that HTO can affect gene expressions. The differentially expressed genes are enriched through many physiological processes and intracellular signaling pathways, including cardiac, cardiovascular, and nervous system development and the metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450. Moreover, the concentrations of thyroid hormones in the zebrafish decrease and the expression of thyroid hormone-related genes is disordered after HTO treatment. Our results suggest that exposure to HTO may affect the physiology and behaviors of zebrafish through physiological processes and intracellular signaling pathways and provide a theoretical basis for ecological risk assessment of tritium.


Assuntos
Água , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Expressão Gênica , Hidrogênio , Locomoção , Peixe-Zebra/genética
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(40)2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583990

RESUMO

Although there is a large gap between Black and White American life expectancies, the gap fell 48.9% between 1990 and 2018, mainly due to mortality declines among Black Americans. We examine age-specific mortality trends and racial gaps in life expectancy in high- and low-income US areas and with reference to six European countries. Inequalities in life expectancy are starker in the United States than in Europe. In 1990, White Americans and Europeans in high-income areas had similar overall life expectancy, while life expectancy for White Americans in low-income areas was lower. However, since then, even high-income White Americans have lost ground relative to Europeans. Meanwhile, the gap in life expectancy between Black Americans and Europeans decreased by 8.3%. Black American life expectancy increased more than White American life expectancy in all US areas, but improvements in lower-income areas had the greatest impact on the racial life expectancy gap. The causes that contributed the most to Black Americans' mortality reductions included cancer, homicide, HIV, and causes originating in the fetal or infant period. Life expectancy for both Black and White Americans plateaued or slightly declined after 2012, but this stalling was most evident among Black Americans even prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. If improvements had continued at the 1990 to 2012 rate, the racial gap in life expectancy would have closed by 2036. European life expectancy also stalled after 2014. Still, the comparison with Europe suggests that mortality rates of both Black and White Americans could fall much further across all ages and in both high-income and low-income areas.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Expectativa de Vida/etnologia , Mortalidade/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Lactente , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Food Sci ; 86(9): 4209-4222, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392532

RESUMO

Red-fleshedapples are preferredbecause of their high content of phenolics and antioxidants in peel and pulp. Herein, we evaluated the mechanisms of apple peel polyphenolic extracts (APP) and apple flesh polyphenolic extracts (AFP) from the new red-fleshed apple in inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis on human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. The antiproliferative activities were determined by the CCK8 assay. The expression of proteins was determined using Western blot. We found that the content of polyphenols and flavonoids in APP was significantly higher than that in AFP, and 14 main phenolic compounds in APP and AFP were quantified using UPLC-MS/MS techniques. Besides, the significant inhibition effects of APP and AFP were achieved through Akt pathway by inducing apoptosis (significantly upregulating reactive oxygen species [ROS] levels, and downregulating expression of pAkt, pBad, Bcl-2, promoting Cytochrome c release, activating Cle-Caspase 9, and inducing expressions of Cle-Caspase 3 and Cle-PARP), and inducing G0/G1 cell cycle arrest (increased expressions of p-p53 and p21 and decreased expressions of PCNA and Cyclin D1). And the inhibition effect of APP was stronger than that of AFP. These results suggest that AFP and APP may be excellent sources of natural chemicals for treating triple-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The effects of antiproliferation of phenolic extracts from red-fleshed apple peels and flesh on human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells were evaluated. The data may clarify the functional parts of red-fleshed apple and provide some basis for scientific researchers and consumers to recognize and exploit red-fleshed apple.


Assuntos
Frutas , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular , Malus , Extratos Vegetais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Frutas/química , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Malus/química , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(32): 12715-12724, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355563

