Dopamine (DA) is an important neurotransmitter in the human body, and a subnormal level is associated with some neurological problems, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Its use as medicine has progressively increased, as well as its appearance in water bodies, such as domestic or hospital effluents. Dopamine has been found to produce neurological and cardiac damage to the animals that have consumed water with its content, so the removal of dopamine from water is of utmost importance to ensure water safety. Advanced oxidative processes (AOPs) are one of the most effective technologies to eliminate hazardous and toxic compounds in wastewater. In this work, Fe-based multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized by aerosol-assisted catalytic chemical vapor deposition to be applied in the AOP of DA. MWCNTs (carbon nanotubes) exhibited high catalytic activity in removing DA with 99% of elimination.By increasing 4 times the initial concentration of DA, the removal percentage of the molecule was lower than the original one, which was attributed to the DA saturation of active sites. Even so, the percentage of degradation was high (76.2%).
AssuntosNanotubos de Carbono , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Animais , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Dopamina/análise , Água , Águas Residuárias , Estresse Oxidativo
In this work, the influence of oxyanions on the catalytic reduction of nitrates using formic acid as the reducing agent was studied as well as the influence of bicarbonate, sulfate, and phosphate co-anions on the catalytic nitrate reduction with Pd:In/Al2O3 (1:0.25 wt.%). A negative effect on nitrate conversion was observed in the following order: phosphate > sulfate > bicarbonate, showing a strong influence of electrostatic adsorption on the catalytic reduction of nitrate. However, no direct trend was observed relating the levels of interferents to the impact on the selectivity of the bimetallic catalyst using formic acid as a reducing agent. For both bicarbonate and phosphate, at lower levels, higher selectivity to nitrogen was obtained than for the reaction in the absence of interferents. On the other hand, increasing sulfate concentration led to a decrease in nitrate conversion. The mixtures of co-anions also showed a decrease in the catalytic activity. At 120 min, a N2 selectivity higher than 95% was obtained, except for the C50-S20 (bicarbonate 50 ppm-sulfate 20 ppm) mixture which showed the lowest selectivity to N2 value (87.3%). The loss of catalyst activity was found to be reversible and not permanent.
AssuntosNitratos , Água , Substâncias Redutoras , Bicarbonatos , Sulfatos , Catálise
Contamination of water by nitrate has become a worldwide problem, being high levels of this ion detected in the surface, and groundwater, mainly due to the intensive use of fertilizers, and to the discharge of not properly treated effluents. This study aims to evaluate the electrocatalytic process, carried out in a cell divided into two compartments by a cation exchange membrane, and with a copper plate electrode as cathode, identifying the effects of current density, pH, the use of a catalyst in the nitrate reduction, and the production of gaseous compounds. The highest nitrate reduction was obtained with a current density of 2.0 mA cm-2, without pH adjustment and, in this condition, nitrite ion was mainly formed. The application of activated carbon fibers with palladium (1% wt. and 3% wt.) in an alkaline medium presented an increase in gaseous compounds formation. With 2.0 mA cm-2, pH adjustment, and applying 3% wt. Pd catalyst, the highest selectivity to gaseous compounds was obtained (95%) with no nitrite detection. These results highlight the viability of using the process developed at this work for the treatment of nitrate contaminated waters.
AssuntosCarvão Vegetal , Nitratos , Fibra de Carbono , Catálise , Nitritos
Catalysts of Pd-In supported on activated carbon fiber were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for the removal of nitrogen oxyanions from water. The work was carried out aiming the development of a green synthesis process, and the studies were accomplished with the following objectives: (a) to evaluate whether catalysts produced by wet impregnation (WI) and autocatalytic deposition (AD) have enough catalytic activity for the removal of oxyanions in water; (b) to determine the efficiency of ion removal using formic acid as a reducing agent; (c) to determine which synthesis method produces less waste. It was found that the two synthesis processes modified the properties of the support and that the distribution of the particles of the metallic phase was of the nanometric order, being these particles found predominantly at the support surface. By using formic acid as a reducing agent, although low nitrate conversions were obtained (32%), a selectivity to N2 higher than 99% was achieved. These findings were attributed to the low decomposition of formic acid on the catalyst surface. The Pd:In (0.45:0.2) catalyst prepared by WI was the most suitable for the catalytic reduction of both nitrate and nitrite oxyanions. Regarding the green point of view of the synthesis method, catalysts prepared by WI generated less waste. Graphical abstract.
AssuntosCarvão Vegetal , Purificação da Água , Fibra de Carbono , Catálise , Oxirredução
Membrane separation processes are being currently applied to produce drinking water from water contaminated with nitrate. The overall process generates a brine with high nitrate/nitrite concentration that is usually send back to a conventional wastewater treatment plant. Catalytic processes to nitrate reduction are being studied, but the main goal of achieving a high selectivity to nitrogen production is still a matter of research. In this work, a two-step process was evaluated, aiming to verify the best combination of operational parameters to efficiently reduce nitrate to nitrogen. In the first step, the nitrate was reduced to nitrite by electroreduction, applying a copper electrode and different cell potentials. A second step of the process was carried out by reducing the generated nitrite with a catalytic process by hydrogenation. The results showed that the highest nitrate reduction (89%) occurred when a cell potential of 11 V was applied. In this condition, the nitrite ion was generated with all experimental conditions evaluated. Then, to reduce the nitrite ion formed by catalytic reduction, activated carbon fibers (ACF) and powder Î³-alumina (Î³-Al2O3) were tested as supports for palladium (Pd). With both catalysts, the total nitrite conversion was obtained, being the selectivity to gaseous compounds 94% and 97% for Pd/Al2O3 and Pd/ACF, respectively. Considering the results obtained, a two-stage treatment setup to brine denitrification may be proposed. With electrochemistry, an operating condition was achieved in which ammonium production can be controlled to very low values, but the reduction is predominant to nitrite. With the second step, all nitrite is converted to nitrogen gas and just 3% of ammonium is produced with the most selective catalyst. The main novelty of this work is associated to the use of a two-stage process enabling 89% of nitrate reduction and 100% of nitrite reduction.
AssuntosDesnitrificação , Nitratos/química , Nitritos/química , Sais/química , Catálise , Nitrogênio , Oxirredução
RESUMO O nitrogênio é um dos contaminantes mais importantes presentes nas águas residuais. As alternativas tecnológicas mais usuais para o tratamento de águas contendo esse composto lançam mão do ciclo bioquímico do nitrogênio, o qual se sustenta em dois processos, a nitrificação e a desnitrificação. Dentre os parâmetros que influenciam na remoção de nitrogênio, podemos citar a concentração de oxigênio dissolvido, relação carbono/nitrogênio, temperatura, pH entre outros. Este trabalho apresenta uma revisão sobre a remoção biológica de nitrogênio das águas e os principais parâmetros que influenciam na sua remoção, dando ênfase ao processo de nitrificação e desnitrificação simultânea.
ABSTRACT Nitrogen is one of the most important contaminants present in wastewater. The most common alternative technologies for the treatment of waters containing this compound lay hold of the biochemical cycle of nitrogen, which is based on two processes, nitrification and denitrification. Among the parameters that influence the removal of nitrogen, we can mention the concentration of dissolved oxygen, carbon/nitrogen ratio, temperature, pH, and other relationships. This paper presents an overview of the biological nitrogen removal of water and the main parameters that influence the removal, emphasizing the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification process.