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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443711

RESUMO

Background: The negative effects of sedentary behavior (SB) on public health have been extensively documented. A large number of studies have demonstrated that high prevalence of SB is a critical factor of all-cause mortality. Globally, the frequency of SB research has continued to rise, but little is known about SB in the Chinese population. Therefore, this review was conducted to scope the research situation and to fill the gaps related to the effects of SB in the Chinese population. Methods: Using a scoping review based on York methodology, a comprehensive search of published journal articles and grey literature was carried out through 12 databases. The literature research was conducted by two authors in July 2019, and included journal articles that targeted on the Chinese population were published between 1999 and 2019. The two authors screened the records independently and included those research topics related to SB in the Chinese population. Results: The number of included studies increased from 1 to 29 per year during the analyzed period, during which, a remarkable climb happened from 8 in 2013 to 19 in July 2019. Out of the 1303 screened studies, a total of 162 studies (81 English and 81 Chinese journal articles) met the inclusion criteria in this review. Most of the included studies (66.0%) reported the overall estimated prevalence of SB, in which, 43.2% of studies reported the average time of SB, and 40.0% of studies reported the cutoff point of SB. Besides this, 54.9% and 23.5% of studies focused on the outcomes and correlates/determinants of SB, and the proportions of studies based on testing the validation of measurement tools and on interventions were 3.7% and 4.9%, respectively. Nearly all of the reviewed articles used data from cross-sectional studies (75.9%) and longitudinal studies (13.6%), while intervention trials are less developed. The majority of the studies (64.8%) used self-reported surveys, and only 3.7% studies used device-based measurement tools. Furthermore, 35.8% of the included studies were focused on children and adolescents, while only a few studies investigated infants/toddlers and older adults. Both female and male were examined in most studies, and non-clinical populations were investigated in the context of SB in a relatively large number of studies. Conclusions: The number of research articles on SB in the Chinese population published per year has increased year by year, indicating a growing interest in this research area. More studies using population subgroup samples are needed, particularly among infants/toddlers, older adults, and clinical populations. To provide stronger evidence of the determinants and outcomes of SB, longitudinal studies using device-based measures of SB are required.

2.
Prev Med ; 137: 106123, 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389676

RESUMO

Exposure to violence may be associated with increased risk for obesogenic behavior among adolescents but studies providing a global perspective are lacking. The aim of this work was to assess the relationship between violence and obesogenic behaviors among young adolescents from 62 countries. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey 2009-2016 were analyzed. Information on violence (intentional injury, physical attack, physical fight) and obesogenic behavior (anxiety-induced sleep problems, low physical activity, sedentary behavior, fast-food consumption, carbonated soft-drink consumption) were self-reported. Associations were analyzed using meta-analysis based on country-wise multivariable logistic regression analyses. A total of 165,380 adolescents aged 12-15 years [mean (SD) age 13.8 (1.0) years; 50.9% boys] were included in the analysis. All types of violence were positively associated with higher odds for all types of obesogenic behavior with the exception of low physical activity. Associations were particularly pronounced for anxiety-induced insomnia. In contrast, intentional injury (OR = 0.72; 95%CI = 0.64-0.81) and physical fight (OR = 0.90; 95%CI = 0.86-0.95) were associated with lower odds for low physical activity. In this large global sample of adolescents, exposure to violence was associated with all obesogenic behaviors apart from low physical activity. Multidimensional government programs and policies addressing exposure to violence among young adolescents may lead to reduction in obesogenic behavior and hence curtail the global obesity epidemic.

3.
J Sport Health Sci ; 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325144

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine (1) the independent effects of hypoxia on cognitive function and (2) the effects of exercise on cognition while under hypoxia. METHODS: Design: Systematic review with meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, PsychInfo, and SPORTDiscus were searched. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies: randomized controlled trials and nonrandomized controlled studies that investigated the effects of chronic or acute exercise on cognition under hypoxia were considered (Aim 2), as were studies investigating the effects of hypoxia on cognition (Aim 1). RESULTS: In total, 18 studies met our inclusionary criteria for the systematic review, and 12 studies were meta-analyzed. Exposure to hypoxia impaired attentional ability (standardized mean difference [SMD = -0.4), executive function (SMD = -0.18), and memory function (SMD = -0.26) but not information processing (SMD = 0.27). Aggregated results indicated that performing exercise under a hypoxia setting had a significant effect on cognitive improvement (SMD = 0.3, 95%CI: 0.14 - 0.45, I2 = 54%, p < 0.001). Various characteristics (e.g., age, cognitive task type, exercise type, exercise intensity, training type, and hypoxia level) moderated the effects of hypoxia and exercise on cognitive function. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise during exposure to hypoxia improves cognitive function. This association appears to be moderated by individual and exercise/hypoxia-related characteristics.

