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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130541, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273855

RESUMO

Penicillium oxalicum has been used as a biocontrol fungus in agriculture for many years, but the antimicrobial substances are still uncertain. Herein, we isolated a linear peptide named Sanxiapeptin in the culture broth of Penicillium oxalicum SG-4 collecting from the Three Gorges riparian zone. Sanxiapeptin exhibited potent inhibitory effect on citrus green mold Penicillium digitatum, the main fungi responsible for postharvest decay. Sanxiapeptin was elucidated as composing of five amino acids, which were ß-amino-α-methoxybutyric acid (Amoba), N-Me-l-Thr, d-Thr, N-Me-l-Val and l-Ser. By analyzing three chemically synthesized oligopeptides with similar structures, we found that the first amino acid of Amoba was crucial to the antifungal activity, as was the methylation of peptide bond. Sanxiapeptin may act as an antimicrobial agent by affecting the function of cell membranes or walls. The antimicrobial spectrum, safety and stability analysis supported that Sanxiapeptin was a promising antifungal agent for citrus preservation.


Assuntos
Citrus , Penicillium , Frutas , Doenças das Plantas
2.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 701251, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660477

RESUMO

The purpose of this article is to provide a succinct summary of the sleep monitoring efforts that have been used in nocturnal enuresis (NE) and an overview of the knowledge that has accrued. This is not intended to be a comprehensive review, but rather is intended to highlight how polysomnography (PSG), a common sleep detection tool, has contributed to our understanding of NE, as arousal disorder is considered to be one of the important mechanisms. The authors have organized this report by analysis and display of different ingredients of PSG, starting with comparing the electroencephalogram (EEG) of controls and the enuretic children and then moving to evaluation of respiratory patterns of NE and comorbid disease obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In addition, the authors' goal is to better understand the mechanism of NE by integrating various levels of sleep monitoring; those sleep-related clinical scale scores for NE are presented to date. Finally, we propose further research of NE to explore the microstructure alterations via PSG combined with EEG-fMRI or to use novel technology like portable device internet and deep learning strategy.

3.
Nanoscale ; 13(31): 13344-13352, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477740

RESUMO

The construction and clinical application of a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platform for the early diagnosis of lung cancer could improve the survival rate of patients and would be of great significance. Nevertheless, a sensitive and reusable method for the detection of aldehydes, as biomarkers of lung cancer, in exhaled breath is still an enormous challenge. Aldehydes generally have a low cross section in Raman scattering and have a weak specific affinity to plasmonic nanoparticle surfaces, meaning that sensing them at low concentrations is incredibly difficult. Herein, an ultrasensitive SERS strategy, that can be recycled for further use, for the detection of lung cancer biomarkers in the form of aldehydes was realized by fabrication of a multifunctional Ag NPs@ZIF-67/g-C3N4 solid phase extraction (SPE) membrane. Based on the change in the vibrational fingerprints of 4-ATP before and after reaction with the aldehydes, the SPE membrane was successfully used for the ultrasensitive detection of aldehydes with a detection limit of 1.35 nM. The excellent SERS performance was attributed to the synergistic effect of the densely and closely distributed Ag NPs (providing SERS "hot spots"), ZIF-67 (concentrating the analyte molecules) and g-C3N4 (forming a membrane to prolong the contact time between the aldehydes and the substrate). In addition, recycling of the SPE membrane was achieved by utilizing the self-cleaning ability of the Ag NPs@ZIF-67/g-C3N4 membrane originating from the photocatalytic properties of g-C3N4. The proposed SERS membrane was easy to operate, rapid and portable, thus providing a potential tool for a point-of-care test in clinical and diagnostic practice.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Prata , Extração em Fase Sólida , Análise Espectral Raman
4.
Food Chem ; 369: 130959, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469836

RESUMO

The huge economic loss of citrus fruit after harvest called for safe and efficient preservatives, as chemically synthesized agents threatened the environment and human health. Herein a biocontrol fungus Chaetomium globosum QY-1 near the orchard in riparian area was identified to have antimicrobial, antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibition activity, which meets the requirements of an ideal preservative. Metabolite profiling based on bioassay-guided fractionation was carried out, and eight polyketones were determined by MS and NMR. The most abundant CheA exhibited strong inhibition to Penicillium digitatum, the main pathogen caused citrus fruit rot. Among these metabolites, Epicoccone and Epicoccolide B showed higher antioxidant activity, while Epicoccone and CheA had higher tyrosinase inhibitory activity. All the activities were close to or even better than the positive control (Vc; glutathione; Vc and arbutin; Bellkute), implying that the metabolites of C. globosum had comprehensive effects as natural preservatives.