RESUMO

We report here, for the first time, the experimental observation on the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) reaction of the thiol proton in room-temperature solution. This phenomenon is demonstrated by a derivative of 3-thiolflavone (3TF), namely, 2-(4-(diethylamino)phenyl)-3-mercapto-4H-chromen-4-one (3NTF), which possesses an -S-H···O═ intramolecular H-bond (denoted by the dashed line) and has an S1 absorption at 383 nm. Upon photoexcitation, 3NTF exhibits a distinctly red emission maximized at 710 nm in cyclohexane with an anomalously large Stokes shift of 12 230 cm-1. Upon methylation on the thiol group, 3MeNTF, lacking the thiol proton, exhibits a normal Stokes-shifted emission at 472 nm. These, in combination with the computational approaches, lead to the conclusion of thiol-type ESIPT unambiguously. Further time-resolved study renders an unresolvable (<180 fs) ESIPT rate for 3NTF, followed by a tautomer emission lifetime of 120 ps. In sharp contrast to 3NTF, both 3TF and 3-mercapto-2-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one (3FTF) are non-emissive. Detailed computational approaches indicate that all studied thiols undergo thermally favorable ESIPT. However, once forming the proton-transferred tautomer, the lone-pair electrons on the sulfur atom brings non-negligible nπ* contribution to the S1' state (prime indicates the proton-transferred tautomer), for which the relaxation is dominated by the non-radiative deactivation. For 3NTF, the extension of π-electron delocalization by the diethylamino electron-donating group endows the S1' state primarily in the ππ* configuration, exhibiting the prominent tautomer emission. The results open a new chapter in the field of ESIPT, covering the non-canonical sulfur intramolecular H-bond and its associated ESIPT at ambient temperature.

8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(14): 3678-3686, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402292

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the antidepressant effects of total alkaloids of Fibraurea recisa in HT22 cells damaged by corticosterone (CORT) in vitro and in a mouse model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) as well as the underlying mechanisms.In cellular experiments,the viability of CORT-damaged HT22 cells was detected using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8),and the cell apoptosis was detected by Hoechst 33258 staining.In animal experiments,C57BL/6N mice were randomly divided into the control group,model group,low (100 mg·kg~(-1)),medium (200 mg·kg~(-1)) and high (400 mg·kg~(-1))-dose of total alkaloids of F.recisa groups,and positive control group.After 21 days of CUMS exposure,their depressive behaviors were observed in behavioral and Morris water maze tests.The serum levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT),dopamine (DA),and norepinephrine (NE) were assessed by ELISA.The expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2,Bax and cleaved caspase-3 in HT22 cells and mouse hippocampus were detected by Western blot.The results suggested that total alkaloids of F.recisa alleviated the damage of HT22 cells induced by CORT in a dose-dependent manner.The Hoechst 33258 staining uncovered that total alkaloids of F.recisa better reduced the blue spots and inhibited cell apoptosis.The results of animal experiments showed that total alkaloids of F.recisa significantly improved the depression-like behaviors of mice and increased the serum levels of 5-HT,DA and NE as compared with those in the model group.The Western blot assays revealed a significant up-regulation of Bcl-2 protein expression,but an obvious reduction in Bax and cleaved caspase-3protein expression in the total alkaloids of F.recisa group.In conclusion,total alkaloids of F.recisa inhibited depression possibly by regulating the apoptosis-related protein expression or elevating the monoamine neurotransmitter levels in the brain.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Depressão , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Animais , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Psicológico
9.
J Phys Chem A ; 125(30): 6611-6620, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308634

RESUMO

Finding the relation between thermodynamics and kinetics for a reaction is of fundamental importance. Here, the thermodynamics and kinetics correlation of excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) was investigated by the TD-DFT calculation under the CAM-B3LYP/6-311+G** level. We choose the family 2-(2'-aminophyenyl)benzothiazole and its amino derivatives as paradigms, which all possess the NH-type intramolecular hydrogen bond (H-bond), and investigate the corresponding ESIPT reaction. The H-bond strength can be systematically tuned, so both activation energy ΔG‡ and free energy difference between proton transfer tautomer (T*, product) and normal species (N*, reactant) ΔGT*-N* can be varied. To minimize the environmental interference such as solvent external H-bond and polarity perturbation, a nonpolar solvent such as cyclohexane is chosen as a bath with a polarizable continuum solvation model for the calculation. As a result, the comprehensive computational approach reveals a linear relationship between ΔGT*-N* and ΔG‡, which can be expressed as ΔG‡ = ΔG0 + αΔGT*-N*. The fundamental insight is reminiscent of the Bell-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) principle where α represents the character of the position of the transition state along the proton motion coordinate. In other words, the more exergonic the ESIPT reaction is, the faster the proton transfer rate can be observed. To verify that such a correlation is not a sporadic event, another ESIPT family with an -OH proton, 1-hydroxy-11H-benzo[b]fluoren-11-one and its derivatives, was also investigated and proved to follow the BEP principle as well. Unlike the quantum mechanics description of proton transfer where either proton tunneling is dominant or solute/solvent is coupled in ESIPT, this work demonstrates that reaction kinetics and thermodynamics are strongly correlated within the same class of ESIPT molecules with an intrinsic barrier free from solvent perturbation, being faster with the more exergonic reaction.

