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1.
Environ Int ; 158: 106922, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628252

RESUMO

The safety of microplastics (MPs) and associated health effects has been one of the major concerns worldwide. However, the role of photoaging toward the risk of MPs in water ecosystems remains inconclusive yet. In this study, the size of polyamide (PA, ∼32.50 µm) MPs was obviously decreased after photoaging in water containing fulvic acid (FA) and humic acid (HA) (∼19.75 and âˆ¼24.30 µm, respectively). Nanoplastics were formed (4.65% and 2.03%, respectively) and hydrophilia and colloidal stability was improved due to the formation of oxygen-containing functional groups. FA-aged PA exhibited higher inhibition on body length and weight of developing zebrafish than HA-aged and pristine PA. Photoaged MPs in intestine were more difficult to be depurated by zebrafish, leading to the disappearance of intestinal folding, shedding of more enterocytes, and emaciation of intestinal microvilli. Dietary lipid digestion in larvae was inhibited by aged PA due to oxidative stress-triggered lipid peroxidation and inhibition of lipase activities and bile acids secretion. Exposure of photoaged MPs down-regulated genes (cd36, dgat1a, dgat2, mttp, etc.) associated with triglyceride resynthesis and transportation, resulting in lipid maladsorption and growth inhibition. Our findings highlight the potential negative effects of environmentally aged MPs on diet digestion and nutrient assimilation in fish.

2.
Water Res ; 205: 117708, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600228

RESUMO

Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) poses great potential in water treatment as a popular transition metal dichalcogenide, arousing considerable concern regarding its fates and risk in aquatic environments. This study revealed that the interplay with extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of freshwater algae significantly changed the properties and toxicity of MoS2 to aquatic fish. The predominant binding of aromatic compounds, polysaccharides, and carboxyl-rich proteins in EPS on the 1T polymorph of MoS2 via hydrophilic effects and the preferential adsorption of carboxylic groups contributed to morphological alterations, structural disorders (band gap and phase alterations), and the attenuated aggregation of MoS2 in aqueous solutions. Electron charge transfer and n-π* interactions with EPS decreased the catalytic activity of MoS2 by inhibiting its capability of generating reactive intermediates. The dissolution of MoS2 slowed down after interacting with EPS (from 0.089 to 0.045 mg/L per day) owing to rapid initial oxidation (i.e., forming Mo-O bond) and carbon grafting. Notably, the morphological and structural alterations after EPS binding alleviated the toxicity (e.g., malformation and oxidative stress) of MoS2 to infantile zebrafish. Our findings provide insights into the environmental fate and risk of MoS2 by ubiquitous EPS in natural waters, serving as valuable information while developing water treatment processes accordingly.

3.
Brain Res Bull ; 177: 194-202, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624463

RESUMO

Increasing evidence confirms that sleep deprivation (SD), which induces hippocampal neuroinflammation, is a risk factor for depression. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a novel neuromodulator that plays antidepressant-like role. Silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Sirt1) is well-characterized as a regulator of mood disorder. Furthermore, we have previously reported that H2S upregulates Sirt1 expression in the hippocampus of SD-exposed rats. Here, we explored whether H2S ameliorates depression- and anxiety-like behaviors as well as hippocampal neuroinflammatory in SD-exposed rats and whether Sirt1 mediates these protective roles of H2S. In the present work, we showed that NaHS (a donor of H2S) significantly alleviated depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in the SD-exposed rats tested by novelty-suppressed feeding test (NST), forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), and elevated plus maze test (EPMT) and that NaHS attenuates neuroinflammatory in the hippocampus of SD-exposed rats, as evidenced by reducing the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α) and chemokine CCL2, as well as increasing the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) in the hippocampus. However, Sirt1 inhibitor reversed the protective effects of H2S against SD-induced depression- and anxiety-like behaviors as well as hippocampal neuroinflammatory. In conclusion, H2S antagonizes SD-induced depression- and anxiety-like behaviors and neuroinflammation, which is required hippocampal Sirt1. These findings suggested that H2S is a novel approach to prevent SD-induced depression and anxiety.

