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1.
Liver Int ; 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825765

RESUMO

The review by Loureiro et al. [1] explores the promising opportunities that new therapies provide against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) co-infection, which affects 5% of people with chronic HBV infection worldwide. HBV-HDV co-infection is associated with a more rapid progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and a higher risk of mortality than HBV mono-infection. HDV was endemic among injecting drug users in Europe until the 1980s. The introduction of the HBV vaccine and harm reduction interventions subsequently reduced its prevalence in this population [2]. Although HDV elimination in the continent seemed feasible at the end of the 1990s, it is still present due to increasing migration from geographical areas where prevalence is high [2].

3.
J Hepatol ; 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699951

RESUMO

The entry-inhibitor Bulevirtide (BLV) received conditional approval by EMA in July 2020 for the treatment of adult patients with compensated chronic hepatitis Delta. However, the effectiveness and safety of BLV administered as monotherapy beyond 48 weeks in difficult to treat HDV cirrhotic patients is presently unknown. Here we describe the first patients with HDV-related compensated cirrhosis who were treated with BLV (10 mg/day as a starting dose) for up to three years as compassionate use. Patients were also monitored for HBcrAg and HBV-RNA levels and HDV and HBV specific T-cells markers. In the patient who stopped BLV at week 48 after achieving a virological and biochemical response, the initial virological and biochemical rebound was followed by ALT normalization coupled with low HDV-RNA and HBsAg levels. In the two patients treated continuously for 3 years, virological and biochemical responses were maintained throughout the treatment period even after dose reduction. In a patient with advanced compensated cirrhosis, liver function tests significantly improved, esophageal varices disappeared, and histological/lab features of autoimmune hepatitis resolved. Overall, no safety issues were recorded, as bile salt increase was asymptomatic. While serum HBV-RNA levels remained undetectable in all patients, HBcrAg levels showed a progressive, yet modest decline during long-term BLV-treatment. No HDV-specific Interferon-γ producing T-cells were detected, neither after HDV reactivation (after BLV withdrawn in Patient 1) nor during 3 years of BLV treatment. In conclusion, this report shows that continuous administration of BLV monotherapy for three years provides excellent virological and clinical response in HDV cirrhotic patients who had contraindications to IFN-based therapies. LAY SUMMARY: HDV-RNA levels became undetectable, and ALT normalized in all three patients treated with Bulevirtide (BLV). Virological and biochemical responses were maintained even after dose reduction.- Improvement of liver function tests, regression of esophageal varices and recovery of HDV-related autoimmune disease were documented in the male cirrhotic patient long-term treated with BLV.- An asymptomatic increase of bile acids was the only drug-related clinical adverse event.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Antiviral treatment from hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg)-positive status may attenuate the integration of hepatitis B virus DNA into the host genome causing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated the impact of HBeAg status at the onset of antiviral treatment on the risk of HCC. METHODS: The incidence of HCC was evaluated in Korean patients with chronic hepatitis B who started entecavir or tenofovir in either HBeAg-positive or HBeAg-negative phase. The results in the Korean cohort were validated in a Caucasian PAGE-B cohort. RESULTS: A total of 9143 Korean patients (mean age, 49.2 years) were included: 49.1% were HBeAg-positive and 49.2% had cirrhosis. During follow-up (median, 5.1 years), 916 patients (10.0%) developed HCC. Baseline HBeAg positivity was not associated with the risk of HCC in the entire cohort or cirrhotic subcohort. However, in the non-cirrhotic subcohort, HBeAg positivity was independently associated with a lower risk of HCC in multivariable (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.66), propensity score-matching (aHR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.28-0.76), and inverse probability weighting analyses (aHR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.28-0.70). In the Caucasian cohort (n = 719; mean age, 51.8 years; HBeAg-positive, 20.3%; cirrhosis, 34.8%), HBeAg-positivity was not associated with the risk of HCC either in the entire cohort or cirrhotic subcohort. In the non-cirrhotic subcohort, none of the HBeAg-positive group developed HCC, although the difference failed to reach statistical significance (aHR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.00-1.67). CONCLUSIONS: This multinational cohort study implies that HBeAg positivity at the onset of antiviral treatment seems to be an independent factor associated with a lower risk of HCC in patients with chronic hepatitis B without cirrhosis, but not in those with cirrhosis.