10.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 649252, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34150882

RESUMO

Background: Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. Brucellosis is widely distributed in more than 160 or 170 countries around the world, where it poses a huge threat to animal husbandry and human health. About 150 million head of water buffalo, distributed across more than 40 countries worldwide, are kept for the purposes of service, milk, and meat. High incidence of Brucella spp. in buffalo has negatively affected dairy products and meat products. Results: We searched all research related to seroprevalence of brucellosis in water buffalo anywhere in the world in PubMed, Science Direct, SpringerLink, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database, and VIP Chinese Journal Databases. A total of 26 articles published from 1985 to 2020 met the final selection criteria. The overall seroprevalence of buffalo brucellosis worldwide was 9.7%. The seroprevalence before 2010 (20.8%) (95% CI: 5.6-42.2) was much higher than the seroprevalence rate from 2010 to 2020 (4.2%) (95% CI: 1.8-7.5). Subgroup analysis by feeding mode found that the point estimate of seroprevalence in stock buffalo (11.5%) (95% CI: 3.6-23.0) was higher than that in captive buffalo (10.6%) (95% CI: 4.9-18.1). Subgroup analysis by farming mode found that the seroprevalence was higher in captive-bred buffalo (10.7%) (95% CI: 6.6-15.7) than in intensively farmed buffalo (8.5) (95% CI: 0.9-22.2). The seroprevalence in buffalo living in dry lands (6.4%) (95% CI: 2.0-12.9) is greater than that in buffalo living in wetlands (5.1%) (95% CI: 1.8-10.4) (P < 0.05). The seroprevalence in female buffalo (10.1%) (95% CI: 3.4-19.7) was higher than that in male buffalo (4.4%) (95% CI: 2.0-7.4). The seroprevalence in lactating buffalo was higher than that in buffalo of other ages (26.9%) (95% CI: 1.8-66.5). Subgroup analysis by detection method found that the seroprevalence detected by the complement fixation test (27.3%) (95% CI: 0.7-70.8) was much higher than that detected by other methods. Conclusion: The results of this meta-analysis showed that buffalo brucellosis infection is very common in buffalo herds around the world. Although the seroprevalence of brucellosis in buffalo and humans is relatively low, serious effects upon animal husbandry and public health make it necessary to take effective control and preventive measures to control the spread of this disease.

11.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 630960, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34026886

RESUMO

Background: Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease, infects various hosts, including swine and humans. It has reemerged in recent years as a public health concern, and current studies on brucellosis infection in swine have been conducted worldwide. However, no meta-analyses of global brucellosis infection in swine have been published. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of Brucella species (spp.) in swine worldwide and the factors associated with its persistence. Results: We searched seven databases for published epidemiological studies on brucellosis in pigs, including the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data, SpringerLink, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, the VIP Chinese Journal Database and PubMed. We selected 119 articles published from January 1, 2000 to January 3, 2020 for inclusion in the meta-analysis and analyzed the data using a random-effects model. Funnel plots and Egger's test showed significant publication bias in the included studies. The results of the sensitivity analysis showed that our study was relatively stable and reliable. The prevalence of brucellosis in swine was 2.1% (95% CI: 1.6-2.6), of which the highest infection rate, which was found in Europe, was 17.4% (95% CI: 11.1-24.9). The prevalence in feral pigs (15.0%, 95% CI: 8.4-23.2) was higher than that in domestic pigs (1.1%, 95% CI 0.2-2.5). The prevalence in high-income countries (15.7%, 95% CI 8.0-25.3) was significantly higher than that in middle- (0.8%, 95% CI 0.5-1.1), and low-income countries (0.1%, 95% CI 0.0-0.2). The prevalence was highest in finishing pigs at 4.9% (95% CI 0.9-11.0), and lowest among suckling pigs at 0% (95% CI 0.0-0.5). Conclusion: The Brucella prevalence in pig herds currently is distributed widely throughout the world. In some countries, swine brucellosis may be a neglected zoonotic disease. We recommend long-term monitoring of the prevalence of brucellosis in domestic and wild pig herds. Attention should also be paid to animal welfare on intensive pig farms; controlling the breeding density may play an important role in reducing the spread of brucellosis among pigs.