4.
Behav Brain Res ; 417: 113562, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our previous works demonstrated that ß2-microglobulin (ß2m), a systemic pro-aging factor, induce depressive-like behaviors. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is identified as a potential target for treatment of depression. The aim of the present work is to explore whether H2S antagonizes ß2m-induced depressive-like behaviors and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: The depressive-like behaviors were detected using the novelty suppressed feeding test (NSFT), tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and open field test (OFT). The expressions of Warburg-related proteins, including hexokinase II (HK II), pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1(PDK1), and synaptic plasticity-related proteins, including postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) and synaptophysin1 (SYN1), were determined by western blotting. RESULT: we found that NaHS (the donor of H2S) attenuated the depressive-like behaviors in the ß2m-exposed rats, as judged by NSFT, TST, FST, and OFT. We also demonstrated that NaHS enhanced the synaptic plasticity, as evidenced by the upregulations of PSD95 and SYN1 expressions in the hippocampus of ß2m-exposed rats. Furthermore, NaHS improved the Warburg effect in the hippocampus of ß2m-exposed rats, as evidenced by the upregulations of HK II, PKM2, LDHA and PDK1 expressions, and the downregulation of PDH expression. CONCLUSION: H2S prevents ß2m-induced depressive-like behaviors, which is involved in improvement of hippocampal synaptic plasticity as a result of enhancement of hippocampal Warburg effect.

5.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126043, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492890

RESUMO

The transformation of Ag+ is strongly correlated with its risks in aquatic environment. Considering the wide application of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and the inevitable release into the environment, the effects of MoS2 on Ag+ transformation and toxicity are of great concerns. This study revealed the pH-dependent reduction of Ag+ (0.5 mM) to Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) by MoS2 (50 mg/L) and solar irradiation obviously accelerates the AgNPs formation (2.638 mg/L per day, pH=7.0) compared with dark condition (0.637 mg/L per day), ascribing to the electrons capture from electron-hole pairs of MoS2 by Ag+. Ionic strengths and natural organic matter decreased the AgNPs yield. Metallic 1 T phase of MoS2 primarily participated in AgNPs formation and was oxidized to soluble ions (MoO42-) due to the oxygen generation in valance band. The above processes also occurred between Ag+ and MoS2 at environmentally relevant concentrations. Further, photoinduced transformation of Ag+ by MoS2 (10-100 µg/L) significantly lowered its toxicity to freshwater algae. The AgNPs formation on MoS2 reduced the bioavailability of Ag+ to algae, which was the mechanism for attenuated Ag+ toxicity. The provided data are helpful for better understanding the roles of MoS2 on the environmental fates and risks of metal ions under natural conditions.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Prata , Dissulfetos , Água Doce , Íons , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Molibdênio/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494284

RESUMO

Previous studies reveal that hydrogen sulphide (H2 S) exerts neuroprotection against neurotoxin-induced Parkinson's disease (PD), but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. The present study was aimed to investigate whether H2 S inhibits neuronal apoptosis of substantia nigra with the involvement of autophagy via promoting leptin signalling in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced PD rats. In this study, neuronal apoptosis was analysed by TUNEL staining, the activity of caspase-3 was measured by Caspase-3 fluorometric assay kit, the expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, Beclin-1, LC3II, P62 and leptin were determined by Western blot analysis, and the numbers of autophagosomes and autolysosomes were assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that NaHS, a donor of exogenous H2 S, mitigates 6-OHDA-induced the increases in the numbers of TUNEL-positive cells, the activity of caspase-3 and the expression of Bax, and attenuates 6-OHDA-induced a decrease in the expression of Bcl-2 in substantia nigra of rats. In addition, 6-OHDA enhanced the expressions of Beclin-1, LC3-II and P62, increased the number of autophagosomes, and decreased the number of autolysosomes in the substantia nigra, which were also blocked by administration of NaHS. Furthermore, NaHS reversed 6-OHDA-induced the down-regulation of leptin expression in the substantia nigra, and treatment with leptin-OBR, a blocking antibody of leptin receptor, attenuated the inhibition of NaHS on neuronal apoptosis and the improvement of NaHS on the blocked autophagic flux in substantia nigra of 6-OHDA-treated rats. Taken together, these results demonstrated that H2 S attenuates neuronal apoptosis of substantia nigra depending on restoring impaired autophagic flux through up-regulating leptin signalling in PD.