5.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 54(5): 583-605, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prophylaxis of HBV recurrence is critical after liver transplantation in HBV patients. Despite new prophylactic schemes, most European LT centres persist on a conservative approach combining hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and nucleos(t)ides analogues (NA). AIM: This setting prompted the European Liver Intestine Transplantation Association (ELITA) to look for a consensus on the prevention of HBV recurrence. METHODS: Based on a 4-round Delphi process, ELITA investigated 16 research questions and established 50 recommendations. RESULTS: Prophylaxis should be driven according to 3 simplified risk groups: Low and high virological risk patients, with undetectable and detectable HBV DNA pre-LT, respectively, and special populations (HDV, HCC, poorly adherent patients). In low-risk patients, short-term (4 weeks) combination of third-generation NA+ HBIG, or third generation NA monotherapy can be considered as prophylactic options. In high-risk patients, HBIG can be discontinued once HBV DNA undetectable. Combined therapy for 1 year is advised. HBV-HCC patients should be treated according to their virological risk. In HDV/HBV patients, indefinite dual prophylaxis remains the gold standard. Full withdrawal of HBV prophylaxis following or not HBV vaccination should only be attempted in the setting of clinical trials. Organs from HBsAg+ve donors may be considered after assessment of risks, benefits, and patient consent. They should not be used if HDV is present. In poorly adherent patients, dual long-term prophylaxis is recommended. Budget impact analysis should be taken into account to drive prophylactic regimen. CONCLUSIONS: These ELITA recommendations should stimulate a more rational and homogeneous approach to HBV prophylaxis across LT programs.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hepatite B , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Transplante de Fígado , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
JHEP Rep ; 3(4): 100298, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142073

RESUMO

Background & Aims: The Liver Cancer Risk test algorithm (LCR1-LCR2) is a multianalyte blood test combining proteins involved in liver cell repair (apolipoprotein-A1 and haptoglobin), known hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk factors (sex, age, and gamma-glutamyl transferase), a marker of fibrosis (alpha2-macroglobulin) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a specific marker of HCC. The aim was to externally validate the LCR1-LCR2 in patients with chronic HCV (CHC) treated or not with antivirals. Methods: Pre-included patients were from the Hepather cohort, a multicentre prospective study in adult patients with CHC in France. LCR1-LCR2 was assessed retrospectively in patients with the test components and AFP, available at baseline. The co-primary study outcome was the negative predictive value (NPV) of LCR1-LCR2 for the occurrence of HCC at 5 years and for survival without HCC according to the predetermined LCR1-LCR2 cut-offs. The cut-offs were adjusted for risk covariables and for the response to HCV treatment, and were quantified using time-dependent proportional hazards models. Results: In total, 4,903 patients, 1,026 (21.9%) with baseline cirrhosis, were included in the study. Patients were followed for a median of 5.7 (IQR 4.2-11.3) years. A total of 3,788/4,903 (77.3%) patients had a sustained virological response. There were 137 cases of HCC at 5 years and 214 at the end of follow-up. HCC occurred at 5 years in 24/3,755 patients with low-risk LCR1-LCR2 compared with 113/1,148 patients with high-risk LCR1-LCR2. The NPV was 99.4% (95% CI 99.1-99.6). Similar findings (hazard ratio, 10.8; 95% CI, 8.1-14.3; p <0.001) were obtained after adjustment for exposure to antivirals, age, sex, geographical origin, HCV genotype 3, alcohol consumption, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Conclusions: The results showed that LCR1-LCR2 can be used to successfully identify patients with HCV at very low risk of HCC at 5 years. Lay summary: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide and the fastest growing cause of cancer death in many countries. We constructed and internally validated a new multianalyte blood test to assess this Liver Cancer Risk (LCR1-LCR2). This study confirmed the performance of LCR1-LCR2 in patients with chronic HCV in the national French cohort Hepather, and its ability to identify patients at a very low risk of HCC at 5 years. Clinical Trials registration: The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01953458).

