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1.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105832

RESUMO

The objective of the current study is to determine robust transdiagnostic brain structural markers for compulsivity by capitalizing on the increasing number of case-control studies examining gray matter volume (GMV) alterations in substance use disorders (SUD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Voxel-based meta-analysis within the individual disorders and conjunction analysis were employed to reveal common GMV alterations between SUDs and OCD. Meta-analytic coordinates and signed brain volumetric maps determining directed (reduced/increased) GMV alterations between the disorder groups and controls served as the primary outcome. The separate meta-analysis demonstrated that SUD and OCD patients exhibited widespread GMV reductions in frontocortical regions including prefrontal, cingulate, and insular. Conjunction analysis revealed that the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) consistently exhibited decreased GMV across all disorders. Functional characterization suggests that the IFG represents a core hub in the cognitive control network and exhibits bidirectional (Granger) causal interactions with the striatum. Only OCD showed increased GMV in the dorsal striatum with higher changes being associated with more severe OCD symptomatology. Together the findings demonstrate robustly decreased GMV across the disorders in the left IFG, suggesting a transdiagnostic brain structural marker. The functional characterization as a key hub in the cognitive control network and casual interactions with the striatum suggest that deficits in inhibitory control mechanisms may promote compulsivity and loss of control that characterize both disorders.

2.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-7, 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34003711

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were to analyze the effect of resistance training (RT) on depressive and anxiety symptomsand examine the possible consequences of age, cognitive alterations, and muscular strength on such symptoms.Method: Forty-one older women (68 ± 8 years) composed a training group (TG) or a control group (CG). The TG was submitted to a supervised, progressive RT program over 12 weeks, involving eight whole-body exercises performed with three sets of 8-12 repetitions, three days per week, whereas CG remains with no intervention for the same period. Muscular strength (one-repetition maximum tests), cognitive function (Montreal Cognitive Assessment - MoCA; Verbal Fluency Tests), depression (15-item eriatric Depression Scale - GDS-15), and anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory - BAI) were assessed before and after the intervention period. RESULTS: There were observed significant (P < 0.001) RT-induced improvements on total muscular strength (TG: pre = 122.4 ± 24.1/post = 134.3 ± 36.7; CG: pre = 105.4 ± 15.4/post = 99.2 ± 17.1) and MoCA (TG: pre =21.7 ± 4.5/post = 22.5 ± 4.7; CG: pre = 20.3 ± 3.7/post = 19.3 ± 4.1). Depressive and anxiety symptoms (even when adjusted by chronological age and changes in muscular strength or cognitive function) were reduced with RT according to GDS-15 (TG: pre = 2.26 ± 1.53/post = 1.92 ± 1.68; CG: pre =2.68 ± 1.13/post = 2.25 ± 1.18) and BAI (TG: pre = 4.07 ± 5.68/post = 2.33 ± 3.71; CG: pre = 5.18 ± 7.70/post = 9.81 ± 7.10). The time x group interactions were significant for depressive and anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that a 12-week RT program reduces depressive and anxiety symptoms, regardless of age, muscular strength, and cognition function in older women.

3.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 21(1): 202-202, ene.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-200214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: This study explored the association between active school travel (AST) and suicide attempts among adolescents in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHOD: We used the data from the Global School-based Health Survey, including 127,097 adolescents aged 13-17 years from 34 LMICs. A self-reported survey was used to collect data on AST and suicide attempts as well as some variables. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to assess the association between AST and suicide attempts. A meta-analysis with random effects was undertaken to identify the difference in the association between AST and suicide attempts. RESULTS: Across all the adolescents, the prevalence of AST was 37% and the prevalence of suicide attempts was 11.60%. Adolescents who engaged in AST were less likely to have suicide attempts irrespective of gender. The country-wise analysis indicated a large inconsistency in the association between AST and suicide attempt across the countries. CONCLUSIONS: AST would appear to be a protective factor for reducing suicide attempts among adolescents. However, the association between AST and suicide attempts varied greatly across the countries. Future studies should confirm the association between AST and suicide attempts