7.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257584, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy affects up to 80% of pregnant women, it typically occurs during the first trimester which is the most sensitive time for environmental exposures given organogenesis. Metoclopramide is an antiemetic drug used widely during NVP, but the findings of studies evaluating its safety of use in pregnancy is inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether metoclopramide use during first trimester of pregnancy is associated with the risk of major congenital malformations. METHODS: The systematic search using database included Pubmed, Embase, Web of science, and Cochrane library. Studies written in English, comprising with an exposed group and a control group, reporting major congenital malformation as an outcome were included. RESULTS: Six studies assessing a total number of 33374 metoclopramide-exposed and 373498 controls infants were included in this meta-analysis. No significant increase in the rate of major congenital malformation was detected following metoclopramide use during first trimester (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.93-1.38). CONCLUSIONS: Metoclopramide use during first trimester of pregnancy was not associated with the risk of major congenital malformations.

8.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542586

RESUMO

Clostridium beijerinckii is a well-known anaerobic solventogenic bacterium which inhabits a wide range of different niches. Previously, we isolated five butyrate-producing C. beijerinckii strains from pit mud (PM) of strong-flavor baijiu (SFB) ecosystems. Genome annotation of the five strains showed that they could assimilate various carbon sources as well as ammonium to produce acetate, butyrate, lactate, hydrogen, and esters but did not produce the undesirable flavors isopropanol and acetone, making them useful for further exploration in SFB production. Our analysis of the genomes of an additional 233 C. beijerinckii strains revealed an open pangenome based on current sampling and will likely change with additional genomes. The core genome, accessory genome, and strain-specific genes comprised 1567, 8851, and 2154 genes, respectively. A total of 298 genes were found only in the five C. beijerinckii strains from PM, among which only 77 genes were assigned to Clusters of Orthologous Genes categories. In addition, 15 transposase and 12 phage integrase families were found in all five C. beijerinckii strains from PM. Between 18 and 21 genome islands were predicted for the five C. beijerinckii genomes. The existence of a large number of mobile genetic elements indicated that the genomes of the five C. beijerinckii strains evolved with the loss or insertion of DNA fragments in the PM of SFB ecosystems. This study presents a genomic framework of C. beijerinckii strains from PM that could be used for genetic diversification studies and further exploration of these strains.

9.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(18): 6607-6626, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468804

RESUMO

Bacillus subtilis is a well-characterized Gram-positive bacterium and a valuable host for recombinant protein production because of its efficient secretion ability, high yield, and non-toxicity. Here, we comprehensively review the recent studies on recombinant protein production in B. subtilis to update and supplement other previous reviews. We have focused on several aspects, including optimization of B. subtilis strains, enhancement and regulation of expression, improvement of secretion level, surface display of proteins, and fermentation optimization. Among them, optimization of B. subtilis strains mainly involves undirected chemical/physical mutagenesis and selection and genetic manipulation; enhancement and regulation of expression comprises autonomous plasmid and integrated expression, promoter regulation and engineering, and fine-tuning gene expression based on proteases and molecular chaperones; improvement of secretion level predominantly involves secretion pathway and signal peptide screening and optimization; surface display of proteins includes surface display of proteins on spores or vegetative cells; and fermentation optimization incorporates medium optimization, process condition optimization, and feeding strategy optimization. Furthermore, we propose some novel methods and future challenges for recombinant protein production in B. subtilis.Key points• A comprehensive review on recombinant protein production in Bacillus subtilis.• Novel techniques facilitate recombinant protein expression and secretion.• Surface display of proteins has significant potential for different applications.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis , Proteínas de Bactérias , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares , Sinais Direcionadores de Proteínas , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética
10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(16)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439398

RESUMO

Ultra-high dose rate FLASH proton radiotherapy (F-PRT) has been shown to reduce normal tissue toxicity compared to standard dose rate proton radiotherapy (S-PRT) in experiments using the entrance portion of the proton depth dose profile, while proton therapy uses a spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) with unknown effects on FLASH toxicity sparing. To investigate, the biological effects of F-PRT using an SOBP and the entrance region were compared to S-PRT in mouse intestine. In this study, 8-10-week-old C57BL/6J mice underwent 15 Gy (absorbed dose) whole abdomen irradiation in four groups: (1) SOBP F-PRT, (2) SOBP S-PRT, (3) entrance F-PRT, and (4) entrance S-PRT. Mice were injected with EdU 3.5 days after irradiation, and jejunum segments were harvested and preserved. EdU-positive proliferating cells and regenerated intestinal crypts were quantified. The SOBP had a modulation (width) of 2.5 cm from the proximal to distal 90%. Dose rates with a SOBP for F-PRT or S-PRT were 108.2 ± 8.3 Gy/s or 0.82 ± 0.14 Gy/s, respectively. In the entrance region, dose rates were 107.1 ± 15.2 Gy/s and 0.83 ± 0.19 Gy/s, respectively. Both entrance and SOBP F-PRT preserved a significantly higher number of EdU + /crypt cells and percentage of regenerated crypts compared to S-PRT. Moreover, tumor growth studies showed no difference between SOBP and entrance for either of the treatment modalities.

