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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(38)2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521750

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by skin dryness, inflammation, and itch. A major hallmark of AD is an elevation of the immune cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. These cytokines lead to skin barrier disruption and lipid abnormalities in AD, yet the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Sebaceous glands are specialized sebum-producing epithelial cells that promote skin barrier function by releasing lipids and antimicrobial proteins to the skin surface. Here, we show that in AD, IL-4 and IL-13 stimulate the expression of 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD3B1), a key rate-limiting enzyme in sex steroid hormone synthesis, predominantly expressed by sebaceous glands in human skin. HSD3B1 enhances androgen production in sebocytes, and IL-4 and IL-13 drive lipid abnormalities in human sebocytes and keratinocytes through HSD3B1. Consistent with our findings in cells, HSD3B1 expression is elevated in the skin of AD patients and can be restored by treatment with the IL-4Rα monoclonal antibody, Dupilumab. Androgens are also elevated in a mouse model of AD, though the mechanism in mice remains unclear. Our findings illuminate a connection between type 2 immunity and sex steroid hormone synthesis in the skin and suggest that abnormalities in sex steroid hormone synthesis may underlie the disrupted skin barrier in AD. Furthermore, targeting sex steroid hormone synthesis pathways may be a therapeutic avenue to restoring normal skin barrier function in AD patients.

2.
F1000Res ; 10: 381, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34540202

RESUMO

Syndromic hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a form of symptom constellations, which differs from the familial and genetic form and comprises predominantly osteoarticular manifestations. Many forms include pyoderma gangrenosum and acne (PASH), pyogenic arthritis (PAPASH), spondyloarthritis (PASS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsaPASH) and are categorized in the autoinflammatory syndromes. anti-TNF-α and anti-IL-1a blockade are between the therapeutic approaches that improve skin symptoms and prevent permanent osteoarticular damage. This case report refers to the successful treatment of a mixed phenotype of the aforementioned symptoms using the IL-17A inhibitor secukinumab after initial treatment with adalimumab. The therapy improved both cutaneous and reported osteoarticular symptoms. Different approaches for these recalcitrant HS syndromes are essential in order to achieve long-term remission for those patients.

3.
JAMA Surg ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406349

RESUMO

Importance: Surgery is a mainstay in the management of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). Adalimumab is the first drug approved for HS. Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of adalimumab in combination with wide-excision surgery followed by secondary intention healing. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Safety and Efficacy of Adalimumab for Hidradenitis Suppurativa Peri-Surgically (SHARPS) trial was a phase 4, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of adalimumab in conjunction with surgery. Patients were enrolled in 45 sites across 20 countries from July 18, 2016, to February 2, 2019, with the last patient visit on October 16, 2019. Eligible patients (aged 18-65 years) had moderate to severe HS that required radical surgery in an axillary or inguinal region and had 2 other anatomical regions affected, with 1 or more regions at Hurley stage II or III. Analysis was conducted in November 2019. Interventions: Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive continuous adalimumab, 40 mg, or placebo during presurgery (12 weeks), perioperative (2 weeks), and postoperative (10 weeks) periods. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving HS clinical response across all body regions at week 12. Results: Overall, 103 patients were randomized to adalimumab and 103 to matching placebo. Among all patients, 51% (n = 106) were women, 94% (n = 193) were White, and the mean (SD) age was 37.6 (11.3) years. At week 12, significantly more patients receiving adalimumab (49 of 103 [48%]) vs placebo (35 of 103 [34%]; P = .049) achieved HS clinical response across all body regions (treatment difference, 14% [95% CI, 0%-27%]). Treatment-emergent adverse events were reported in 74 of 103 patients (72%) and 69 of 103 patients (67%) in the adalimumab and placebo groups, respectively. No increased risk of postoperative wound infection, complication, or hemorrhage was observed with adalimumab vs placebo. Two deaths occurred in the adalimumab group; neither was considered as having a reasonable possibility of relationship to study drug. Conclusions and Relevance: Adalimumab was efficacious in conjunction with wide-excision surgery followed by secondary intention healing, with no need to interrupt treatment prior to surgery. These data support further investigation of adalimumab as an adjuvant therapy to surgery in patients with moderate to severe HS. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02808975.