5.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 478, 2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531367

RESUMO

The role of diet in depression is becoming increasingly acknowledged. This umbrella review aimed to summarize comprehensively the current evidence reporting the effects of dietary factors on the prevention and treatment of depression. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched up to June 2021 to identify relevant meta-analyses of prospective studies. Twenty-eight meta-analyses, with 40 summary estimates on dietary patterns (n = 8), food and beverages (n = 19), and nutrients (n = 13) were eligible. The methodological quality of most meta-analyses was low (50.0%) or very low (25.0%). Quality of evidence was moderate for inverse associations for depression incidence with healthy diet [risk ratio (RR): 0.74, 95% confidential interval (CI), 0.48-0.99, I2 = 89.8%], fish (RR: 0.88, 95% CI, 0.79-0.97, I2 = 0.0%), coffee (RR: 0.89, 95% CI, 0.84-0.94, I2 = 32.9%), dietary zinc (RR: 0.66, 95% CI 0.50-0.82, I2 = 13.9%), light to moderate alcohol (<40 g/day, RR: 0.77, 95% CI, 0.74-0.83, I2 = 20.5%), as well as for positive association with sugar-sweetened beverages (RR: 1.05, 95% CI, 1.01-1.09, I2 = 0.0%). For depression treatment, moderate-quality evidence was identified for the effects of probiotic [standardized mean difference (SMD): -0.31, 95% CI, -0.56 to -0.07, I2 = 48.2%], omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (SMD: -0.28, 95% CI, -0.47 to -0.09, I2 = 75.0%) and acetyl-L-carnitine (SMD: -1.10, 95% CI, -1.65 to -0.56, I2 = 86.0%) supplementations. Overall, the associations between dietary factors and depression had been extensively evaluated, but none of them were rated as high quality of evidence, suggesting further studies are likely to change the summary estimates. Thus, more well-designed research investigating more detailed dietary factors in association with depression is warranted.


Assuntos
Depressão , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Animais , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Incidência , Metanálise como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Chin Med ; 16(1): 72, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The biofilm state of pathogens facilitates antimicrobial resistance which makes difficult-to-treat infections. In this regard, it has been found that the compounds screened from plant extracts represent one category of the most promising antibiofilm agents. However, the antibiofilm activities and the active ingredients of plant extracts remain largely unexplored. In this background, the study is (1) to screen out the plant extracts with antibiofilm ability against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and (2) to identify the active ingredients in the plant extracts and elucidate the underlying mechanism of the antibiofilm activities. METHODS: Micro-broth dilution method, in vitro biofilm model, LC-MS/MS analysis and P. aeruginosa-mouse infection model were adopted to assess the antibiofilm activity. GC-MS analysis was performed to detect the active ingredients in plasma. RNA-Seq, GO analysis, KEGG analysis and RT-qPCR were adopted to elucidate the underlying mechanism of antibiofilm activities against P. aeruginosa. RESULTS: Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (LJF) among 13 plants could exert significant inhibitory effects on bacterial biofilm formation, mobility and toxin release in vitro, and it could exert antibiofilm effect in vivo too. Moreover, quinic acid, as one metabolite of chlorogenic acid, was found as an active ingredient in LJF against the biofilm of P. aeruginosa. The active ingredient significantly inhibited EPS secretion in biofilm formation and maturity and could achieve synergistic antibiofilm effect with levofloxacin. It reduced the biofilm formation by regulating core targets in quorum sensing system. In GO process, it was found that the core targets were significantly enriched in multiple biological processes involving locomotion, chemotaxis and motility mediated by flagellum/cilium, which was related to KEGG pathways such as bacterial chemotaxis, oxidative phosphorylation, ribosome, biofilm formation, cyanoamino acid metabolism and quorum sensing. Finally, the binding of quinic acid with core targets rhlA, rhlR and rhlB were validated by molecular docking and RT-qPCR. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the study verified the in vitro and in vivo antibiofilm effects of LJF against P. aeruginosa and elucidated the active ingredients in LJF and its conceivable pharmacological mechanism, indicating that quinic acid could have the potential of an antibiofilm agent against P. aeruginosa and related infections.