11.
J Mol Neurosci ; 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405366

RESUMO

Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) can be a catastrophic event; even if the initial stages of the pathology were well-managed, a number of patients experience varied residual neurological deficits following the insult. Ferroptosis is a recently identified type of cell demise which is tightly linked to the neurological impairment associated with ICH. In the current work, the prophylactic impact of scalp acupuncture (SA) therapy on autologous blood injection murine models of ICH was investigated in order to establish whether SA could mitigate the secondary damage arising following ICH by moderating ferroptosis. The pathophysiological mechanisms associated with this process were also explored. Ludmila Belayev tests were utilised for the characterisation of neurological damage. Haematoxylin-eosin staining was employed in order to determine the cerebral impact of the induced ICH. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and iron titres in peri-haemorrhagic cerebral tissues were appraised using purchased assay kits. Transmission electron microscopy delineated mitochondrial appearances within nerve cell bodies from the area of haemorrhage. Western blotting techniques were utilised to assay the degree of protein expression of NeuN, sequestosome 1 (p62), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and ferritin heavy chain 1 (FTH1). The frequencies of Nrf2, GPX4 and FTH1 positive cells, respectively, were documented with immunohistochemical staining. The results demonstrated that therapy with SA after ICH mitigated MDA and iron sequestration, diminished the appearance of contracted mitochondria with increased outer mitochondrial membrane diameter within the nerve cell bodies, and suppressed neuronal ferroptosis. The pathways responsible for these effects may encompass amplified p62, Nrf2, GPX4 and FTH1 expression, together with decreased Keap1 expression. Application of SA reduced identified neurobehavioural abnormalities after ICH; no disparities were observed between the consequences of SA therapy and deferoxamine delivery. It can be surmised that intervention with SA enhanced recovery after ICH by triggering the antioxidant pathway, p62/Keap1/Nrf2, and causing FTH1 and GPX4 upregulation, factors that participate in diminishing excess iron and thus in mitigating lipid peroxidation insults arising from ferroptosis following ICH.

12.
Chaos ; 31(7): 073107, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340324

RESUMO

We study the collective behaviors of a large population of Stuart-Landau limit-cycle oscillators that coupled diffusively and equally with all of the others via the conjugate of the mean field, where the underlying interaction is shown to break the rotational symmetry of the coupled system. In the model, an ensemble of Stuart-Landau oscillators are in fact diffusively coupled via the mean field in the real parts, whereas additional repulsive links are present in the imaginary parts. All the oscillators are linked via the similar state variables, which distinctly differs from the conjugate coupling through dissimilar variables in the previous studies. We show that depending on the strength of coupling and the distribution of natural frequencies, the coupled system exhibits three qualitatively different types of collective stationary behaviors: amplitude death (AD), oscillation death (OD), and incoherent state. Our goal is to analytically characterize the onset of the above three typical macrostates by performing the rigorous linear stability analyses of the corresponding mean-field coupled system. We prove that AD is able to occur in the coupled system with identical frequencies, where the stable coupling interval of AD is found to be independent on the system's size N. When the natural frequencies are distributed according to a general density function, we obtain the analytic equations that govern the exact stability boundaries of AD, OD, and the incoherence for a coupled system in the thermodynamic limit N→∞. All the theoretical predictions are well confirmed via numerical simulations of the coupled system with a specific Lorentzian frequency distribution.