7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(9)2021 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065048

RESUMO

Chronic infection by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver diseases, predisposing to fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver fibrosis is characterized by an overly abundant accumulation of components of the hepatic extracellular matrix, such as collagen and elastin, with consequences on the properties of this microenvironment and cancer initiation and growth. This review will provide an update on mechanistic concepts of HCV-related liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and early stages of carcinogenesis, with a dissection of the molecular details of the crosstalk during disease progression between hepatocytes, the extracellular matrix, and hepatic stellate cells.

8.
Liver Int ; 41 Suppl 1: 15-23, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155787

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects more than 250 million people worldwide, and is one of the major aetiologies for the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In spite of universal vaccination programs, HBV infection is still a public health problem, and the limited number of available therapeutic approaches complicates the clinical management of these patients. Thus, HBV infection remains an unmet medical need that requires a continuous effort to develop new individual molecules, treatment combinations and even completely novel therapeutic strategies to achieve the goal of HBV elimination. The following review provides an overview of the current situation in chronic HBV infection, with an analysis of the scientific rationale of certain clinical interventions and, more importantly, explores the most recent developments in the field of HBV drug discovery.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hepatite B Crônica , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico
9.
J Viral Hepat ; 28(8): 1160-1168, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002910

RESUMO

More systematic analysis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome diversity, linked with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) treatment and HBeAg seroconversion, are needed. GS-US-174-0115 was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase 3, 192-week clinical trial that evaluated TDF in adolescents with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). HBV full-genome deep sequencing was performed using Illumina MiSeq at baseline (BL; n = 85), Week 8 (W8; n = 80), Week 72 (W72; PBO only, n = 42), and treatment-free follow-up (TDF only, n = 25). The viral diversity was calculated using Shannon entropy and population nucleotide diversity with a 2% variant cutoff. Our data showed (i) a higher viral diversity in the X region at baseline than the core/polymerase/surface regions, (ii) higher core/surface viral diversity at baseline for patients with seroconversion, (iii) an expected reduction in viral diversity after 8 weeks of TDF treatment, and (iv) a drop in viral diversity at W72 for patients receiving placebo with a seroconversion (n = 7). The higher viral diversity in X was associated with higher baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (p < .001). Patients with greater reduction of diversity at W8 of TDF treatment had higher baseline ALT levels. For placebo patients who seroconverted, the drop in viral diversity at W72 (p = .04) coincided with reduction of serum HBV DNA (average change from baseline = -4.10 log10 copies/ml) and unique combinations of variants were enriched in a patient's viral population post seroconversion. The basal core promoter (BCP) variants, A1762T and G1764A, and the pC variant, G1896A, were most often enriched at or after seroconversion.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B Crônica , Adolescente , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , DNA Viral/genética , Antígenos E da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral
10.
J Hepatol ; 75(3): 706-717, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051332

RESUMO

Current antiviral therapies, such as pegylated interferon-α and nucleos(t)ide analogues, effectively improve the quality of life of patients with chronic hepatitis B. However, they can only control the infection rather than curing infected hepatocytes. Complete HBV cure is hampered by the lack of therapies that can directly affect the viral minichromosome (in the form of covalently closed circular DNA [cccDNA]). Approaches currently under investigation in early clinical trials are aimed at achieving a functional cure, defined as the loss of HBsAg and undetectable HBV DNA levels in serum. However, achieving a complete HBV cure requires therapies that can directly target the cccDNA pool, either via degradation, lethal mutations or functional silencing. In this review, we discuss cutting-edge technologies that could lead to non-cytolytic direct cccDNA targeting and cure of infected hepatocytes.

11.
iScience ; 24(4): 102368, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33889830

RESUMO

The role of oncoviral genotype and co-infection driving oncogenesis remains unclear. We have developed a scalable, high throughput tool for sensitive and precise oncoviral genotype deconvolution. Using tumor RNA sequencing data, we applied it to 537 virally infected liver, cervical, and head and neck tumors, providing the first comprehensive integrative landscape of tumor-viral gene expression, viral antigen immunogenicity, patient survival, and mutational profiling organized by tumor oncoviral genotype. We find that HBV and HPV genotype and co-infection serve as significant predictors of patient survival and immune activation. Finally, we demonstrate that HPV genotype is more associated with viral oncogene expression than cancer type, implying that expression may be similar across episomal and stochastic integration-based infections. While oncoviral infections are known risk factors for oncogenesis, viral genotype and co-infection are shown to strongly associate with disease progression, patient survival, mutational signatures, and putative tumor neoantigen immunogenicity, facilitating novel clinical associations with infections.