7.
Resuscitation ; 167: 200-208, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453997

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between the accessibility of automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) and the survival rate of patients who have out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). METHODS: The systematic review was conducted according to the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews. We searched the Chinese and English literature databases from 2009 to 2019. Study selection and data collection were conducted by three reviewers. One-month survival rates of OHCA with different AEDs accessibility were estimated using meta-analysis. RESULTS: Overall 16 studies with 55,537 participants were included. The overall one-month survival rate for OHCA was 27.4%. The one-month survival rate was 35.2% for people receiving AEDs within 5 min, 36.6% between 5 min to 10 min, and 28.4% for longer than 10 min. By distance between the location of the AEDs and the location of the cardiac arrest, the one-month survival rate was 37.1% for those ≤100 m, 22.0% for 100 m-200 m, and 12.8% for >200 m, respectively. The one-month survival rate was 39.3% in schools, sports venues and airports compared with 23.5% in other sites. The number of AEDs allocation was positively correlated, while the time and distance were negatively correlated with the one-month survival rate adjusted for other factors, but they were all non-significant correlations. CONCLUSION: The improvement of accessibility of AEDs may increase the survival rate of OHCA and the survival rate may be higher in playgrounds, airports, and schools equipped with AEDs. However, the strength of evidence was limited by the considerably heterogeneity of included studies. Verification of these findings in further studies is warranted.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300137

RESUMO

In the Karst area of southwestern China, the heavy metals in the sediment of a reservoir are determined by both human activities and the high background values. Thus, this study explores the change of heavy metals in surface sediment after ten-year sustainable development in the upstream areas of a reservoir, Huaxi Reservoir, located in Guiyang of southwestern China, then evaluates the risk of these heavy metals to water environment systematically and finally identifies the sources in both 2019 and 2009. The results reveal that all of the measured heavy metals decrease dramatically and their spatial distributions change from the increase-decrease pattern to decrease-increase pattern, implying different locations of main source input. The risk indices based on the total or average content and relative or reference values have decreased to the lowest level. However, those indices calculated from the absolute content of each metalloid still show a low or a moderate risk because of the high background value, such as As and Cr. Moreover, although only one main source of heavy metals is identified in both 2019 and 2009, the risk from human activities still cannot be neglected because agricultural production and infrastructure construction would promote the weathering of soil and then these heavy metals from the soil will be brought into the reservoir with the rainfall-runoff process. The high background value of specific heavy metals, e.g., As and Cr would still exert some challenges to the water environment protections because the non-point source input of heavy metal cannot be controlled easily by promulgating a series of bans. These results provide important reference for creating the policies of water environment protection, especially in some Karst area of southwestern China that exhibits high background value of heavy metals.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218096

RESUMO

PA forms a biofilm resistant to antibiotics, hindering antibiotics efficacy and preventing the eradication of PA, has attracted much attention for its biofilm. In this study, we first established and validated an efficient and sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the quantification of metabolites in biofilm. Decanoic acid was used as the internal standard. The separation of Palmitic acid, stearic acid and Decanoic acid was conducted on an Elite-5 MS column (30 m × 0.25 mm, 0.25 µm) using gradient elution condition at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Palmitic acid, stearic acid and Decanoic acid were determined under the positive ionization mode, respectively. The calibration curve of Palmitic acid and stearic acid were established in the range of 4 to 128 µg/mL (r2 = 0.999). The recovery of palmitic acid and stearic acid were between 98.76% and 113.91%, RSD < 5%. The well validated method was used to detect the metabolites of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm. 54 metabolites were isolated and identified from biofilm samples, and 7 important signal pathways were identified by KEGG enrichment analysis. ABC transporters and bacterial chemotaxis signaling pathways have an important impact on the growth of PA biofilm among these metabolic pathways. This study provides valuable references for the further study of PA biofilm, especially the change of metabolite content and the search for biomarkers.