13.
J Hazard Mater ; 419: 126499, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214853

RESUMO

Sulfur vacancy (SV) defects have been engineered in two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) for high performance applications in various fields involving environmental protection. Understanding the influence of SVs on the environmental fate and toxicity of TMDs is critical for evaluating their risk. Our work discovered that SVs (with S/Mo ratios of 1.65 and 1.32) reduced the dispersibility and promoted aggregation of 2H phase molybdenum disulfide (2H-MoS2, a hot TMD) in aqueous solution. The generation capability of •O2- and •OH was increased and the dissolution of 2H-MoS2 was significantly accelerated after SVs formation. Different with pristine form, S-vacant 2H-MoS2 preferentially harvested proteins (i.e., forming protein corona) involved in antioxidation, photosynthetic electron transport, and the cytoskeleton structure of microalgae. These proteins contain a higher relative number of thiol groups, which exhibited stronger affinity to S-vacant than pristine 2H-MoS2, as elucidated by density functional theory calculations. Notably, SVs aggravated algal growth inhibition, oxidative damage, photosynthetic efficiency and cell membrane permeability reduction induced by 2H-MoS2 due to increased free radical yield and the specific binding of functional proteins. Our findings provide insights into the roles of SVs on the risk of MoS2 while highlighting the importance of rational design for TMDs application.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Molibdênio , Dissulfetos/toxicidade , Molibdênio/toxicidade , Enxofre
14.
Infect Immun ; 89(10): e0006721, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310887

RESUMO

To antagonize infection of pathogenic bacteria in soil and confer increased survival, Caenorhabditis elegans employs innate immunity and behavioral avoidance synchronously as the two main defensive strategies. Although both biological processes and their individual signaling pathways have been partially elucidated, knowledge of their interrelationship remains limited. The current study reveals that deficiency of innate immunity triggered by mutation of the classic immune gene pmk-1 promotes avoidance behavior in C. elegans and vice versa. Restoration of pmk-1 expression using the tissue-specific promoters suggested that the functional loss of both intestinal and neuronal pmk-1 is necessary for the enhanced avoidance. Additionally, PMK-1 colocalized with the E3 ubiquitin ligase HECW-1 in OLL neurons and regulated the expressional level of the latter, which consequently affected the production of NPR-1, a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) homologous to the mammalian neuropeptide Y receptor, in RMG neurons in a non-cell-autonomous manner. Collectively, our study illustrates that once the innate immunity is impaired when C. elegans antagonizes bacterial infection, the other defensive strategy of behavioral avoidance can be enhanced accordingly via the HECW-1/NPR-1 module, suggesting that GPCRs in neural circuits may receive the inputs from the immune system and integrate those two systems for better adapting to the real-time status.

15.
Phytomedicine ; 90: 153644, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a common nephropathy with a complex and diverse aetiology. Both Imperatae rhizoma and Hedyotis diffusa Willd. are herbs that are widely used as medicine and functional food. In traditional Chinese medicine theory, they are used as an herbal pair (HP) to treat inflammation-related diseases in the clinic, especially disorders of the kidney. PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and hypolipidaemic effects of HP in an NS rat model and provide scientific data for its clinical application. METHODS: An NS model was established by two-dose injection of Sprague-Dawley rats with adriamycin. Seven groups, including the sham, model, HP treatment (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg/d), prednisone (positive control, 5 mg/kg/d), and atorvastatin (positive control, 4 mg/kg/d) groups, were tested. The biochemical indexes of renal function and inflammatory cytokines were determined by ELISA kits and/or qPCR assays, and the crucial protein involved in the signalling pathway were subsequently tested by qPCR and/or Western blotting. Based on specific compounds identified by LC-Q-TOF-MS, network pharmacological study was carried out. RESULTS: The levels of BUN, Scr, Upro, UA, Alb, TC, TG, and LDL-C were significantly elevated in model rats. HP treatment for four weeks improved the renal function and the dyslipidaemia by decreasing the levels of all parameters, except BUN and Scr. HP treatment (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg/d) upregulated the expression of PPARγ, CYP7b1, and LDLR in the liver, while it down-regulated PCSK9, showing a regulatory effect on lipid metabolism disorder. The levels of TNF-α and IL-1ß in the plasma and the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1ß, MCP-1, and TGF-ß1 in the kidney were decreased in HP groups, revealing its anti-inflammatory effect in NS rats. The HP exerted an alleviation effect on the inflammatory response through the NF-κB pathway by inhibiting the mRNA and protein expression of p50 and p65. There were 34 compounds identified or tentatively characterized in HP. In the network pharmacological study, PPARG(PPARγ), PCSK9, RELA(p65), and NF-κB1(p50) were the top 20 targets for HP, supporting the animal experimental results. CONCLUSION: HP exhibited protective effects on NS rats. These effects might be closely related to the inhibition of NF-κB and PCSK9-LDLR and activation of the PPARγ-CYP7B1 signalling pathways.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Hedyotis , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Síndrome Nefrótica , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Família 7 do Citocromo P450 , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Hedyotis/química , NF-kappa B , Síndrome Nefrótica/tratamento farmacológico , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9 , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Esteroide Hidroxilases/uso terapêutico
16.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311108