4.
JAMA Dermatol ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406364

RESUMO

Importance: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory disease with a high burden for patients and limited existing therapeutic options. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of bimekizumab, a monoclonal IgG1 antibody that selectively inhibits interleukin 17A and 17F in individuals with moderate to severe HS. Design, Setting, and Participants: This phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial with an active reference arm was performed from September 22, 2017, to February 21, 2019. The study included a 2- to 4-week screening period, a 12-week treatment period, and a 20-week safety follow-up. Of 167 participants screened at multiple centers, 90 were enrolled. Eligible participants were 18 to 70 years of age with a diagnosis of moderate to severe HS 12 months or more before baseline. Interventions: Participants with HS were randomized 2:1:1 to receive bimekizumab (640 mg at week 0, 320 mg every 2 weeks), placebo, or reference arm adalimumab (160 mg at week 0, 80 mg at week 2, and 40 mg every week for weeks 4-10). Main Outcomes and Measures: The prespecified primary efficacy variable was the proportion of participants with a 50% or greater reduction from baseline in the total abscess and inflammatory nodule count with no increase in abscess or draining fistula count (Hidradenitis Suppurativa Clinical Response [HiSCR] at week 12. Exploratory variables included proportion achieving a modified HiSCR with 75% reduction of HiSCR criteria (HiSCR75) or a modified HiSCR with 90% reduction of HiSCR criteria (HiSCR90), change in Patient's Global Assessment of Pain, and Dermatology Life Quality Index total scores. Results: Eighty-eight participants received at least 1 dose of study medication (61 [69%] female; median age, 36 years; range, 18-69 years). Seventy-nine participants completed the study, including safety follow-up. Bimekizumab demonstrated a higher HiSCR rate vs placebo at week 12 (57.3% vs 26.1%; posterior probability of superiority equaled 0.998, calculated using bayesian analysis). Bimekizumab demonstrated greater clinical improvements compared with placebo. Improvements in the International Hidradenitis Suppurativa Severity Score (IHS4) were seen at week 12 with bimekizumab (mean [SD] IHS4, 16.0 [18.0]) compared with placebo (mean [SD] IHS4, 40.2 [32.6]). More bimekizumab-treated participants achieved positive results on stringent outcome measures compared with placebo. At week 12, 46% of bimekizumab-treated participants achieved HiSCR75 and 32% achieved HiSCR90, whereas 10% of placebo-treated participants achieved HiSCR75 and none achieved HiSCR90; in adalimumab-treated participants, 35% achieved HiSCR75 and 15% achieved HiSCR90. One participant withdrew because of adverse events. Serious adverse events occurred in 2 of 46 bimekizumab-treated participants (4%), 2 of 21 placebo-treated participants (10%), and 1 of 21 adalimumab-treated participants (5%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this phase 2 randomized clinical trial, bimekizumab demonstrated clinically meaningful improvements across all outcome measures, including stringent outcomes. Bimekizumab's safety profile was consistent with studies of other indications, supporting further evaluation in participants with HS. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03248531.

5.
Hautarzt ; 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459942

RESUMO

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by several Leishmania species. It is transmitted to humans by the bite of the infected female phlebotomus sandfly. Today, more than 1 billion people in leishmaniasis endemic areas are at risk of infection. More than 1.5 million new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis occur every year. On the basis of two cases, we show that cutaneous leishmaniasis is still an imported tropical disease in Germany. However, due to the increasing intercontinental travel, cases may increase. Therefore, cutaneous leishmaniasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with nonhealing wounds, ulcers, papules or nodules and the corresponding travel history.