OBJETIVO: Se exploró la asociación entre desplazamientos escolares activos (AST, por sus siglas en inglés) e intentos de suicidio entre adolescentes en países de ingresos bajos y medios. MÉTODO: Se utilizaron datos de la Global School-based Health Survey, que incluyó a 127.097 adolescentes de 13 a 17 años de 34 países de ingresos bajos y medios. Se utilizó una encuesta autoinformada para recopilar datos sobre AST e intentos de suicidio, así como otras variables. Se realizó una regresión logística multivariable para evaluar la asociación entre AST e intentos de suicidio. Se realizó un metanálisis con efectos aleatorios para identificar la diferencia en la asociación entre AST e intentos de suicidio. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de AST fue del 37% y la prevalencia de intentos de suicidio fue del 11,60%. Los adolescentes que participaron en AST tenían menos probabilidades de tener intentos de suicidio independientemente del sexo. El análisis por países indicó una gran inconsistencia en la asociación entre AST e intento de suicidio. CONCLUSIONES: AST parece ser un factor protector para reducir los intentos de suicidio entre adolescentes. Sin embargo, la asociación entre AST e intentos de suicidio varió mucho entre países. Estudios futuros deberían confirmar la asociación entre AST e intentos de suicidio


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Tentativa de Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Instituições Acadêmicas , Saúde Mental , Modelos Logísticos , Fatores Sexuais , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Proteção
4.
Life (Basel) ; 11(4)2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808225

RESUMO

Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is assumed to exert beneficial effects on brain structure and executive control (EC) performance. However, empirical evidence of exercise-induced cognitive enhancement is not conclusive, and the role of CRF in younger adults is not fully understood. Here, we conducted a study in which healthy young adults took part in a moderate aerobic exercise intervention program for 9 weeks (exercise group; n = 48), or control condition of non-aerobic exercise intervention (waitlist control group; n = 72). Before and after the intervention period maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) as an indicator of CRF, the Flanker task as a measure of EC performance and grey matter volume (GMV), as well as cortical thickness via structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), were assessed. Compared to the control group, the CRF (heart rate, p < 0.001; VO2max, p < 0.001) and EC performance (congruent and incongruent reaction time, p = 0.011, p < 0.001) of the exercise group were significantly improved after the 9-week aerobic exercise intervention. Furthermore, GMV changes in the left medial frontal gyrus increased in the exercise group, whereas they were significantly reduced in the control group. Likewise, analysis of cortical morphology revealed that the left lateral occipital cortex (LOC.L) and the left precuneus (PCUN.L) thickness were considerably increased in the exercise group, which was not observed in the control group. The exploration analysis confirmed that CRF improvements are linked to EC improvement and frontal grey matter changes. In summary, our results support the idea that regular endurance exercises are an important determinant for brain health and cognitive performance even in a cohort of younger adults.

5.
Brain Struct Funct ; 226(3): 601-619, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675397

RESUMO

Despite a growing number of functional MRI studies reporting exercise-induced changes during cognitive processing, a systematic determination of the underlying neurobiological pathways is currently lacking. To this end, our neuroimaging meta-analysis included 20 studies and investigated the influence of physical exercise on cognition-related functional brain activation. The overall meta-analysis encompassing all experiments revealed physical exercise-induced changes in the left parietal lobe during cognitive processing. Subgroup analysis further revealed that in the younger-age group (< 35 years old) physical exercise induced more widespread changes in the right hemisphere, whereas in the older-age group (≥ 35 years old) exercise-induced changes were restricted to the left parietal lobe. Subgroup analysis for intervention duration showed that shorter exercise interventions induced changes in regions connected with frontoparietal and default mode networks, whereas regions exhibiting effects of longer interventions connected with frontoparietal and dorsal attention networks. Our findings suggest that physical exercise interventions lead to changes in functional activation patterns primarily located in precuneus and associated with frontoparietal, dorsal attention and default mode networks.

6.
J Sports Sci ; : 1-10, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634738

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of 12 weeks of sprint interval training (SIT), high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen uptake, VO2peak), body composition and physical activity enjoyment in overweight young women. Sixty-six participants (age 21.2 ± 1.4 years, body mass index (BMI) 26.0 ± 3.0 kg·m-2, body fat percentage 39.0 ± 2.8%) were randomly assigned to non-exercise control (CON), thrice-weekly SIT (80 × 6 s "all-out" cycling interspersed with 9 s rest), and HIIT (4 min cycling at 90% VO2peak followed with 3 min recovery for ~ 60 min) or MICT (~ 65 min continuous cycling at 60% VO2peak) with equivalent mechanical work (200/300 KJ). Compared to the CON group, all three training groups had significant and similar improvements in VO2peak (~ +20%, d = 2.5-3.4), fat mass (~ -10%, d = 1.3-2.1) and body fat percentage (~ -5%, d = 1.0-1.1) after a 12-week intervention. Similar high levels of enjoyment were observed among groups for most (~70%) of the training sessions. The findings suggest that the three training regimes are equally enjoyable and could result in similar improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in overweight/obese young women, but SIT is a more time-efficient strategy.