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We report the final overall survival (OS) analyses of atezolizumab-carboplatin-paclitaxel (ACP [experimental arm]) and OS data with approximately 39.8 months of median follow-up with atezolizumab-bevacizumab-carboplatin-paclitaxel (ABCP) versus bevacizumab-carboplatin-paclitaxel (BCP) in chemotherapy-naive patients with metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC in the phase 3 IMpower150 study (NCT02366143). METHODS: In this randomized, open-label study (N = 1202), coprimary end points included investigator-assessed progression-free survival and OS in intention-to-treat (ITT) wild-type (WT; no EGFR or ALK alterations) patients. Secondary and exploratory end points included OS in ITT and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) subgroups defined by the VENTANA SP142 and SP263 immunohistochemistry assays. RESULTS: At the final analysis with ACP versus BCP (data cutoff: September 13, 2019; minimum follow-up: 32.4 mo), ACP had numerical, but not statistically significant, improvements in OS (ITT-WT: median OS = 19.0 versus 14.7 mo; hazard ratio = 0.84; 95% confidence interval: 0.71-1.00). OS benefit was sustained with ABCP versus BCP (ITT-WT: 19.5 versus 14.7 mo; hazard ratio = 0.80; 95% confidence interval: 0.67-0.95). Exploratory analyses in the SP142-defined PD-L1 subgroups revealed longer median OS with ABCP and ACP versus BCP in PD-L1-high and PD-L1-positive subgroups; in the PD-L1-negative subgroups, median OS was similar with ACP and ABCP versus BCP. Safety was consistent with that in earlier analyses (data cutoff: January 22, 2018). CONCLUSIONS: At the final IMpower150 OS analysis, ACP had numerical, but not statistically significant, OS improvement versus BCP. Updated data with an additional 20 months of follow-up revealed continued OS improvement with ABCP versus BCP in all patients.

17.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254267, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242313

RESUMO

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a folate-dependent enzyme, is reportedly involved in several cancer types. The MTHFR C677T polymorphism influences many biological processes, including tumorigenesis. However, the association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and breast cancer (BC) subtypes is not fully understood. In this study, the MTHFR C677T polymorphism was genotyped in 490 individuals with or without BC from southwestern China. Analysis of the association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and BC revealed that there was a significant association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) (OR = 2.83, 95% CI: 1.12-9.51, P = 0.0401). Furthermore, the MTHFR C677T polymorphism can also serve as a protective factor in luminal A breast cancer (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.34-0.94, P = 0.0258). Evaluation of the association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and clinical characteristics indicated that people who suffered from hypertension had an increased risk for BC (OR = 2.27; 95% CI: 1.08-4.6; P = 0.0264), especially TNBC (OR = 215.38; 95% CI: 2.45-84430.3; P = 0.0317). Our results suggest that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism is significantly associated with susceptibility to luminal B breast cancer and TNBC.