6.
J Dermatol Sci ; 2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acne vulgaris is a prevalent skin disease lacking effective and well-tolerated treatment. An earlier study indicated that resveratrol (RVT) has therapeutic effects in acne patients through unknown mechanisms. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of RVT on linoleic acid (LA)-induced lipogenesis and peptidoglycan (PGN)-induced inflammation in cultured SZ95 sebocytes in vitro, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: RNA-sequencing was used to analyze the whole transcriptome. Nile red staining was used to detect intracellular neutral lipids, whereas lipidomics was used to investigate changes in the lipid profile in sebocytes. Interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-6 mRNA and protein levels were assessed through quantitative real-time PCR and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Western blot was used to evaluate the expression of lipogenesis-related proteins, the inflammatory signaling pathway, and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. Further, specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to knockdown sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) expression. RESULTS: RVT inhibited the lipogenesis-related pathway and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway in SZ95 sebocytes. It also downregulated LA-induced lipogenesis, the expression of lipid-related proteins, and the contents of unsaturated fatty acids. Besides, RVT promoted SIRT1 expression and deacetylation of the NF-κB p65 subunit, thereby lowering IL-1ß and IL-6 secretion under PGN induction. Furthermore, pretreatment with AMPK inhibitor Compound C abolished RVT-mediated sebosuppressive and anti-inflammation effects. Meanwhile,SIRT1 silencing abrogated the anti-inflammatory potential of RVT. CONCLUSION: In human SZ95 sebocytes, RVT exhibits sebosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects partially through the AMPK pathway, which may justify the role of RVT treatment in acne vulgaris.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204126

RESUMO

Knowledge on hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa (HS) is rapidly increasing. HS has a profound impact on patients and their family life. Several factors, such as comorbidities, unemployment and HS severity, make this impact even more severe. The most widely used instrument to measure this impact is the dermatology-specific DLQI. We also identified six HS-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments. Of them, HIDRAdisk, HSIA, HiSQOL and HSQoL-24 are better validated but there is still lack of experience of its use. Several treatment methods showed positive effect on patients' HRQoL. Surgery remains a method with a substantial positive effect on HRQoL. Several studies confirming a positive effect of adalimumab on the HRQoL of patients with HS were published during the last three years. Data on the influence of several other biologics on HRQoL of HS patients are controversial or based on studies with a small number of patients.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Hidradenite Supurativa , Hidradenite Supurativa/epidemiologia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Projetos de Pesquisa , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Desemprego
9.
Dermatology ; : 1-9, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is an inflammatory, potentially scarring disease of the hair follicle, affecting the apocrine gland-bearing skin areas. The major comorbid disorders associated with the occurrence or the aggravation of the disease are obesity and smoking. Numerous efforts to dissociate these factors led to controversial results. OBJECTIVES: To assess the importance of metabolic disorders/obesity, smoking/environmental toxins, and inflammation in HS by utilizing the differential expression of major relevant protein markers in lesional skin of obese/smoking versus non-obese/non-smoking HS patients. METHODS: Lesional skin specimens deriving from two groups of HS patients (BMI >30 and smokers, n = 12 vs. BMI <30 and non-smokers, n = 10) were stained with antibodies raised against irisin, PPARγ, and IGF-1R, which correlate with metabolic disorders/obesity, EGFR and AhR, associated with smoking, and IL-17, IL-17R, and S100A8, as markers of inflammation. RESULTS: Metabolic disorders/obesity-related markers exhibited marked differential expression between the two groups, while smoking-associated markers a limited one. IL-17R expression was stronger in obese/smokers, and S100A8 staining exhibited intense strong immunoreactivity in both groups without significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: The notion that obesity plays a role in HS development appears to be supported by the prominent regulation of the associated lesional biomarkers. Tobacco smoking might contribute less to HS than previously suspected.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299118

RESUMO

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor expressed in all skin cell types, plays a key role in physiological and pathological processes. Several studies have shown that this receptor is involved in the prevention of inflammatory skin diseases, e.g., psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, representing a potential therapeutic target. We tested the safety profile and the biological activity of NPD-0614-13 and NPD-0614-24, two new synthetic AhR ligands structurally related to the natural agonist FICZ, known to be effective in psoriasis. NPD-0614-13 and NPD-0614-24 did not alter per se the physiological functions of the different skin cell populations involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases. In human primary keratinocytes stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-α or lipopolysaccharide the compounds were able to counteract the altered proliferation and to dampen inflammatory signaling by reducing the activation of p38MAPK, c-Jun, NF-kBp65, and the release of cytokines. Furthermore, the molecules were tested for their beneficial effects in human epidermal and full-thickness reconstituted skin models of psoriasis. NPD-0614-13 and NPD-0614-24 recovered the psoriasis skin phenotype exerting pro-differentiating activity and reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial peptides. These data provide a rationale for considering NPD-0614-13 and NPD-0614-24 in the management of psoriasis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Catecóis/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacologia , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/patologia , Ligantes , Psoríase/metabolismo , Psoríase/patologia , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia
11.
Exp Cell Res ; 405(2): 112680, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090862