10.
Anal Chem ; 93(25): 8693-8697, 2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137589

RESUMO

The separation and chemical analysis of mixtures in an emergency situation represent major challenges, especially in remote or poverty-stricken areas. A novel method was developed for the rapid separation and detection of multiple components via paper centrifugal chromatography, which costs as little as $2.26 US. The method was realized based on the combination of portable paper centrifugal chromatography and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection. This coupled technique was successfully implemented for the separation and qualitative analysis of a rhodamine 6G-crystal violet mixture and a colorless aniline-pyrocatechol-benzidine mixture. A chromatographic mobile phase was collected using absorbent cotton, which was demonstrated to have no effect on the SERS results. The optimized device achieved rapid and effective separation of the colorless aniline-pyrocatechol-benzidine mixture with a high centrifugal force (0.3303π2 N). The newly developed method involving multicomponent paper centrifugal chromatography-SERS detection will be of great value for emergency-related substance separation and analysis in remote and poor areas.


Assuntos
Violeta Genciana , Análise Espectral Raman , Cromatografia
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 600, 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to solve the problem of "expensive medical treatment and difficult medical treatment" for patients and improve the equity of medical services, China started the health-care reform in 2009, and proposed ambitious goals of providing fair and high-quality basic medical and health services to all citizens and reducing economic burden of diseases. This study was to systematically explore the association between population economic status and incidence of catastrophic health expenditures (CHE) in mainland China in the last decade since 2009 health reform. METHODS: This systematic review was reported according to the standard of preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA). We systematically searched Chinese Electronic literature Database of China Journal Full Text Database, Chinese Biomedical Journal Database, Wan fang Data Resource System, VIP Database, and English literature databases of PubMed, SCI, EMbase and Cochrane Library from January 2000 to June 2020, and references of included studies. Two reviewers independently selected all reports from 2000 to 2020 for empirical studies of CHE in mainland China, extracted data and evaluated the quality of the study. We conducted meta-analysis of the incidence of CHE and subgroup analysis according to the time of the study and the economic characteristics of residents. RESULTS: Four thousand eight hundred seventy-four records were retrieved and eventually 47 studies with 151,911 participants were included. The quality scores of most of studies were beyond 4 points (91.49%). The pooled incidence of CHE of Chinese residents in the last two decades was 23.3% (95% CI: 21.1 to 25.6%). The CHE incidence increased from 2000 to 2017, then decreased over time from 2017 to 2020. From 2000 to 2020, the CHE incidence in rural areas was 25.0% (95% CI: 20.9 to 29.1%) compared to urban 20.9% (95% CI: 18.3 to 23.4%); the CHE incidence in eastern, central and western China was 25.0% (95% CI: 19.2 to 30.8%), 25.4% (95% CI: 18.4 to 32.3%), and 23.1% (95% CI: 17.9 to 28.2%), respectively; the CHE incidence was 30.9% (95% CI: 22.4 to 39.5%), 20.3% (95% CI: 17.0 to 23.6%), 19.9% (95% CI: 15.6 to 24.1%), and 23.7% (95% CI: 18.0 to 29.3%) in poverty group, low-income group, middle-income group, and high-income group, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In the past two decade, the incidence of CHE in rural areas is higher than that of urban residents; higher in central areas than in eastern, western and other regions; in poverty households than in low-income, middle-income and high-income regions. Further measures should be taken to reduce the incidence of CHE in susceptible people.


Assuntos
Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Gastos em Saúde , Doença Catastrófica , China/epidemiologia , Status Econômico , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9749, 2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980877

RESUMO

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is an isomer of linoleic acid (LA). The predominant dietary CLA is cis-9, trans-11-CLA (c-9, t-11-CLA), which constitutes up to ~ 90% of total CLA and is thought to be responsible for the positive health benefits associated with CLA. However, the effects of c-9, t-11-CLA on Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary intake of c-9, t-11-CLA on the pathogenesis of an AD mouse model. We found that c-9, t-11-CLA diet-fed AD model mice significantly exhibited (1) a decrease in amyloid-ß protein (Aß) levels in the hippocampus, (2) an increase in the number of microglia, and (3) an increase in the number of astrocytes expressing the anti-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-10 and 19 (IL-10, IL-19), with no change in the total number of astrocytes. In addition, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatographic analysis revealed that the levels of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) containing c-9, t-11-CLA (CLA-LPC) and free c-9, t-11-CLA were significantly increased in the brain of c-9, t-11-CLA diet-fed mice. Thus, dietary c-9, t-11-CLA entered the brain and appeared to exhibit beneficial effects on AD, including a decrease in Aß levels and suppression of inflammation.