4.
Children (Basel) ; 7(3)2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245103

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of social support and self-efficacy with physical Activity (PA) and the mediating effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between social support and PA in Chinese adolescents. Participants included a total of 2341 Chinese adolescents (aged 12.75 ± 1.46 years). Self-reported instruments, including the physical activity questionnaire for adolescents, the social support revalued scale and the exercise self-efficacy scale, were used to measure physical activity, social support and exercise self-efficacy. Results showed that social support (r = 0.29, p < 0.05) and exercise self-efficacy (r = 0.43, p < 0.05) were significant and positive predictors of PA among Chinese adolescents, and exercise self-efficacy was a significant mediator in the relationship between social support and PA (standardized effect size = 0.15, p < 0.001). Such findings were evident with similar patterns in both male and female adolescents. The findings of this study have indicated the importance of social support and exercise self-efficacy on PA promotion in adolescents, which will aid the development of effective interventions in this population.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32225026

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of natural environmental factors on the spatial distribution of marathon events in China, and to identify the suitable natural environmental factors for the marathon events. METHODS: Geographic information system (GIS) spatial analysis tools were used to perform coupling analysis, e.g. overlap, neighborhood, intersection and buffer for terrain, climate, air quality, mountains and water resources with 342 marathon events held in China in 2018. RESULTS: The results indicate that the spatial distribution of marathon events in China is negatively correlated with the elevation of the terrain (plain > hill > plateau > mountain > basin); climate (subtropical monsoon climate > temperate monsoon climate > temperate continental climate > tropical monsoon climate > plateau alpine climate), air quality (level 3 > level 2 > level 4 > level 1). Results indicate that buffer zones can protect water resources: there are 24 items in the buffer zone of river 0.5 km and lake 1 km, 131 items in the buffer zone of river 3 km and lake 5 km, 191 items in the buffer zone of river 5 km and lake 10 km, 298 items in the buffer zone of river 10 km and lake 20 km. Results indicate for mountain range buffer: 13 items in the 20 km buffer and 39 items in the 50 km buffer. CONCLUSIONS: Marathon events are more likely to be held on the third rung of China's topography where a city has a typical landform (plains, basins, hills, or mountain) with good climate and air quality. Meanwhile a city with water and mountain resources for recreational events such as cross-country or obstacle course are essential. The contribution of this study is to systematically and intuitively reflect the influence of natural environment factors on the distribution of marathon events in China, and to provide evidence for the medium and long-term planning of marathon events in China, the selection of venues for different types of marathon events and how to attract participants.

6.
Am J Health Behav ; 44(3): 326-332, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295680

RESUMO

Objective: Sustained attention is critical for various activities of daily living, including engaging in health-enhancing behaviors and inhibition of health compromising behaviors. Sustained attention activates neural networks involved in episodic memory function, a critical cognition for healthy living. Acute exercise has been shown to activate these same neural networks. Thus, it is plausible that engaging in a sustained attention task and engaging in a bout of acute exercise may have an additive effect in enhancing memory function, which was the purpose of this experiment. Methods: 23 young adults (Mage = 20.7 years) completed 2 visits, with each visit occurring approximately 24 hours apart, in a counterbalanced order, including: (1) acute exercise with sustained attention, and (2) sustained attention only. Memory was assessed using a word-list paradigm and included a short- and long-term memory assessment. Sustained attention was induced via a sustained attention to response task (SART). Acute exercise involved a 15-minute bout of moderate-intensity exercise. Results: Short-term memory performance was significantly greater than long-term memory, Mdiff = 1.86, p < .001, and short-term memory for Exercise with Sustained Attention was significantly greater than short-term memory for Sustained Attention Only, Mdiff = 1.50, p = .01. Conclusion: Engaging in an acute bout of exercise before a sustained attention task additively influenced short-term memory function.