7.
Exp Gerontol ; 147: 111262, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516908

RESUMO

Sarcopenia is a common condition in older people and increasing evidence suggests that it can be considered as a potential risk factor for falls and fractures. However, no studies on this topic from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are available. Thus, we assessed this association among older adults from five LMICs (China, India, Ghana, Mexico, and Russia). Community-based, nationally representative, cross-sectional data of the Study on Global Aging and Adult Health were analyzed. Sarcopenia was defined as the presence of low skeletal muscle mass based on indirect population formula, and either slow gait or low handgrip strength. The presence of fall-related injury was ascertained through self-reported information. Multivariable logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were conducted. The sample consisted of 13,101 individuals aged ≥65 years (mean (SD) age 72.6 (11.3) years; 45% males). The prevalence of fall-related injury was higher among those with sarcopenia than in those without this condition (e.g., Mexico 9.8% vs. 2.7%). Adjusted analyses showed that sarcopenia was associated with a 1.85 (95%CI = 1.24-2.77) times higher odds for fall-related injury, with a low level of between-country heterogeneity. Future studies of longitudinal design may shed light on whether sarcopenia in LMICs may be considered as a risk factor for falls.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Sarcopenia , Idoso , China , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Força da Mão , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Federação Russa , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia
8.
Int J Ment Health Addict ; : 1-16, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33456407

RESUMO

Fear is a negative emotional reaction to or persistent worry over an imminent public health event like COVID-19. The COVID-Fear Scale was developed in many countries, but not in China. The current study aims to examine the psychometric properties of Chinese version of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale. Translation into Chinese and back-translation into English were conducted firstly. Item analysis and exploratory factor analysis were conducted in Sample 1, followed by validity tests in Sample 2. Likely, test-retest reliability was conducted in sample 3. A bifactor structure of Chinese version of FCV-19S with a general fear factor and two orthogonal group factors with fear thoughts and physical response was confirmed. Besides, it has good internal consistency reliability (α = .92), composite reliability (CR = .92), and validity correlation validity. The results of the present study confirmed that the Chinese version of FCV-19S has good psychometric properties in the Chinese communities. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11469-020-00441-7.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-196721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Mental health problems are common among adolescents and greatly influenced by stressful events. This study sought to assess the prevalence and correlates of insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms among Chinese adolescents during the COVID-19. METHOD: Cross-sectional study (N = 1794 adolescents, mean age = 15.26) was conducted in May 2020. An online survey was used to collect socio-demographic data, COVID-related fear (COVID-fear), nutrition, physical activity (PA) level and the symptoms of insomnia, depression and anxiety. RESULTS: The prevalence of insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms was 37.80%, 48.20% and 36.70%, respectively, among Chinese adolescents during the pandemic. Generalized linear models revealed that female, left behind children, and students with greater COVID-fear tended to report symptoms of insomnia, depression and anxiety concurrently. After adjusting for socio-demographic factors and COVID-fear, better nutritional status and moderately active PA were both associated with lower levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms, while highly active PA was associated with lower levels of insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that more attention should be paid to psychological health among adolescents while combating COVID-19. To promote adolescents' mental health, educators should help adolescents develop a healthy lifestyle with balanced diet and regular exercise


ANTECEDENTES/OBJETIVO: Los problemas de salud mental son comunes en adolescentes y están influenciados por eventos estresantes. Se evaluó prevalencia y correlatos de síntomas de insomnio, depresión y ansiedad en adolescentes chinos durante el COVID-19. MÉTODO: En mayo de 2020 se realizó un estudio transversal (N = 1.794 adolescentes, edad media = 1526) mediante una encuesta en línea para recopilar datos sociodemográficos, miedo relacionado con COVID-19, nutrición, actividad física (AF) y síntomas de insomnio, depresión y ansiedad. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de síntomas de insomnio, depresión y ansiedad fue del 3780%, 4820% y 3670%, respectivamente. Modelos lineales generalizados revelaron que mujeres, niños abandonados y estudiantes con más miedo al COVID-19 tendían a informar síntomas de insomnio, depresión y ansiedad simultaneamente. Después de ajustar los factores sociodemográficos y el miedo al COVID-19, mejor estado nutricional y AF moderadamente activa se asociaron con niveles más bajos de síntomas de depresión y ansiedad, mientras que AF muy activa se asoció con niveles más bajos de insomnio, síntomas depresivos y de ansiedad. CONCLUSIONES. Se debe prestar más atención a la salud psicológica de los adolescentes mientras se combate el COVID-19. Para promover su salud mental, los educadores deben ayudarles a desarrollar un estilo de vida saludable con una dieta equilibrada y ejercicio regular