12.
Sci Total Environ ; 785: 147316, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932675

RESUMO

The conservation level of rare waterbirds reflects the quality of the regional ecological environment and wetlands, and suitable habitat patches and good environmental conditions are bases to support the activities of rare species in habitats. Establishing these conditions is also an important goal of habitat landscape and functional restoration. However, lack of these conditions limits population protection and habitat restoration of rare species. Based on the random forest (RF) algorithm and threshold indicator taxa analysis (TITAN), this paper performed habitat suitability assessment and environmental variable threshold analysis of rare waterbird species in Yancheng coastal wetlands. The results showed that the suitable area proportion of three waterbird species at different habitat sites was less than 20%. The unsuitable area proportions of red-crowned cranes and oriental storks at the CA habitat site were the highest, reaching 86.73% and 85.17%, respectively. In addition, analysis of the importance of environmental variables showed that the main influencing variables affecting the suitable habitat distribution of the three rare waterbirds were habitat type (T_hab), habitat area (A_hab), vegetation coverage (P_fvc), distance to farmland (D_far), distance to reeds (D_ree), ponds density (Ponds), distance to water surface (D_wat) and distance to main roads or seawalls (D_swa). These variables covered the type, area, coverage and distance indicators. With the exception of D_far, Ponds and D_swa, rare waterbirds had response thresholds to each environmental indicator, and these results supported the restoration of landscape structure and function of each habitat site. This study emphasized the importance of foods, water resources and hidden conditions for habitat selection in rare waterbirds. Finally, we proposed the maintenance and restoration patterns of the landscape structure and function of rare waterbird habitats, which are available for other coastal tidal wetlands.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Animais , Aves , Lagoas , Áreas Alagadas
13.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 74: 105578, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965776

RESUMO

In this study, ultrasonic/microwave-assisted extraction (UMAE), microwave-assisted extraction (UAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) were applied to extract green coffee oil (GCO), and the physicochemical indexes, fatty acids, tocopherols, diterpenes, and total phenols as well as antioxidant activity of GCO were investigated and compared. The results indicated that the extraction yield of UMAE was the highest (10.58 ± 0.32%), while that of PLE was the lowest (6.34 ± 0.65%), and linoleic acid and palmitic acid were the major fatty acids in the GCO, ranging from 40.67% to 43.77% and 36.57% to 38.71%, respectively. A large proportion of fatty acids and phytosterols were not significantly influenced by the four extraction techniques. However, tocopherols, diterpenes, total phenols, and the free radical scavenging activity were significantly different among these four GCOs. Moreover, structural changes in the coffee residues were explored by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Overall, the high antioxidant activity of GCO demonstrated that it can be used as a highly economical natural product in the food and agricultural industries.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Café/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Micro-Ondas , Óleos Vegetais/química
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 248, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Swine coccidiosis, a protozoan disease caused by coccidia, can result in diarrhoea and weight loss in piglets and even economic losses in the pig industry. Here, we report the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of coccidia (including Eimeria spp. and Cystoisospora suis) in pigs in China. METHODS: Five databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wanfang, and Chongqing VIP) were searched and 50 studies (46,926 domestic pigs, 22 provinces) ultimately identified pertaining to the prevalence of coccidia infection from 1980 to 2019. We incorporated the effect size using the random-effects model in the "meta" package in R software and conducted univariate and multivariate meta-regression analyses using a mixed-effects model. RESULTS: The pooled prevalence rate of coccidia in pigs was 21.9%, including the C. suis infection rate of 9.1%. The highest prevalence of coccidia (39.6%) was found in northwest China, and this region also presented the lowest prevalence of C. suis (4.7%). In the subgroup analysis based on sampling year, the highest prevalence of coccidia was detected in 2001 or earlier (32.6%), whereas the lowest rate was found in 2012 or later (14.3%). An opposite trend was observed for C. suis (5.5% in 2000 or earlier vs 14.4% in 2000 or later). The prevalence of coccidia in extensive farming systems (29.5%) was higher than that in intensive farming systems (17.3%). In contrast, the point estimate of C. suis prevalence was lower in the extensive farming systems (5.1%) than in the intensive farming systems (10.0%), but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Among the four age categories, the highest total coccidia prevalence (26.2%) was found in finishing pigs, followed by suckling piglets (19.9%), whereas the highest prevalence of C. suis (14.9%) was observed in suckling piglets. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that coccidia infection in Chinese pigs is common, although the prevalence of C. suis in pigs does not receive sufficient attention. We recommend the rational use of anticoccidial drugs to avoid drug resistance and the development of preventive and control measures for C. suis to reduce the incidence of swine coccidiosis.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Coccídios/classificação , Coccídios/genética , Coccídios/isolamento & purificação , Coccídios/fisiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Prevalência , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(4): e0009268, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Echinococcosis (canine Echinococcus disease) is a neglected tropical disease that causes serious public harm. Dogs, as a terminal host of Echinococcus spp., are a key part of the Echinococcus epidemic. Echinococcosis spreads easily in humans and animals in some areas of China and it is therefore necessary to fully understand the prevalence of Echinococcus spp. in dogs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PubMed, ScienceDirect, Chongqing VIP, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and WanFang databases were searched for relevant articles published in the past 10 years. A final total of 108 studies were included. The overall prevalence of Echinococcus spp. in dogs in China was 7.3%, with the highest point estimate found in sampling year 2015 (8.2%) and publication year 2015 (16.5%). Northwestern China (7.9%) had the highest infection rate in China. Qinghai Province (13.5%) showed the highest prevalence among the 11 provinces we included. We also found that geographical and climatic factors are related to the incidence of canine echinococcosis. We further investigated the source of heterogeneity by analysis of subgroups (sampling district, detection method, dog type, season, parasite species, medication, and study quality level). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our research indicated that Echinococcus spp. were still prevalent in some areas in China. More localized prevention and control policies should be formulated, including improving drinking water hygiene and strengthening hygiene promotion. We recommend the rational use of anti-Echinococcus drugs. In addition, treatment of livestock offal and feces and improving the welfare of stray dogs may play an important role in reducing canine Echinococcus infections.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Echinococcus/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
16.
Microb Pathog ; 150: 104681, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296716