RESUMO

Ferredoxin reductase (FDXR), a mitochondrial membrane-associated flavoprotein, is essential for electron transfer and modulates p53-dependent apoptosis in cancer cells.FDXR may be implicated in epidermal and sebocytic differentiation, but its explicit function in sebocytes remains to be elucidated. In the present study, immunohistochemistry revealed that FDXR expression was increased in sebaceous cells of acne lesions. FDXR, PPARγ, LXRα/ß, SREBP1 and Sox9 expression was incremental during sebocyte differentiation. FDXR overexpression induced by Ad-GFP-FDXR infection enhanced differentiation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipogenesis and PPARγ expression, and consequnently inhibited proliferation in SZ95 sebocytes. Flow cytometry showed that FDXR overexpression induced significant blockade of G2/M phase but had no effect on sub-G1 (apoptotic) sebocytes. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)-induced FDXR and PPARγ expression and lipogenesis were abolished by pretreatment with PI3K inhibitor LY294002. These results suggest that FDXR overexpression might promote differentiation and lipogenesis via ROS production and suppress proliferation via G2/S blockade in SZ95 sebocytes. IGF-1 could facilitate differentiation and lipogenesis through PI3K/Akt/FDXR pathway. FDXR could serve as a potential marker of advanced sebaceous differentiation, and its overexpression may be involved in the development of acne lesions.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ferredoxinas/farmacologia , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Respiração Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
12.
Dermatology ; : 1-8, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa (HS) is a chronic, recurrent inflammatory skin disease. Its pivotal pathogenetic event is believed to be the occlusion of the hair follicle generating a perifollicular lympho-histiocytic inflammation. However, knowledge of the exact HS pathogenesis requires further research. OBJECTIVE: To develop a human HS model applicable in preclinical research which could help to understand the pathophysiology of HS and to determine the action of therapeutic candidates. METHODS: The 3D-SeboSkin technology was applied to maintain explants of involved and uninvolved skin of HS patients ex vivo for 3 days. Detection of differential expression of previously detected HS biomarkers was performed by immunohistochemistry in a group of female patients (n = 9, mean age 37.2 ± 8.4 years). RESULTS: The application of the 3D-SeboSkin model preserved the structural integrity of lesional and perilesional HS skin ex vivo, as previously described for healthy skin. Moreover, the HS 3D-SeboSkin setting maintained the differential expression and pattern of several HS biomarkers (S100A9, KRT16, SERPINB3) in epidermal and dermal tissue and the appendages. CONCLUSION: We have validated HS 3D-SeboSkin as a reproducible, human model, which is appropriate for preclinical lesional and perilesional HS skin studies ex vivo.

13.
Exp Dermatol ; 30 Suppl 1: 8-17, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085329

RESUMO

The registration of the tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitor adalimumab in 2015 was a major step forward in the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa (HS). However, it soon became evident that the effectiveness of adalimumab in daily practice was highly variable. A significant unmet medical need of HS patients remained, and the search for novel therapeutic targets was intensified. During the 10th European Hidradenitis Suppurativa Foundation (EHSF) e.V. Conference, reknown international HS investigators virtually presented and discussed the published data on these potential target molecules for future HS treatment. This article addresses the most promising molecules currently under investigation from a pathophysiological and clinical point of view. With phase III trials ongoing, the anti- interleukin (IL)-17 biologics bimekizumab and secukinumab are in the most advanced stage of clinical development showing promising results. In addition, targeting IL-1α with bermekimab has shown encouraging results in two clinical trials. Directing treatment at neutrophil recruitment and activation by targeting IL-36 with spesolimab fits well in the pathogenic concept of HS and clinical phase II trial results are pending. In contrast to in situ evidence, Complement 5a (C5a) and C5a receptor blockade have only shown greater clinical benefit in patients with severe HS. Inhibition of Janus kinase (JAK) 1 signalling in HS showed clinical efficacy only in the highest dosage, highlighting that careful surveillance of the balance between safety and efficacy of JAK inhibition is warranted. Overall, clinical efficacies of all novel treatments reported so far are modest. To guide drug development, more and better-defined translational data on the pathogenesis of this severe and enigmatic inflammatory skin disease are required.