7.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(3)2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183249

RESUMO

In this paper we introduce a mechanistic model through which exercise may enhance episodic memory, specifically via attenuating proactive and retroactive memory interference. We discuss the various types of memory, different stages of memory function, review the mechanisms behind forgetting, and the mechanistic role of exercise in facilitating pattern separation (to attenuate memory interference).

8.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050648

RESUMO

Low-carbohydrate diets (LCs) seem effective on weight reduction and maintenance. However, the affect and enjoyment of exercise during LCs is not clear. The purpose of the present study was to compare the psychological responses to high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) during the consumption of a 4-week LC diet in overweight young women. With LCs (~10% carbohydrate, 65%-70% fat, 20%-25% protein), forty-three eligible women (age: 20.9 ± 3.1 years; body weight: 65.8 ± 8.2 kg) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: HIIT (10 sets of 6 s all-out cycling interspersed with 9 s of rest), MICT (30 min cycling at 50%-60% of peak oxygen consumption, V̇O2peak) or no-exercise controls (CON). Anthropometric indices and V̇O2peak were measured pre- and post-training. Feeling Scale (FS), Felt Arousal Scale (FAS), Exercise Enjoyment Scale (EES), and Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) scores were collected before and immediately after each training session throughout the study. After intervention, all three groups reduced by more than 2.5 kg of body weight whereas both exercise groups improved ~15% V̇O2peak. Participants in the HIIT and MICT group exhibited similar affect points as indicated by FS and FAS. Post-exercise enjoyment scores in PACES were lower in HIIT (73-78 points) than MICT (83-87 points) despite similarly positive responses being observed in EES (corresponding to ~4 points of a 7-point scale). Short-term LCs were effective in weight loss and exercise training had an additive improvement on cardiorespiratory fitness. The overweight young women had similar affect valence, arousal levels, and comparable pleasurable feelings to HIIT and MICT with LCs. Furthermore, as indicated by PACES, MICT was more enjoyable which may elicit better adherence, whereas HIIT with LCs seems to be more arduous despite its time-efficiency.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109436

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of long-term Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) practice on practitioners' brain functional specialization compare with the TCC novices. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: A psychology Institute. PARTICIPANTS: TCC practitioners (N=22) (52.4±6.8y; 7 men; educated years: 12.18±3.03y) and 18 healthy adults (54.8±6.8y; 8 men; education years: 11.78±2.90y) matched by age, sex, and education were enrolled. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning and cognitive test to measure the differences in functional specialization and cognitive function. Functional specialization was evaluated by voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) method. RESULTS: Lower middle frontal gyrus VMHC in TCC practitioners compared to controls. For TCC practitioners, the longer they practice, the lower their VMHC in precentral and precuneus. TCC practitioners showed better cognition performance. CONCLUSIONS: Changed VMHC indicated that TCC practice could enhance functional specialization in the middle frontal cortex of practitioners, which may be associated with higher-order cognitive ability.

10.
Am J Health Behav ; 44(2): 169-179, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019650

RESUMO

Objective: There is suggestive evidence that exercise may have a greater effect on visuo-spatial memory, compared to other memory types. However, we have a limited understanding as to the mechanisms through which exercise may subserve visuo-spatial memory. Thus, the purpose of this review is to evaluate the extent to which exercise may influence visuo-spatial memory, whether exercise can attenuate drug- and diseased-induced declines in memory, and determine the underlying mechanisms of these relationships. Methods: We employed a systematic review approach. We identified studies using electronic databases, including PubMed, PsychInfo, Sports Discus and Google Scholar. Results: In total, we identified 32 articles. Among these, 2 were among humans and 30 were conducted in animal models. There was strong evidence sup- porting the facilitative role of chronic exercise in visuo-spatial memory improvements, as well as attenuation of drug- and diseased-induced memory decline. There are various mechanisms through which chronic exercise may influence visuo-spatial memory, including increased neuro-genesis, angiogenesis, improved neural efficiency, CB1 receptor signaling, activation of H2 receptors, and increased number of synaptic structures (eg, AMPA and NMDA receptors). Conclusion: Exercise may help to enhance visuo-spatial memory.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835745