13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(18): e25336, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950922

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth and third leading cause of death worldwide and in China, respectively. Sedentary behavior has been shown to increase the risk of respiratory disease, such as asthma. However, the relationship between sedentary behavior and COPD is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the association between sedentary behavior and COPD.Data was extracted from the 2018 a large-scale cross-sectional study of Chronic Disease and Lifestyle Population Survey in Sichuan Province of China, in which sedentary behavior and chronic diseases were self-reported according to medical records. The association between sedentary behavior on risk of COPD was estimated using multivariable regression model in non-matching cohorts and generalized propensity score-weighted (GPSW)cohorts, respectively, controlling for potential confounders.Individuals who remained sedentary for more than 7 hours per day were more likely to have COPD than the control group (<3 hours) both in conventional multivariate logistic regression analysis (OR = 2.020, 95%CI: 1.575-2.585, P < .001) and GPSW analysis (OR = 2.381, 95%CI: 1.778-3.188, P < .001). After GPSW and the sensitivity analysis using refined smoking variable further found a dose-effect between sedentary behavior and COPD, with 1.242 (95%CI: 1.006-1.532, P < .05) times risk of COPD in those sedentary behavior of more than 5 hours per day (GPSW) and 1.377 (95%CI: 1.092-1.736, P < .05) times risk in those sedentary behavior above 5 hours per day (sensitivity analysis), comparing with the control group.Sedentary behavior is independently associated with increased risk of COPD, adjusting for other confounders. The findings of this study have important implications for future research and public health guidance. Reducing sedentary time may have a significant role in COPD prevention.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(5)2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800280

RESUMO

Finger vein (FV) biometrics is one of the most promising individual recognition traits, which has the capabilities of uniqueness, anti-forgery, and bio-assay, etc. However, due to the restricts of imaging environments, the acquired FV images are easily degraded to low-contrast, blur, as well as serious noise disturbance. Therefore, how to extract more efficient and robust features from these low-quality FV images, remains to be addressed. In this paper, a novel feature extraction method of FV images is presented, which combines curvature and radon-like features (RLF). First, an enhanced vein pattern image is obtained by calculating the mean curvature of each pixel in the original FV image. Then, a specific implementation of RLF is developed and performed on the previously obtained vein pattern image, which can effectively aggregate the dispersed spatial information around the vein structures, thus highlight vein patterns and suppress spurious non-boundary responses and noises. Finally, a smoother vein structure image is obtained for subsequent matching and verification. Compared with the existing curvature-based recognition methods, the proposed method can not only preserve the inherent vein patterns, but also eliminate most of the pseudo vein information, so as to restore more smoothing and genuine vein structure information. In order to assess the performance of our proposed RLF-based method, we conducted comprehensive experiments on three public FV databases and a self-built FV database (which contains 37,080 samples that derived from 1030 individuals). The experimental results denoted that RLF-based feature extraction method can obtain more complete and continuous vein patterns, as well as better recognition accuracy.


