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BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 404, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488625


BACKGROUND: Brassica carinata (A) Braun has recently gained increased attention across the world as a sustainable biofuel crop. B. carinata is grown as a summer crop in many regions where high temperature is a significant stress during the growing season. However, little research has been conducted to understand the mechanisms through which this crop responds to high temperatures. Understanding traits that improve the high-temperature adaption of this crop is essential for developing heat-tolerant varieties. This study investigated lipid remodeling in B. carinata in response to high-temperature stress. A commercial cultivar, Avanza 641, was grown under sunlit-controlled environmental conditions in Soil-Plant-Atmosphere-Research (SPAR) chambers under optimal temperature (OT; 23/15°C) conditions. At eight days after sowing, plants were exposed to one of the three temperature treatments [OT, high-temperature treatment-1 (HT-1; 33/25°C), and high-temperature treatment-2 (HT-2; 38/30°C)]. The temperature treatment period lasted until the final harvest at 84 days after sowing. Leaf samples were collected at 74 days after sowing to profile lipids using electrospray-ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Temperature treatment significantly affected the growth and development of Avanza 641. Both high-temperature treatments caused alterations in the leaf lipidome. The alterations were primarily manifested in terms of decreases in unsaturation levels of membrane lipids, which was a cumulative effect of lipid remodeling. The decline in unsaturation index was driven by (a) decreases in lipids that contain the highly unsaturated linolenic (18:3) acid and (b) increases in lipids containing less unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic (18:1) and linoleic (18:2) acids and/or saturated fatty acids such as palmitic (16:0) acid. A third mechanism that likely contributed to lowering unsaturation levels, particularly for chloroplast membrane lipids, is a shift toward lipids made by the eukaryotic pathway and the channeling of eukaryotic pathway-derived glycerolipids that are composed of less unsaturated fatty acids into chloroplasts. CONCLUSIONS: The lipid alterations appear to be acclimation mechanisms to maintain optimal membrane fluidity under high-temperature conditions. The lipid-related mechanisms contributing to heat stress response as identified in this study could be utilized to develop biomarkers for heat tolerance and ultimately heat-tolerant varieties.

Brassica/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Temperatura Alta
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652855


Head group-acylated chloroplast lipids were discovered in the 1960s, but interest was renewed about 15 years ago with the discovery of Arabidopsides E and G, acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols with oxidized fatty acyl chains originally identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. Since then, plant biologists have applied the power of mass spectrometry to identify additional oxidized and non-oxidized chloroplast lipids and quantify their levels in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The enzyme responsible for the head-group acylation of chloroplast lipids was identified as a cytosolic protein closely associated with the chloroplast outer membrane and christened acylated galactolipid-associated phospholipase 1 (AGAP1). Despite many advances, critical questions remain about the biological functions of AGAP1 and its head group-acylated products.

Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/química , Galactolipídeos/química , Lipídeos de Membrana/química , Acilação , Arabidopsis/química , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/sangue , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Galactolipídeos/genética , Galactolipídeos/metabolismo , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22163, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335149


Understanding the changes in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) anther lipidome under heat stress (HT) will aid in understanding the mechanisms of heat tolerance. We profiled the anther lipidome of seven genotypes exposed to ambient temperature (AT) or HT during flowering. Under AT and HT, the lipidome was dominated by phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and triacylglycerol (TAG) species (> 50% of total lipids). Of 89 lipid analytes specified by total acyl carbons:total carbon-carbon double bonds, 36:6, 36:5, and 34:3 PC and 34:3 PE (all contain 18:3 fatty acid and decreased under HT) were the most important lipids that differentiated HT from AT. Heat stress caused decreases in unsaturation indices of membrane lipids, primarily due to decreases in highly-unsaturated lipid species that contained 18:3 fatty acids. In parallel, the expression of Fatty Acid Desaturase 3-2 (FAD3-2; converts 18:2 fatty acids to 18:3) decreased under HT for the heat-tolerant genotype SPT 06-07 but not for the susceptible genotype Bailey. Our results suggested that decreasing lipid unsaturation levels by lowering 18:3 fatty-acid amount through reducing FAD3 expression is likely an acclimation mechanism to heat stress in peanut. Thus, genotypes that are more efficient in doing so will be relatively more tolerant to HT.

Arachis/fisiologia , Flores/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipidômica , Aclimatação , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lipidômica/métodos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
Plants (Basel) ; 9(4)2020 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32260392


Heat-induced changes in lipidome and their influence on stress adaptation are not well-defined in plants. We investigated if lipid metabolic changes contribute to differences in heat stress responses in a heat-tolerant soybean genotype DS25-1 and a heat-susceptible soybean genotype DT97-4290. Both genotypes were grown at optimal temperatures (OT; 30/20 °C) for 15 days. Subsequently, half of the plants were exposed to heat stress (38/28 °C) for 11 days, and the rest were kept at OT. Leaf samples were collected for lipid and RNA extractions on the 9th and 11th days of stress, respectively. We observed a decline in the lipid unsaturation level due to a decrease in the polyunsaturated linolenic acid (18:3) content in DS25-1. When examined under OT conditions, DS25-1 and DT97-4290 showed no significant differences in the expression pattern of the Fatty Acid Desaturase (FAD) 2-1A, FAD2-2B, FAD2-2C, FAD3A genes. Under heat stress conditions, substantial reductions in the expression levels of the FAD3A and FAD3B genes, which convert 18:2 lipids to 18:3, were observed in DS25-1. Our results suggest that decrease in levels of lipids containing 18:3 acyl chains under heat stress in DS25-1 is a likely consequence of reduced FAD3A and FAD3B expression, and the decrease in 18:3 contributes to DS25-1's maintenance of membrane functionality and heat tolerance.