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to explore the spatial distribution pattern and influencing factors of the Chinese marathon. Geographic Information System (GIS) related spatial analysis tools were used to calculate the following-averaged nearest neighbor index, nuclear density analysis and hot spot analysis among others. The spatial distribution evolution characteristics and the influencing factors of eighteen Chinese marathon events in 2010, 129 in 2015 and 342 in 2018 were analyzed. The results show that (a) in 2010 the nearest neighbor ratio was 1.164714, Moran's I was -0.010165 (type: Random), in 2015 it was 0.502146, Moran's I was 0.066267 (type: Clustered) and in 2018 it was 0.531149 and Moran's I was 0.083485 (type: Clustered); (b) in 2010 there was a 333.6 km search radius; the core circle of the Yangtze River Delta was adopted. In 2015 and 2018, a search radius of 556 km was adopted, which was respectively obtained from the core circle of the Yangtze River Delta, the core circle of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and the core circle of East China; (c) according to the Z-value data, East China and North China in 2015 passed 95% confidence in five provinces and municipal hot spots, passed 90% confidence in three hot spots and passed 95% confidence in Chongqing Cold Point. In 2018, East China, North China, Central Region and eight other provinces and cities' hot spots passed 95% confidence, four hot spots passed 90% confidence, the Tibet Autonomous Region cold spot passed 90% confidence. Conclusion: The overall distribution of marathon events is greater in the eastern region than the western region, greater in the southern region than the northern region and greater in coastal regions than the inland regions; the nuclear density distribution has spread from the Yangtze River Delta mononuclear circle in 2010 to the core circle of the entire East China region. Moreover, it spread to North China, Central China and South China; the distribution of hot spots spread from Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the entire North China and East China regions. During the past thirty-eight years of development of the Chinese marathon, it has been divided into three stages due to different political, economic and social environments.

12.
J Clin Med ; 8(12)2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Memory interference occurs when information (or memory) to be retrieved is interrupted by competing stimuli. Proactive interference (PI) occurs when previously acquired information interferes with newly acquired information, whereas retroactive interference (RI) occurs when newly acquired information interferes with previously acquired information. In animal paradigms, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been shown to help facilitate pattern separation, and ultimately, attenuate memory interference. Research evaluating the role of the PFC on memory interference among humans is, however, limited. The present study evaluated the relationship between PFC oxygenation on memory interference among humans, with the null hypothesis being that there is no association between PFC oxygenation and memory interference. METHODS: A total of 74 participants (Mage = 20.8 years) completed the study. Participants completed a computerized memory interference task using the AB-DE AC-FG paradigm, with PFC oxyhemoglobin levels measured via functional near-infrared spectroscopy. RESULTS: For PI, the change in oxygenated hemoglobin for encoding list 1 and retrieval of list 1 showed moderate evidence for the null hypothesis (BF01 = 4.05 and 3.28, respectively). For RI, the Bayesian analysis also established moderate evidence for the null hypothesis across all memory task time points. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates evidence of the null hypothesis regarding the relationship between PFC oxygenation and memory interference. Future work should continue to investigate this topic to identify mechanistic correlates of memory interference.

13.
Brain Sci ; 9(11)2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739561

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous research has evaluated the effects of acute hypoxia exposure on cognitive function, notably executive function. No studies, to date, have evaluated the effects of acute hypoxia exposure on memory interference, which was the purpose of this experiment. METHODS: A within-subjects, counterbalanced experimental design was employed, with condition (hypoxia vs. normoxia) and time (immediate vs. delayed) being the independent variables. Participants (N = 21; Mage = 21.0 years) completed two laboratory visits, involving 30 min of exposure to either hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.12) or normoxia (FIO2 = 0.21). Following this, they completed a memory interference task (AB/AC paradigm), assessing immediate and delayed proactive and retroactive interference. RESULTS: For retroactive interference, we observed a significant main effect for condition, F(1, 20) = 5.48, p = 0.03, ƞ2 = 0.10, condition by time interaction, F(1, 20) = 4.96, p = 0.03, ƞ2 = 0.01, but no main effect for time, F(1, 20) = 1.75, p = 0.20, ƞ2 = 0.004. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that acute hypoxia exposure was facilitative in reducing memory interference. We discuss these findings in the context of the potential therapeutic effects of acute hypoxia exposure on synaptic plasticity.