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Prevalência , Estado Nutricional , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Exercício Físico , Estudos Transversais , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , China/epidemiologia
10.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 13: 1123-1134, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299364

RESUMO

Purpose: The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and associated restrictive measures have implications for depressive symptoms (henceforth depression) of young people and risk may be associated with their reduced physical activity (PA) level. Therefore, we aimed to examine the association between depressive symptoms and PA among college students with different gender and gender role (masculinity traits and femininity traits) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants and Methods: Cross-sectional study included 628 healthy college students from nineteen different locations. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scales (CES-D), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short Form (IPAQ-SF), and the 50-item Chinese Sex-Role Inventory (CSRI-50) were used to measure depressive symptoms, PA continuous (weekly metabolic equivalent minutes, MET-minutes/week) and categorical indicators (activity level category) and gender role, respectively. The statistical analyses were used in partial correlation analysis, t-test, one-way ANOVA, moderation model tests, and linear regression model tests. Results: Total of 34.72% participants had clinically relevant depression (16, CES-D scale). Total of 58.6% participants were classified as a "low" activity level for spending less time on PA. Depression significantly negatively correlated with MET-minutes/week in moderate-intensity PA but not vigorous and walking scores. Of note, the depression-PA association was only moderated by the "low" activity level group in terms of categorical scores across gender groups. Participants with higher masculinity traits were less likely to have depression among all participants. Moreover, more recovered cases and fewer deaths could also predict the lower depression risk in the "high" activity level group. Conclusion: Moderate-intensity PA is beneficial for reducing depression risk among college students at a low activity level. College students with fewer masculinity traits (regardless of gender) are highly vulnerable to depression during the outbreak of COVID-19. Effective control of the COVID-19 pandemic seems critical to alleviating the burden of mental disorders of the public including depression.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A previously acquired fear response often spreads to perceptually or conceptually close stimuli or contexts. This process, known as fear generalization, facilitates the avoidance of danger, and dysregulations in this process play an important role in anxiety disorders. Oxytocin (OT) has been shown to modulate fear learning, yet effects on fear generalization remain unknown. METHODS: We employed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, between-subject design during which healthy male participants received either intranasal OT or placebo (PLC) following fear acquisition and before fear generalization with concomitant acquisition of skin conductance responses (SCRs). Twenty-four to 72 h before the fear learning and immediately after the fear generalization task, participants additionally complete a discrimination threshold task. RESULTS: Relative to PLC, OT significantly reduced perceived risk and SCRs towards the CS+ and GS1 (the generalization stimulus that is most similar to CS+) during fear generalization, whereas the discrimination threshold was not affected. CONCLUSIONS: Together, the results suggest that OT can attenuate fear generalization in the absence of effects on discrimination threshold. This study provides the first evidence for effects of OT on fear generalization in humans and suggests that OT may have therapeutic potential in anxiety disorders characterized by dysregulated fear generalization.

12.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 12: 586770, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33192481

RESUMO

Objective: The current study aimed at comparing the effects of Tai Chi (a motor-cognitive exercise) with walking (an exercise without cognitive demands) on cognitive performance, brain structure, and brain function in the elderly. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 42 healthy elderly women within two groups: Tai Chi (n = 20; mean age = 62.90 ± 2.38 years) and brisk walking exercise (n = 22; mean age = 63.27 ± 3.58 years). All the participants underwent a cognitive assessment via the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and brain structural and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) assessments. Results: Episodic memory in the Tai Chi group was superior to that of the walking group. Higher gray matter density in the inferior and medial temporal regions (including the hippocampus) and higher ReHo in temporal regions (specifically the fusiform gyrus and hippocampus) were found in the Tai Chi group. Significant partial correlations were found between the gray matter density of the left hippocampus and episodic memory in the whole sample. Significant partial correlations were observed between the ReHo in left hippocampus, left parahippocampal, left fusiform, and delayed memory task, which was observed among all subjects. Conclusion: The present study suggests that long-term Tai Chi practice may improve memory performance via remodeling the structure and function of the hippocampus.