12.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(4): e24731, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous large-scale studies have examined the effect of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection on overall and cause-specific mortality in individuals with HIV. However, few studies have collected data on the subclinical indicators of HBV that lead to these severe outcomes in the coinfected population. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aim to describe the procedures of a cohort study extension aimed at assessing HBV-DNA replication, serological markers of HBV (hepatitis B e antigen [HBeAg] and hepatitis B surface antigen), and liver fibrosis and how these subclinical outcomes relate to mortality in predominately tenofovir-treated, coinfected patients with HIV-HBV. We assessed the characteristics at cohort inclusion of those who participated in the cohort extension, as well as those who did not participate due to being lost to follow-up or death. METHODS: Patients with HIV and chronic HBV who completed follow-up in a prospective cohort study conducted in 4 outpatient centers (Paris and Lyon, France; 2002-2011) were invited to participate in a cross-sectional visit from November 2016 to March 2018, during which a comprehensive evaluation of HIV- and HBV-related disease was undertaken. Virological and clinical data since the previous study visit were retrospectively collected. RESULTS: Of the 308 individuals enrolled in the cohort, 147 (47.7%) participated in the cross-sectional study. At this visit, most participants were HBeAg negative (111/134, 82.8% with available data), had undetectable HBV DNA (124/132, 93.9% with available data), and were undergoing antiretroviral therapy containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or tenofovir alafenamide (114/147, 77.6%). There were no significant differences in characteristics at cohort inclusion between those who did and did not complete the cross-sectional visit, except for a lower proportion with an AIDS-defining illness (30/147, 20.5% vs 49/161, 30.4%, respectively; P=.04). Of the 161 nonparticipating individuals, 42 (26.1%) died, 41 (25.4%) were lost to follow-up and known to be alive, and 78 (48.4%) were lost to follow-up with unknown vital status. Most differences in characteristics at cohort inclusion were observed between deceased individuals and those participating in the cross-sectional visit or those lost to follow-up. With this extension, the median follow-up time of the overall cohort is presently 9.2 years (IQR 3.4-14.6). CONCLUSIONS: Extended follow-up of the French HIV-HBV cohort will provide important long-term data on the subclinical trajectory of HBV disease in the coinfected population. The biases due to the relatively high rate of those lost to follow-up need to be assessed in future studies of this cohort. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/24731.

13.
Microorganisms ; 9(3)2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803011

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) classification comprises up to 10 genotypes with specific geographical distribution worldwide, further subdivided into 40 subgenotypes, which have different impacts on liver disease outcome. Though extensively studied, the classification of subgenotype A sequences remains ambiguous. This study aimed to characterize HBV isolates from West African patients and propose a more advanced classification of subgenotype A. Fourteen HBV full-length genome sequences isolated from patients from The Gambia and Senegal were obtained and phylogenetically analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of HBV genotype A sequences isolated from Senegalese and Gambian patients exhibited separate clusters from the other known and confirmed subgenotypes A (A1, A2, A6). Most of the sequences (10/14) clustered with an isolate from Cuba, reported as subgenotype A4 (supported by maximal bootstrap value). Four isolates from The Gambia and Senegal clustered separately from all other subgenotypes and samples sequenced in the study. Three of which from The Gambia, designated as an expanding clade of subgenotype A4, exhibited a mean inter-subgenotypic nucleotide divergence over the entire genome sequence higher than 4% in comparison with the other subgenotypes and the other isolates sequenced in the study, except with subgenotype A4 isolates (3.9%), and this was supported by a maximal bootstrap value. The last one from Senegal seemed to be an expanding subgenotype close to the new clade of A4. Amino acid analysis unveiled a novel motif specific to these isolates. This study revealed an expanding evolution of HBV subgenotype A and novel amino acid motifs. It also highlighted the need for a consensus regarding the analysis and classification of HBV sequences.