14.
Exp Dermatol ; 30 Suppl 1: 27-30, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085333

RESUMO

Hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa (HS) more prevalent and disproportionally affects African American females. Although there are limited studies in HS skin of colour populations in the USA, there is more scarcity of HS skin of colour studies in other countries, which limits the overall understanding of the disease among these patients. Herein, our overview of the 10th European Hidradenitis Suppurativa Foundation (EHSF) e.V. Conference provided a crude example of the limited number of skin of colour physicians, physician scientists and inclusion of skin of colour patients highlighting the need to increase awareness of this important issue. We summarized the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical picture and focused on treatment options from southeast Asia and Africa. Our outlined general recommendations for diagnosis will render better clinical care and outcomes for diverse patient populations.

15.
Exp Dermatol ; 30 Suppl 1: 18-22, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085330

RESUMO

The reported incidence of COVID-19 among cohorts of patients with inflammatory bowel and skin diseases under treatment with biologicals is low. Treatment may further modify disease severity as some biological modifiers, such as anakinra, are also proposed for the management of COVID-19 patients potentially providing HS patients with an advantage. The above preliminary evidence suggests that hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) does probably not provide an increased susceptibility for COVID-19 and that any susceptibility is unlikely to be modified negatively by treatment with biologicals. On the occasion of its 10th International Conference, experts of the European Hidradenitis Suppurativa Foundation e.V. have prepared a consensus statement regarding anti-COVID-19 measurements for HS patients. Based on the available knowledge, patients with HS may be vaccinated against SARS-CoV2 and patients affected by metabolic syndrome constitute a high-risk group for COVID-19 and should be vaccinated at the earliest convenient point in time. HS patients on treatment with adalimumab can be vaccinated with non-living virus anti-SARS-CoV2 vaccines. A possible suboptimal effect of the vaccine may be suspected but might not be expected universally. The management of the biological treatment in HS patients is at the discretion of the dermatologist / responsible physician.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Hidradenite Supurativa/complicações , Hidradenite Supurativa/tratamento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2 , Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/farmacologia , Estudos de Coortes , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Europa (Continente) , Fundações , Hidradenite Supurativa/imunologia , Humanos , Incidência , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/imunologia , Pandemias , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
JAMA Dermatol ; 157(8): 924-931, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037678

RESUMO

Importance: Hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by occlusion of hair follicles as a primary pathogenic factor. There are scarce data regarding the prevalence of HS. Objective: To estimate overall HS prevalence. Data Sources: This review and meta-regression analysis was conducted using the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) reporting guideline. The academic search included PubMed, Cochrane registry, ClinicalTrials.gov, and evidence by NHS UK and Trip databases from inception through May 2020. To analyze HS prevalence, only cross-sectional studies or baseline assessments of longitudinal cohorts using census-based surveys or probabilistic and nonprobabilistic epidemiologic methods were considered. The search terms were (prevalence OR incidence OR epidemiology) AND (hidradenitis suppurativa OR acne inversa OR Verneuil's disease). No language restriction was applied. Study Selection: Original investigations that reported HS prevalence were included. After exclusion criteria were applied, 17 studies qualified for qualitative analysis, but only 16 studies were quantitatively assessed. Data Extraction and Measures: Two reviewers extracted data by age, diagnostic criteria, presence of any comorbidity, sample sizes, continent/location, sex, and other characteristics. Assessment of bias risk used the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Instrument for Studies Reporting Prevalence Data using random-effects models to synthesize available evidence. Main Outcomes and Measures: Hidradenitis suppurativa prevalence (with 95% CI) among the overall population and among subgroups. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q statistic) and quantified (I2 statistic). Results: In 16 quantitatively assessed studies included, prevalence estimates were reported only from Western European and Scandinavian countries, the US, and Australia. Meta-analysis with random effects, after adjusting for publication bias in the prevalence estimates, revealed a 0.40% prevalence (95% CI, 0.26%-0.63%) for HS. Studies based on clinical samples revealed a higher pooled prevalence of HS (1.7%) than population-based studies (0.3%). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this systematic review and meta-regression analysis may help facilitate policy formulation, channeling funding and guiding principles for better disease diagnosis using universal valid tools and management.