14.
Brain Struct Funct ; 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159547

RESUMO

Although endurance running (ER) seems to be a simple repetitive exercise, good ER performance also requires and relies on multiple cognitive and motor control processes. Most of previous neuroimaging studies on ER were conducted using a single MRI modality, yet no multimodal study to our knowledge has been performed in this regard. In this study, we used multimodal MRI data to investigate the brain structural and functional differences between endurance runners (n = 22; age = 26.27 ± 6.07 years; endurance training = 6.23 ± 2.41 years) and healthy controls (HCs; n = 20; age = 24.60 ± 4.14 years). Compared with the HCs, the endurance runners showed greater gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical surface area in the left precentral gyrus, which at the same time had higher functional connectivity (FC) with the right postcentral and precentral gyrus. Subcortically, the endurance runners showed greater GMV in the left hippocampus and regional inflation in the right hippocampus. Using the bilateral hippocampi as seeds, further seed-based FC analyses showed higher hippocampal FC with the supplementary motor area, middle cingulate cortex, and left posterior lobe of the cerebellum. Moreover, compared with the HCs, the endurance runners also showed higher fractional anisotropy in several white matter regions, involving the corpus callosum, left internal capsule, left corona radiata, left external capsule, left posterior lobe of cerebellum and bilateral precuneus. Taken together, our findings provide several lines of evidence for the brain structural and functional differences between endurance runners and HCs. The current data suggest that these brain characteristics may have arisen as a result of regular ER training; however, whether they represent the neural correlates underlying the good ER performances of the endurance runners requires further investigations.

15.
Brain Sci ; 10(11)2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142694

RESUMO

Impairments in social communication (SC) represent one of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While previous studies have demonstrated that exercise intervention improves SC in children with ASD, there is currently no neuroscientific evidence supporting its benefits. Therefore, we evaluated the outcomes of a long-term exercise intervention on SC and white matter integrity (WMI) in children with ASD, and further explored the neural mechanism of exercise intervention on SC in these children. Twenty-nine children aged 3-6 years with ASD were assigned to either exercise group (n = 15) or control group (n = 14). The exercise group received a scheduled mini-basketball training program (5 sessions per week, forty minutes per session) for 12 consecutive weeks, while the control group was instructed to maintain their daily activities. Groups were assessed before and after intervention on SC and WMI. SC scores were lower in the exercise group post-intervention. Compared with the control group, WMI of the exercise group showed higher fractional anisotropy in the body of corpus callosum, fornix, right cerebral peduncle, left posterior limb of internal capsule, right retrolenticular part of internal capsule, left anterior corona radiate and left superior fronto-occipital fasciculus; lower mean diffusivity in the left anterior corona radiate and the bilateral corticospinal tract. Furthermore, increased WMI was associated with lower scores on a measure of social cognition in the overall sample. This study is the first to provide evidence that exercise intervention improves SC and white matter integrity in children with autism.

16.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 14: 569010, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132882

RESUMO

Background: The beneficial effects of acute exercise on executive function have been well-documented, but the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on this effect requires further investigations, especially using imaging technique. This study aimed to examine the effects of cardiorespiratory fitness on acute exercise-induced changes on behavioral performance and on functional brain activation. Method: Based on their cardiorespiratory fitness level, 62 participants ranked in the top and bottom of the maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) were finally selected and allocated to high-fit group or low-fit group. Both groups were asked to complete the Stroop task after 30 min of aerobic exercise and chair-seated rest (control session). Among them, 26 participants were randomly selected and asked to undergo the Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Results: Behavioral results showed that individuals responded significantly faster after exercise than those in the control session. The fMRI results revealed a significant interaction effects of Group by Session in brain regions including anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and bilateral dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). For the ACC, activation in the high-fit group was significantly decreased after aerobic exercise compared to those in the control session; whereas an increased activation was noticed in the low-fit group. Regarding to the bilateral DLPFC, activation in high-fit group was significantly decreased after exercise compared to those in the control session, while no significant differences were found in the low-fit group. In addition, for the post-exercise session, a significant positive correlations between activation of the ACC and left DLPFC in the high-fit group was observed. There was a significant negative correlation between activation of the ACC and reaction time in the congruent condition after exercise in the low-fit group. Conclusion: Findings further clarify the neurophysiological processes of acute exercise-induced changes in cognitive performance as they suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness is an important factor which influences changes in brain activation patterns in response to acute aerobic exercises.