14.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 842-851, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33870846

RESUMO

Few non-invasive models were established for precisely identifying the immune tolerant (IT) phase from chronic hepatitis B (CHB). This study aimed to develop a novel approach that combined next-generation sequencing (NGS) and machine learning algorithms using our recently published viral quasispecies (QS) analysis package. 290 HBeAg positive patients from whom liver biopsies were taken were enrolled and divided into a training group (n = 148) and a validation group (n = 142). HBV DNA was extracted and QS sequences were obtained by NGS. Hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) based on viral operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were performed to explore the correlations among QS and clinical phenotypes. Three machine learning algorithms, including K-nearest neighbour, support vector machine, and random forest algorithm, were used to construct diagnostic models for IT phase classification. Based on histopathology, 90 IT patients and 200 CHB patients were diagnosed. HBsAg titres for IT patients were higher than those of CHB patients (p < 0.001). HCA and PCA analysis grouped IT and CHB patients into two distinct clusters. The relative abundance of viral OTUs differed mainly within the BCP/precore/core region and was significantly correlated with liver inflammation and fibrosis. For the IT phase classification, all machine-learning models showed higher AUC values compared to models based on HBsAg, APRI, and FIB-4. The relative abundance of viral OTUs reflects the severity of liver inflammation and fibrosis. The novel QS quantitative analysis approach could be used to diagnose IT patients more precisely and reduce the need for liver biopsy.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , Quase-Espécies , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Aprendizado Profundo , Feminino , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
15.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol ; 45(5): 101713, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The factors predicting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurrence in chronic hepatitis B need to be precisely known to improve its detection. We identified pathways and individual predictive factors associated with HCC in the ANRS CO22 HEPATHER cohort. METHODS: The study analyzed HBV-infected patients recruited at 32 French expert hepatology centers from August 6, 2012, to December 31, 2015. We excluded patients with chronic HCV, HDV and a history of HCC, decompensated cirrhosis or liver transplantation. Structural equation models were developed to characterize the causal pathways leading to HCC occurrence. The association between clinical characteristics (age, gender, body-mass index, liver fibrosis, alcohol consumption, smoking status, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, alpha-fetoprotein, HBV DNA levels, antiviral therapy) and incident HCC was quantified. RESULTS: Among the 4489 patients included, 33 patients reported incident HCC. The median follow-up was 45.5 months. Age (ß = 0.18 by decade, 95% CI 0.14-0.23), male gender (ß = 0.23, 95% CI 0.18-0.29), metabolic syndrome (ß = 0.28, 95% CI 0.22-0.33), alcohol consumption (ß = 0.09, 95% CI 0.05-0.14) and HBV DNA (ß = 0.25, 95% CI 0.170.34) had a significant and direct effect on the occurrence of advanced liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis (ß = 0.71, 95% CI 0.55-0.87) predicted, in turn, the occurrence of HCC. CONCLUSIONS: Liver fibrosis mediates the effects of age, gender, alcohol, metabolic syndrome and HBV DNA on the occurrence of HCC. Elderly men with chronic hepatitis B, risky alcohol use, advanced liver fibrosis, metabolic syndrome and high HBV DNA levels should be monitored closely to detect the development of HCC.

18.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 14(5): 581-592, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608313

RESUMO

To assess the impact of HCV eradication on the outcomes of cirrhotic patients treated curatively for incidental hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) detected during surveillance program. Data were collected on 1,323 French patients with compensated biopsy-proven HCV cirrhosis recruited in 35 centers (ANRS CO12 CirVir cohort). Sustained virologic responses (SVR) and the occurrence of HCC were recorded prospectively. During a median follow-up of 68.3 months, 218 patients developed HCC, 126 of whom underwent a curative procedure as first-line therapy (ablation = 95, resection = 31). The HCC BCLC stage was 0/A in 97.5% of patients; 74 (58.7%) never achieved SVR. During a median follow-up of 26.0 months after HCC treatment, 59 (46.8%) experienced HCC recurrence. SVR was not associated with a recurrence, whether considering final SVR status [HR = 0.77; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.43-1.39; P = 0.39] or its time to achievement (prior to/after HCC occurrence; global P = 0.28). During the same timeframe, 46 patients with HCC (36.5%) died (liver failure: 41.9%, HCC progression: 37.2%, extrahepatic causes: 20.9%). Under multivariate analysis, SVR was associated with improved survival [HR = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.08-0.52; P = 0.001]. Survival benefit was explained by a lower incidence of liver decompensation and higher rates of sequential HCC re-treatment. Direct antiviral intake was not associated with a higher risk of HCC recurrence, but with improved survival (HR = 0.23; 95% CI, 0.06-0.83; P = 0.024). HCV eradication in primary or secondary prevention optimizes HCC management through preservation of liver function and improves survival, whatever the regimen. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: Liver failure is a competing risk of death in patients with HCC eligible for curative procedures. HCV eradication does not decrease risk of HCC recurrence in the first two years, but enables sequential curative HCC treatments through preservation of liver function. Direct-acting antiviral agent intake is not associated with HCC recurrence and improves survival.