RESUMO

Bovine leukemia is a chronic, progressive, contagious tumor disease characterized by malignant lymphoid cell hyperplasia and systemic lymphadenopathy, and is caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). The disease affects almost all countries and regions where livestock are raised, and may even be a potential zoonotic disease. Monitoring and early prevention of bovine leukemia is very important. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis, the first of its type in the country, to estimate the prevalence of bovine leukemia in 1983-2019 in China. We included a total of 35 publications reported in 1983-2019 from the PubMed, ScienceDirect, Chinese Web of Knowledge (CNKI), VIP Chinese, and Wan Fang databases. In those articles, a total of 34,954 cattle had been tested, of which 4701 were positive for BLV infection. The estimated pooled BLV prevalence was 10.0% (4701/34,954). Subgroup analysis showed that there were significant differences for sampling years, detection methods, and age. BLV prevalence was highest in the following subgroups: sampled before 1985 (38.5%, 437/1134), age 3-5 years (22.5%, 231/1044), and detected by PCR (17.9%, 1228/5100). Regarding geographic factors, there were significant differences in the latitude and elevation subgroups. BLV prevalence was lowest in the subgroups of 20-30° latitude (3.3%, 255/5069) 200-1000 m altitude (2.2%, 560/11,990). We also analyzed other subgroups such as region, variety, breeding method, precipitation, humidity, and temperature, however, the differences were not significant. Our research indicated that the BLV was still prevalent in some of areas in China. We recommend strengthening the testing of cattle aged >1 year and using flexible testing methods such as PCR to control the prevalence of bovine leukemia and to prevent persistent infection.


Assuntos
Leucose Enzoótica Bovina , Vírus da Leucemia Bovina , Animais , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Leucose Enzoótica Bovina/epidemiologia , Vírus da Leucemia Bovina/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência
17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(39): 22271-22278, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001109

RESUMO

A new series of molecules bearing a 2,11-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta[de]indeno[1,2-b]quinoline (CPIQ) chromophore with the N-HN type of intramolecular hydrogen bond are strategically designed and synthesized, among which CPIQ-OH, CPIQ-NHAc and CPIQ-NHTs in solution exhibit a single emission band with an anomalously large Stokes shift, whereas CPIQ-NH2 and CPIQ-NHMe show apparent dual-emission property. This, in combination with time-resolved spectroscopy and the computational approach, leads us to conclude that CPIQ-OH, CPIQ-NHAc and CPIQ-NHTs undergo ultrafast, highly exergonic excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT), while a finite rate of ESIPT is observed for CPIQ-NH2 and CPIQ-NHMe with a time constant of 117 ps and 39 ps, respectively, in acetonitrile at room-temperature. Further temperature-dependent studies deduce an appreciable ESIPT barrier for CPIQ-NH2 and CPIQ-NHMe. Different from most of the barrier associated ESIPT molecules that are commonly in the thermodynamic-control regime, i.e. found in the thermal pre-equilibrium between excited normal and proton-transfer tautomer states, CPIQ-NH2 and CPIQ-NHMe cases are in the kinetic-control regime where ESIPT is irreversible with a significant barrier. The barrier is able to be tuned by the electronic properties of the -R group in the NR-H proton donor site, resulting in ratiometric fluorescence for normal versus tautomer emission.