18.
Int J Part Ther ; 8(1): 62-72, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285936

RESUMO

Purpose: To describe an implementation of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) for calculation of proton stopping-power ratios (SPRs) in a commercial treatment-planning system. The process for validation and the workflow for safe deployment of DECT is described, using single-energy computed tomography (SECT) as a safety check for DECT dose calculation. Materials and Methods: The DECT images were acquired at 80 kVp and 140 kVp and were processed with computed tomography scanner software to derive the electron density and effective atomic number images. Reference SPRs of tissue-equivalent plugs from Gammex (Middleton, Wisconsin) and CIRS (Computerized Imaging Reference Systems, Norfolk, Virginia) electron density phantoms were used for validation and comparison of SECT versus DECT calculated through the Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, California) application programming interface scripting tool. An in-house software was also used to create DECT SPR computed tomography images for comparison with the script output. In the workflow, using the Eclipse system application programming interface script, clinical plans were optimized with the SECT image set and then forward-calculated with the DECT SPR for the final dose distribution. In a second workflow, the plans were optimized using DECT SPR with reduced range-uncertainty margins. Results: For the Gammex phantom, the root mean square error in SPR was 1.08% for DECT versus 2.29% for SECT for 10 tissue-surrogates, excluding the lung. For the CIRS Phantom, the corresponding results were 0.74% and 2.27%. When evaluating the head and neck plan, DECT optimization with 2% range-uncertainty margins achieved a small reduction in organ-at-risk doses compared with that of SECT plans with 3.5% range-uncertainty margins. For the liver case, DECT was used to identify and correct the lipiodol SPR in the SECT plan. Conclusion: It is feasible to use DECT for proton-dose calculation in a commercial treatment planning system in a safe manner. The range margins can be reduced to 2% in some sites, including the head and neck.

19.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This phase III OAK trial (NCT02008227) subgroup analysis (data cutoff, January 9, 2019) evaluated the predictive value of 2 PD-L1 IHC tests (VENTANA SP142 and Dako 22C3) for benefit from atezolizumab versus docetaxel by programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) status in patients with previously treated metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS: PD-L1 expression was assessed prospectively with SP142 on tumor cells (TC) and tumor-infiltrating immune cells (IC) and retrospectively with 22C3 using a tumor proportion score (TPS) based on TC membrane staining. Efficacy was assessed in the 22C3 biomarker-evaluable population (22C3-BEP) (n = 577; 47.1% of SP142-intention-to-treat population) and non-22C3-BEP (n = 648) in PD-L1 subgroups (high, low, and negative) and according to selection by 1 or both assays. RESULTS: In the 22C3-BEP, overall survival benefits with atezolizumab versus docetaxel were observed across PD-L1 subgroups; benefits were greatest in SP142-defined PD-L1-high (TC3 or IC3: hazard ratio [HR], 0.39 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.25-0.63]) and 22C3-defined PD-L1-high (TPS ≥ 50%: HR, 0.56 [95% CI, 0.38-0.82]) and low (TPS, 1% to < 50%: HR, 0.55 [95% CI, 0.37-0.82]) groups. Progression-free survival improved with increasing PD-L1 expression for both assays. SP142 and 22C3 assays identified overlapping and unique patient populations in PD-L1-high, positive, and negative subgroups. Overall survival and progression-free survival benefits favored atezolizumab over docetaxel in double PD-L1-positive and negative groups; patients with both SP142- and 22C3-positive tumors derived the greatest benefit. CONCLUSIONS: Despite different scoring algorithms and differing sensitivity levels, the SP142 and 22C3 assays similarly predicted atezolizumab benefit at validated PD-L1 thresholds in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

20.
Am J Chin Med ; 49(6): 1449-1471, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263719

RESUMO

Gut microbiota has been proven to play an important role in many metabolic diseases and cardiovascular disease, particularly atherosclerosis. Ophiopogonin D (OPD), one of the effective compounds in Ophiopogon japonicus, is considered beneficial to metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we have illuminated the effect of OPD in ApoE knockout (ApoE[Formula: see text] mice on the development of atherosclerosis and gut microbiota. To investigate the potential ability of OPD to alleviate atherosclerosis, 24 eight-week-old male ApoE[Formula: see text] mice (C57BL/6 background) were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks, and 8 male C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet, serving as the control group. ApoE[Formula: see text] mice were randomly divided into the model group, OPD group, and simvastatin group ([Formula: see text]= 8). After treatment for 12 consecutive weeks, the results showed that OPD treatment significantly decreased the plaque formation and levels of serum lipid compared with those in the model group. In addition, OPD improved oral glucose tolerance and insulin resistance as well as reducing hepatocyte steatosis. Further analysis revealed that OPD might attenuate atherosclerosis through inhibiting mTOR phosphorylation and the consequent lipid metabolism signaling pathways mediated by SREBP1 and SCD1 in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, OPD treatment led to significant structural changes in gut microbiota and fecal metabolites in HFD-fed mice and reduced the relative abundance of Erysipelotrichaceae genera associated with cholesterol metabolism. Collectively, these findings illustrate that OPD could significantly protect against atherosclerosis, which might be associated with the moderation of lipid metabolism and alterations in gut microbiota composition and fecal metabolites.

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