14.
Am J Health Behav ; 43(6): 1016-1029, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662162

RESUMO

Objective: In this study, we evaluated whether exercise prior to memory encoding or during memory consolidation can influence episodic memory function after being exposed to a stressful environment. Methods: We conducted 3 between-group randomized controlled experiments among young adults. We assessed episodic memory (via logic memory task) at the beginning of the experiment and approximately 45 minutes later. Across the 3 experiments, we varied the temporal period (eg, before memory encoding or during consolidation) of the acute bout of exercise (15-minute moderate-intensity exercise) and psychological stress induction. Results: Across all 3 experiments there was a statistically significant main effect for time for memory function, but there were no time x group interaction effects. Conclusion: Memory declined across the 2 assessment periods, but for all 3 experiments, exercise was not associated with memory function after being exposed to a stressful stimulus.

15.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(9)2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Long-term potentiation (LTP), the functional connectivity among neurons, is considered a mechanism of episodic memory. Both acute exercise and learning are thought to influence memory via an LTP-related mechanism. Limited research has evaluated the individual and combined effects of acute exercise and learning strategy implementation (e.g., 3-R technique, cue-integration) on memory, which was the purpose of this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For Experiment 1, participants (n = 80; Mage = 20.9 years) were randomized into one of four experimental groups, including Exercise + Learning (E + L), Learning Only (L), Exercise Only (E), and Control Group (C; no exercise and no learning strategy implementation). The exercise stimulus involved an acute 15-min bout of lower-intensity (60% of heart rate max) walking exercise and the learning strategy involved the implementation of the 3-R technique. Experiment 2 (n = 77; Mage = 21.1 years) replicated Experiment 1 but addressed limitations (e.g., exposure level of the memory task) from Experiment 1 and employed a higher-intensity bout of exercise (77% of heart rate max). Experiment 3 (n = 80; Mage = 21.0 years) evaluated these same four experimental conditions but employed a cue-integration learning strategy and a moderate-intensity bout of acute exercise (64% of heart rate max). RESULTS: These three experiments demonstrate that both learning techniques were effective in enhancing memory and we also provided evidence of a main effect for acute exercise (Experiment 3). However, we did not observe consistent evidence of a learning by exercise interaction effect. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that both acute exercise and different learning techniques are effective in enhancing long-term memory function.

16.
Brain Sci ; 9(9)2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540407

RESUMO

Mental imagery is used extensively in the sporting domain. It is used for performance-enhancement purposes, arousal regulation, affective and cognitive modification, and rehabilitation purposes. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate whether acute exercise and mental imagery of acute exercise have similar effects on cognitive performance, specifically memory function. A within-subject randomized controlled experiment was employed. Participants (N = 24; Mage = 21.5 years) completed two exercise-related visits (i.e., actual exercise and mental imagery of exercise), in a counterbalanced order. The acute-exercise session involved 10 min of intermittent sprints. The mental-imagery session involved a time-matched period of mental imagery. After each manipulation (i.e., acute exercise or mental imagery of acute exercise), memory was evaluated from a paired-associative learning task and a comprehensive evaluation of memory, involving spatial-temporal integration (i.e., what, where, and when aspects of memory). Bayesian analyses were computed to evaluate the effects of actual exercise and mental imagery of exercise on memory function. For the paired-associative learning task, there was moderate evidence in favor of the null hypothesis for a main effect for condition (BF01 = 2.85) and time by condition interaction (BF01 = 3.30). Similarly, there was moderate evidence in favor of the null hypothesis for overall (what-where-when) memory integration (BF01 = 3.37), what-loop (BF01 = 2.34), where-loop (BF01 = 3.45), and when-loop (BF01 = 3.46). This experiment provides moderate evidence in support of the null hypothesis. That is, there was moderate evidence to support a non-differential effect of acute exercise and mental imagery of acute exercise on memory function.