18.
Eur J Neurosci ; 52(11): 4586-4601, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098156

RESUMO

In the brain, NLRP3 (Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine-rich repeat, and pyrin-domain-containing 3) inflammasome is mainly expressed in microglia located in the hippocampus and other mood-regulated regions, which are particularly susceptible to stress. The activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and production of the activation products may contribute to the development of depressive disorder and memory deficits. Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a key factor mediating inflammation and major depressive disorder (MDD). We here generated NLRP3 and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing caspase recruitment domain (ASC)-knockout mice, respectively, to verify the effects of NLRP3 or ASC deficiency on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depressive-like behaviors, neuroinflammation, and regulation of IDO expression. Furthermore, we treated these mice with the antidepressant clomipramine (CLO) to observe its effect on depressive-like behaviors and the expression of the NLRP3 inflammasome and LPS-induced IDO. We found that intraperitoneal LPS administration led to marked depressive-like behavior and neuroinflammation. NLRP3 or ASC deficiency attenuated LPS-induced depressive-like symptoms and increased IDO gene expression, which was accompanied by inhibition of LPS-induced microglial activation, suggesting that IDO may be a downstream mediator of the NLRP3 inflammasome in inflammation-mediated depressive-like behaviors. Clomipramine administration ameliorated depressive-like behavior in LPS-treated mice by regulating the expression of ASC and IDO. In conclusion, NLRP3 inflammasome is involved in LPS-induced depressive-like behaviors, and that NLRP3 and ASC may play roles in regulating IDO expression in microglia. This may be a potential mechanism for its involvement in MDD. The antidepressant effect of clomipramine may be exerted through the regulation of ASC-mediated expression of IDO.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Dioxigenases , Animais , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Camundongos , Microglia/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR
19.
Microb Pathog ; 149: 104490, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956791

RESUMO

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) causes infectious diseases in pigs leading to considerable economic losses in the pig industry. To prevent and control PCV2 infections, is important to understand the prevalence and geographical distribution of the virus. We performed the first systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of PCV2 in China. From PubMed, ScienceDirect, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wanfang, and VIP Chinese Journal, we extracted 53 studies published in China between 2015 and 2019. There were 29,051 samples, 14,230 of which were positive for PCV2. The pooled prevalence of PCV2 was 46.0%, with the highest in Northeastern China (58.1%). The highest prevalence was 86.3% in Xinjiang province. Nursery pigs had the highest prevalence of PCV2 (50.9%), and the serological test detected the highest number of cases (58.5%). PCV2 prevalence was 50.1% in intensive farms and 37.5% in extensive farms. Our findings showed that PCV2 is common throughout China. Effective control measures are necessary to reduce PCV2 infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Circoviridae , Circovirus , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Prevalência , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
20.
J Food Sci ; 85(9): 2952-2959, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790197

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profiles in the extracts and digesta (after in vitro digestion) of different red-fleshed apple fruit parts and to assess the effects of digestion on the in vitro antioxidant capacity and antiproliferative activity. The main polyphenols were identified by UPLC-MS/MS and HPLC. Our results indicate that the digesta had less total phenolics, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, but more free phenolic acids, than the extracts. An analysis of the in vitro antioxidant capacity (including ABTS radical scavenging activity, DPPH radical-scavenging capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power [FRAP], and cellular antioxidant activity [CAA]) revealed that the digestion decreased the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP values, but increased the CAA values, relative to the corresponding values for extracts. These results suggest that the digestion improved the effectiveness of the phenolic substances. Moreover, our findings imply that the digestion promoted the antiproliferative activity of red-fleshed apple peels and flesh relative to the extracts. Future in vivo investigations are warranted based on the results of the current study. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The effects of an in vitro digestion on the phenolic compounds as well as the antioxidative and antiproliferative activities of red-fleshed apple were evaluated. The resulting data may clarify the bioavailability of the polyphenols in red-fleshed apple and enable scientists and consumers to exploit natural polyphenols.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Malus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Digestão , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Humanos , Malus/metabolismo , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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