19.
Transpl Int ; 34(3): 535-545, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449394

RESUMO

Prognostic models of liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mainly derive from LT cohorts with numerous hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. The AFP model, which is currently used in France to select LT candidates, was derived from a cohort of LT performed between 1988 and 2001, including a majority of HCV-positive recipients. The emergence of new direct-acting antiviral therapies and subsequent decrease of HCV incidence may change the generalizability of such models. We performed an external validation of the AFP model in a cohort of recipients transplanted between 2005 and 2018. Although multivariable analysis identified all three model's factors (AFP level, largest tumor size, number of nodules) as predictors of tumor recurrence, the AFP model showed poor discrimination and calibration in the present cohort. This poor performance could be related to significant differences between the derivation and the present cohort in terms of etiology, severity of underlying liver disease, tumor burden and differentiation, and use of neoadjuvant treatments. The present findings suggest that the decline of HCV-induced HCC among LT candidates may compromise the generalizability of the AFP model in more recent LT cohorts. Further studies are required for updating or building more robust prognostic models.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hepatite C Crônica , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Transplante de Fígado , Antivirais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , França , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , alfa-Fetoproteínas
20.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 53(6): 733-744, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An accurate, single-point differential diagnosis between HBeAg-negative infection (ENI) and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is an unmet need. AIMS: To assess the diagnostic value of the new hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) assay. METHODS: A retrospective anonymised data analysis was performed in a multicentre European (nine centres and six countries) cohort of 1582 consecutive HBsAg-positive/HBeAg-negative subjects classified according to EASL guidelines as: 550-CHB, 710-ENI and 322-GZ (grey-zone, HBV-DNA <20 000 IU/mL). RESULTS: Mean age was 44 (±13.2 y), 59% were men; HBV genotypes were 15% A, 2% B, 2% C, 45% D, 9% E, 1% F and 26% unknown. Median HBV-DNA serum levels were 2.2 (1.5-2.7), 3.5 (3.2-3.8) and 5.6 (4.8-6.6) logIU/mL in ENI, GZ and CHB, P < 0.0001. HBsAg serum levels (HBsAgsl) were comparable in CHB and GZ, but lower in ENI (2.9 [2.1-3.6] logIU/mL), P < 0.0001. HBcrAg serum levels (HBcrAgsl) were <3 logU/mL in 90.7% (644/710) ENI, 75.2% (242/322) GZ and 4.7% (26/550) CHB (P < 0.0001). Median HBcrAgsl were 4.8 (3.9-5.7), 2.5 (2.0-2.9) and 2.0 (2.0-2.5) logU/mL in CHB, GZ and ENI, (P < 0.0001). ROC-AUCs for HBcrAg and HBsAg were 0.968 (95% CI, 0.958-0.977) and 0.732 (95% CI, 0.704-0.760) respectively. The optimal HBcrAgsl cut-off to distinguish CHB from ENI was 3.14 logU/mL (95% CI, 3.02-3.25, 91% SE, 93% SP and 92.4% DA). HBcrAgsl were associated with HBV genotypes (P < 0.001, one-way ANOVA) but using genotype-specific cut-offs, HBcrAg DA remained unchanged with overlapping 95% CI. CONCLUSION: The HBcrAg assay showed high diagnostic performance in the accurate single-point identification of patients with HBeAg-negative CHB, independently of HBV genotype. This should prompt future prospective studies to confirm its diagnostic role in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Antígenos E da Hepatite B , Hepatite B Crônica , Adulto , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
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