17.
Front Psychol ; 10: 1707, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507472

RESUMO

Background: Exercise modes can be divided into open skill exercise (OSE) and closed skill exercise (CSE). While research has shown that these two exercise modes may have different effects on cognitive function, this possibility has not been systematically reviewed. Objective: The purpose of the present review was to objectively evaluate the research literature regarding the effects of OSE versus CSE on cognitive function. Methods: Six electronic databases (Web of Science, EMBASE, Google Scholar, PubMed, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus) were searched from inception dates to December 2018 for studies examining the associations of OSE and CSE with cognitive function. The literature searches were conducted using the combinations of two groups of relevant search items related to exercise modes (i.e., OSE and CSE) and cognitive function. Articles were limited to human studies in all age groups. Both intervention and observational studies with full text published in English-language peer-reviewed journals were considered eligible. The search process, study selection, data extraction, and study quality assessment were carried out independently by two researchers. Results: A total of 1,573 articles were identified. Fourteen observational and five intervention studies met the inclusion criteria. Twelve of the 14 observational studies found that OSE benefits cognitive function, and seven of these 14 observational studies supported superior effects of OSE compared with CSE for enhancing cognitive function. Three of the five intervention studies found that OSE (versus CSE) led to greater improvements in cognitive function in both children and older adults. Conclusion: Although the majority of studies in this review were observational cross-sectional designs, the review tends to support that OSE is more effective for improving some aspects of cognitive function compared with CSE. More rigorous randomized control trials with long-term follow-ups are needed in order to confirm these differential cognitive effects of the two exercise modes.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438638

RESUMO

Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) as a typical mind-body practice has been investigated for its preventive role on negative emotions and has demonstrated its efficacy in healthy populations. However, the results are not consistent. We performed a meta-analysis and systematically evaluated the effect of TCC on selected negative emotions (i.e., anxiety and depression). Fourteen experimental studies from three English-and two Chinese-language databases were evaluated. The results showed that the positive effects of TCC on negative emotions were moderately to largely significant. In addition, although TCC significantly improved negative emotions in both the young adults and the older adults, old adults benefited more from TCC than young adults. These findings suggest that TCC is a worthy complementary non-pharmacological resource towards depression and anxiety and, thus, has great implications for the public health domain.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/terapia , Depressão/terapia , Tai Ji , Humanos
19.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(7)2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269780

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of acute exercise on memory interference and determine if this potential relationship is moderated by sex. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled experiment was conducted (N = 40), involving young adult males (n = 20) and females (n = 20) completing two counterbalanced visits (exercise and no exercise). The exercise visit involved an acute (15 min), moderate-intensity bout of treadmill exercise, while the control visit involved a time-matched seated task. Memory interference, including both proactive interference and retroactive interference, involved the completion of a multi-trial memory task. Results: In a factorial ANOVA with the outcome being List B, there was a main effect for condition (F(1,38) = 5.75, P = 0.02, n2p = 0.13), but there was no main effect for sex (F(1,38) = 1.39, P = 0.24, n2p = 0.04) or sex by condition interaction (F(1,38) = 1.44, P = 0.23, n2p = 0.04). Conclusion: In conclusion, acute moderate-intensity exercise was effective in attenuating a proactive memory interference effect. This effect was not moderated by biological sex.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Mississippi , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330926

RESUMO

Grounded in self-determination theory, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between autonomy-supportive teaching, mindfulness, and basic psychological need satisfaction/frustration. Secondary school students (n = 390, Mage = 15) responded to a survey form measuring psychological constructs pertaining to the research purpose. A series of multiple regression analysis showed that autonomy-supportive teaching and mindfulness positively predicted need satisfaction and negatively predicted need frustration. In addition, the associations between autonomy-supportive teaching and need satisfaction/frustration were moderated by mindfulness. Students higher in mindfulness were more likely to feel need satisfaction and less likely to experience need frustration, even in a low autonomy-supportive teaching environment. These results speak to the relevance of creating autonomy-supportive teaching environments and highlight mindfulness as a potential pathway to basic psychological need satisfaction in educational settings.


Assuntos
Frustração , Atenção Plena , Autonomia Pessoal , Satisfação Pessoal , Estudantes/psicologia , Ensino , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicologia do Adolescente , Análise de Regressão , Instituições Acadêmicas
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