17.
F1000Res ; 9: 636, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093946

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic affecting health and wellbeing globally. In addition to the physical health, economic, and social implications, the psychological impacts of this pandemic are increasingly being reported in the scientific literature. This narrative review reflected on scholarly articles on the epidemiology of mental health problems in COVID-19. The current literature suggests that people affected by COVID-19 may have a high burden of mental health problems, including depression, anxiety disorders, stress, panic attack, irrational anger, impulsivity, somatization disorder, sleep disorders, emotional disturbance, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and suicidal behavior. Moreover, several factors associated with mental health problems in COVID-19 are found, which include age, gender, marital status, education, occupation, income, place of living, close contact with people with COVID-19, comorbid physical and mental health problems, exposure to COVID-19 related news and social media, coping styles, stigma, psychosocial support, health communication, confidence in health services, personal protective measures, risk of contracting COVID-19, and perceived likelihood of survival. Furthermore, the epidemiological distribution of mental health problems and associated factors were heterogeneous among the general public, COVID-19 patients, and healthcare providers. The current evidence suggests that a psychiatric epidemic is cooccurring with the COVID-19 pandemic, which necessitates the attention of the global health community. Future epidemiological studies should emphasize on psychopathological variations and temporality of mental health problems in different populations. Nonetheless, multipronged interventions should be developed and adopted to address the existing psychosocial challenges and promote mental health amid the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias
18.
Alzheimers Dement (N Y) ; 6(1): e12091, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083514

RESUMO

Physical inactivity is one major modifiable risk factor for dementia (especially Alzheimer's disease). Due to contact restrictions and isolation measures in response to the current COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic, physical inactivity levels have increased by up to 30%, which will likely have adverse consequences for primary and secondary dementia prevention. Therefore, new interdisciplinary prevention approaches (eg, outdoor exercise; app-based exercise with online partners) are urgently needed that account for the suspected long-term lifestyle changes that the current-and upcoming-pandemics are likely to entail (increased use of home office, social isolation, avoidance of fitness centers and club sports, and so on).

19.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 21(10): 1415-1422.e6, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981668

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this umbrella review was to determine the effect of physical activity/exercise on improving cognitive and noncognitive outcomes in people with MCI (mild cognitive impairment) and dementia. DESIGN: Umbrella review of systematic reviews (SR), with or without meta-analyses (MAs), of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: People with MCI or dementia, confirmed through validated assessment measures. Any form of physical activity/exercise was included. As controls, we included participants not following any prespecified physical activity/exercise intervention or following the same standard protocol with the intervention group. METHODS: The protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CDR 164197). Major databases were searched until December 31, 2019. The certainty of evidence of statistically significant outcomes was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. SRs' findings, without a formal MA, were reported descriptively. RESULTS: Among 1160 articles initially evaluated, 27 SRs (all of RCTs, 9 without MA) for a total of 28,205 participants with MCI/dementia were included. In patients with MCI, mind-body intervention (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.36; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.20-0.52; low certainty) and mixed physical activity interventions (SMD = 0.30; 95% CI 0.11-0.49; moderate certainty) had a small effect on global cognition, whereas resistance training (SMD = 0.80; 95% CI 0.29-1.31; very low certainty) had a large effect on global cognition. In people affected by dementia, physical activity/exercise was effective in improving global cognition in Alzheimer disease (SMD = 1.10; 95% CI 0.65-1.64; very low certainty) and in all types of dementia (SMD = 0.48; 95% CI 0.22-0.74; low certainty). Finally, physical activity/exercise improved noncognitive outcomes in people with dementia including falls, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Supported by very low-to-moderate certainty of evidence, physical activity/exercise has a positive effect on several cognitive and noncognitive outcomes in people with MCI and dementia, but RCTs, with low risk of bias/confounding, are still needed to confirm these relationships.

20.
Am J Med ; 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946848

RESUMO

An umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to evaluate the existing evidence of Tai Chi as a mind-body exercise for chronic illness management. MEDLINE/PubMed and Embase databases were searched from inception until 31st March 2019 for meta-analyses of at least two RCTs that investigated health outcomes associated with Tai Chi intervention. Evidence of significant outcomes (P-value <0.05) was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. This review identified 45 meta-analyses of RCTs and calculated 142 summary estimates among adults living with 16 types of chronic illnesses. Statistically significant results (P-value <0.05) were identified for 81 of the 142 outcomes (57.0%), of which 45 estimates presenting 30 unique outcomes across 14 chronic illnesses were supported by high (n=1) or moderate (n=44) evidence. Moderate evidence suggests that Tai Chi intervention improved physical functions and disease-specific outcomes compared with non-active controls and cardiorespiratory fitness compared with active controls among adults with diverse chronic illnesses. Between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were observed in some meta-analyses.

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