17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 600017, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34025636

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) acts as a paracrine and autocrine mediator of cell proliferation and differentiation in various types of epithelial cells, such as sebocytes, which produce the lipid-rich sebum to moisturize the skin. However, sebum lipids via direct contact and by penetrating through the epidermis may have regulatory roles on epidermal and dermal cells as well. As EGF receptor (EGFR) is expressed throughout the proliferating and the lipid-producing layers of sebaceous glands (SGs) in healthy and acne-involved skin, we investigated the effect of EGF on SZ95 sebocytes and how it may alter the changes induced by palmitic acid (PA), a major sebum component with bioactive roles. We found that EGF is not only a potent stimulator of sebocyte proliferation, but also induces the secretion of interleukin (IL)6 and down-regulates the expression of genes involved in steroid and retinoid metabolism. Importantly, when applied in combination with PA, the PA-induced lipid accumulation was decreased and the cells secreted increased IL6 levels. Functional clustering of the differentially regulated genes in SZ95 sebocytes treated with EGF, PA or co-treated with EGF+PA further confirmed that EGF may be a potent inducer of hyperproliferative/inflammatory pathways (IL1 signaling), an effect being more pronounced in the presence of PA. However, while a group of inflammatory genes was up-regulated significantly in EGF+PA co-treated sebocytes, PA treatment in the absence of EGF, regulated genes only related to cell homeostasis. Meta-analysis of the gene expression profiles of whole acne tissue samples and EGF- and EGF+PA -treated SZ95 sebocytes showed that the EGF+PA co-activation of sebocytes may also have implications in disease. Altogether, our results reveal that PA-induced lipid accumulation and inflammation can be modulated by EGF in sebocytes, which also highlights the need for system biological approaches to better understand sebaceous (immuno)biology.


Assuntos
Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Ácido Palmítico/farmacologia , Glândulas Sebáceas/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Ácido Palmítico/efeitos adversos , Glândulas Sebáceas/patologia
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922983

RESUMO

Proper regulation of sebum production is important for maintaining skin homeostasis in humans. However, little is known about the role of epigenetic regulation in sebocyte lipogenesis. We investigated histone acetylation changes and their role in key lipogenic gene regulation during sebocyte lipogenesis using the human sebaceous gland cell line SZ95. Sebocyte lipogenesis is associated with a significant increase in histone acetylation. Treatment with anacardic acid (AA), a p300 histone acetyltransferase inhibitor, significantly decreased the lipid droplet number and the expression of key lipogenic genes, including sterol regulatory-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). In contrast, treatment with trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, increased the expression of these genes. Global HDAC enzyme activity was decreased, and HDAC1 and HDAC2 expression was downregulated during sebaceous lipogenesis. Interestingly, HDAC1 knockdown increased lipogenesis through SREBP1 induction, whereas HDAC1 overexpression decreased lipogenesis and significantly suppressed SREBP1 promoter activity. HDAC1 and SREBP1 levels were inversely correlated in human skin sebaceous glands as demonstrated in immunofluorescence images. In conclusion, HDAC1 plays a critical role in reducing SREBP1 transcription, leading to decreased sebaceous lipogenesis. Therefore, HDAC1 activation could be an effective therapeutic strategy for skin diseases related to excessive sebum production.


Assuntos
Histona Desacetilase 1/metabolismo , Lipogênese/fisiologia , Glândulas Sebáceas/citologia , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Linhagem Celular , Epigênese Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Histona Desacetilase 1/genética , Histona Desacetilase 2/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/farmacologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Insulina/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipogênese/genética , Receptores X do Fígado/agonistas , Glândulas Sebáceas/metabolismo , Pele/citologia , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia
19.
Dermatology ; : 1-10, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Auricular keloids belong to the most perplexing medical conditions, which have significant psychosocial impact on the patient's body image and quality of life. SUMMARY: The article is purposed to provide dermatologists and plastic surgeons with the best proven practice using intralesional cryosurgery for the treatment of the different auricular keloid types in order to obtain superior clinical results by minimizing the probability of recurrence. In the past 20 years, the authors have developed novel procedures in order to increase the effectiveness of intralesional cryosurgery on auricular keloids, including hydrodissection, warm gauze technique, and excision of dangling skin. Long-lasting clinical results with a low recurrence rate and a satisfactory aesthetic outcome are achieved with no deformation of the ear framework.

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