Assuntos
Radônio , Algoritmos , Biometria , Dedos , Humanos , Veias/diagnóstico por imagem
15.
Helicobacter ; 26(2): e12786, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogens capable of impacting gastrointestinal tract tumor development are located in the oral cavity, but whether these oral bacteria are able to colonize the gastric mucosa in gastric cancer (GC) patients and whether Helicobacter pylori infection can influence this process remains to be established. METHODS: Microbial 16S rDNA deep sequencing was conducted to characterize bacteria present in paired gastric mucosa and tongue coating samples in 27 patients with superficial gastritis (SG) and 11 GC patients. RESULTS: While the overall composition of the gastric mucosa and tongue coating microbiomes differed substantially, certain bacteria were present in both of these communities. The co-occurrence of bacteria between the tongue coating and gastric mucosa differed significantly between SG and GC patients. Of the 15 most abundant shared oral bacteria genera (the core shared oral bacteria), which were associated with differences in microbiota composition between these tongue coating and gastric mucosa, three were enriched in the gastric mucosa of GC patients relative to SG patients, whereas, 12 were depleted in GC patient samples. Furthermore, the prevalence and relative abundance of these core shared oral bacteria in the gastric mucosa were also linked to H. pylori infection status, and the core shared oral bacteria were also associated with the overall composition of the gastric mucosal microbiome. CONCLUSIONS: Helicobacter pylori infections are linked to the co-occurrence of bacteria in the oral microbiome and the gastric mucosal microbiome. Ectopic colonization of oral microbes may be a primary driver of H. pylori-induced gastric microbial dysbiosis in patients with GC.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Mucosa Gástrica , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Humanos , Boca , RNA Ribossômico 16S
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 171, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420167

RESUMO

Smoking has a substantial impact on deaths from non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs). Quantitatively measuring the impact of tobacco control on population health is of great theoretical and practical importance, for governments to make health policy decisions. Focusing on premature deaths, we predicted the deaths by 2030 from major NCDs caused by smoking among people aged 30-69 years in Sichuan Province, Southwest China. We extracted data for 1990-2015 from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 and calculated the population attributable fraction, to estimate the proportion of deaths caused by smoking. Four different tobacco control standards were used to estimate 2030 projections for the prevalence of smoking and premature mortality. If smoking prevalence were reduced by 30% from 2015 levels, premature mortality could be expected to decline by 24.4% in 2030, achieving 81.3% of the World Health Organization target for reducing premature mortality by 30%. Compared with the continuation of historical trends, the strongest tobacco control policy scenario would reduce premature mortality by 6.6%, prevent 23,600 deaths, reduce mortality by 7.8%, and increase life expectancy at birth by 0.3 years. Smoking bans represent an important action toward achieving national health goals.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Prematura , Fumar/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Causas de Morte , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia
17.
ChemMedChem ; 16(2): 388-398, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935462

RESUMO

Mammalian carboxylesterases (CES) are key enzymes that participate in the hydrolytic metabolism of various endogenous and exogenous substrates. Human carboxylesterase 2A (hCES2A), mainly distributed in the small intestine and colon, plays a significant role in the hydrolysis of many drugs. In this study, 3-arylisoquinolones 3 h [3-(4-(benzyloxy)-3-methoxyphenyl)-7,8-dimethoxyisoquinolin-1(2H)-one] and 4 a [3-(4-(benzyloxy)-3-methoxyphenyl)-4-bromo-7,8-dimethoxyisoquinolin-1(2H)-one] were found to have potent inhibitory effects on hCES2A (IC50 =0.68 µΜ, Ki =0.36 µΜ) and excellent specificity (more than 147.05-fold over hCES1 A). Moreover, 4 a exhibited threefold improved inhibition on intracellular hCES2A in living HepG2 cells relative to 3 h, with an IC50 value of 0.41 µΜ. Results of inhibition kinetics studies and molecular docking simulations demonstrate that both 3 h and 4 a can bind to multiple sites on hCES2A, functioning as mixed inhibitors. Structure-activity relationship analysis revealed that the lactam moiety on the B ring is crucial for specificity towards hCES2A, while a benzyloxy group is optimal for hCES2A inhibitory potency; the introduction of a bromine atom may enhance cell permeability, thereby increasing the intracellular hCES2A inhibitory activity.

18.
Transl Oncol ; 14(1): 100876, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epirubicin is a first-line chemotherapeutic drug for the clinical treatment of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), but the overexpression of multidrug resistance (MDR) transporter proteins, especially P-glycoprotein (P-gp), renders epirubicin ineffective. Some studies reveal the potential role of melatonin in chemotherapeutic synergy and MDR. METHODS: The cell viability and apoptosis were determined by CCK-8 assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) fluorescence staining assay. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical staining were used to detect the expression of P-gp in DLBCL cells and tissues. Rhodamine-123 accumulation assay was used to evaluate the pump function of P-gp. The possible mechanisms of melatonin sensitize DLBCL cells to epirubicin were explored by western blotting, cytochrome C release, and pulldown assay. RESULTS: Melatonin significantly enhanced the epirubicin-induced cell proliferation suppression, epirubicin-induced apoptosis, and reduced the IC50 value of epirubicin. Further, melatonin synergized with epirubicin to promote the activation of the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway and increased the accumulation of epirubicin in DLBCL cells by inhibiting the expression and function of P-gp. Immunohistochemical staining studies revealed that P-gp expression was positively correlated with P65 expression. Epirubicin was subsequently discovered to upregulate the expression of P-gp by activating the NF-κB pathway in the DLBCL cells. Melatonin reduced the amount of P65 protein in the nucleus and abrogated the ability of P65 to bind to the ABCB1 promoter, decisively suppressing P-gp expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that melatonin inactivates the NF-κB pathway and downregulates the expression of P-gp, ultimately sensitizing DLBCL cells to the epirubicin that suppresses their growth.

19.
Obes Rev ; 22 Suppl 1: e12995, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003149

RESUMO

A growing body of research links traffic-related environmental factors to childhood obesity; however, the evidence is still inconclusive. This review aims to fill this important research gap by systematically reviewing existing research on the relationship between traffic-related environmental factors and childhood obesity. Based on the inclusion criteria, 39 studies are selected with environmental factors of interest, including traffic flow, traffic pollution, traffic noise, and traffic safety. Weight-related behaviours include active travel/transport, physical activity (PA), and intake of a high trans-fat diet or stress symptoms; weight-related outcomes are mainly body mass index (BMI) or BMI z-scores and overweight/obesity. Of 16 studies of weight-related behaviours, significant associations are reported in 11 out of 12 studies on traffic flow (two positively and nine negatively associated with PA), five out of six studies on traffic safety (four positively and one negatively associated with PA), one study on traffic pollution (positively with unhealthy food consumption), and one study on traffic noise (negatively associated with PA). Among 23 studies of weight-related outcomes, significant associations are reported in six out of 14 studies on traffic flow (five positively and one negatively associated with obesity outcome), seven out of 10 studies on traffic pollution (all positively associated with obesity outcome), and two out of five on traffic noise (all positively associated with obesity outcome). Our findings show that long-term traffic pollution is weakly positively associated with children's BMI growth, and traffic flow, pollution, and noise could affect weight-related behaviours. Associations between traffic density and noise and weight status are rather inconclusive.

20.
Dig Dis Sci ; 66(5): 1673-1682, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: How gastric cancer (GC) incidence is associated with changes in the gastric microbiome has not been firmly established. The present study therefore aims to investigate the microbial communities present within the gastric mucosa of patients with superficial gastritis (SG) or GC. METHODS: Paired tumor and paracancerous samples of the gastric mucosa were collected from 18 patients being surgically treated for GC and from 32 patients with SG being treated via gastroscopy. The gastric microbiome in these samples was then profiled via 16S rRNA sequencing, with a linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) approach used to identify and compare different bacteria, and with PICRUSt used for predictive functional analyses. RESULTS: GC patients exhibited a distinct gastric microbiota profile from that observed in SG patients. These changes were evident in both tumor and paracancerous tissues from GC patients. Specifically, we found that 6 bacterial genera were specifically enriched in GC tissue samples relative to SG samples, while 18 genera were depleted in these same samples. Based on the differential abundance of these bacteria, we were able to calculate microbial dysbiosis index (MDI) values, which were significantly higher in GC patients than in SG patients. In addition, MDI values were negatively correlated with gastric Shannon index and were positively correlated with relative Helicobacter spp. abundance. Importantly, these MDI values were readily able to discriminate between GC and SG patient samples. Functional analysis suggested that GC patients were more likely to harbor a nitrosating microbial community. CONCLUSIONS: GC patients exhibited a gastric microbiome profile distinct from that observed in SG patients, with these differences being evident in both tumor and paracancerous tissues. Differences in the relative abundance of Helicobacter spp. may be the primary driver of gastric dysbiosis in GC patients.

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