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1.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244894, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471818

RESUMO

Hopliancistrus is an Ancistrini genus diagnosed by having few and very strong cheek odontodes on interopercular area, and a patch of strong and stiff odontodes on the antero-lateral border of the snout. The type species is herein redescribed based on types and recently collected specimens. In addition, four new congeneric species are described based on specimens collected in other parts of the Rio Xingu and Rio Tapajós basins. Hopliancistrus tricornis is distributed in the lower Rio Tapajós and is diagnosed by the possession of four branched anal-fin rays and relatively large white to yellow spots on trunk and pectoral and pelvic fins, and dark brown spots on dorsal, caudal and anal fins. Hopliancistrus munduruku is described based on specimens from Rio Jamanxim (Rio Tapajós basin) and Rio Curuá (Rio Xingu basin) and is diagnosed by the possession of five branched anal-fin rays and large yellow blotches on trunk and dark brown to black spots over the fins. Hopliancistrus wolverine is distributed in the rapids of the lower and middle Rio Xingu and is diagnosed by the possession of five branched anal-fin rays and conspicuous small yellow dots on head, trunk and fins. Hopliancistrus xikrin is distributed in medium- to small-sized tributaries of the lower portion of Rio Xingu basin, and is diagnosed by absence of contact between the transverse process of the first dorsal-fin pterygiophore and the transverse process of the second pterygiophore. Hopliancistrus xavante is distributed in the tributaries of upper Rio Xingu basin, and is diagnosed by having a thick skin covering the nuchal plate; by having large white spots on trunk and fins; and by the possession of five branched anal-fin rays. An osteological description and a key for species identification are also provided.

2.
Zootaxa ; 4859(2): zootaxa.4859.2.6, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056200

RESUMO

A new species of Hyphessobrycon Durbin from the Paraná do Urariá system in Central Amazon region, Amazonas state, Brazil, is described. The new species is allocated into the Hyphessobrycon heterorhabdus species-group due to its color pattern, composed by a well-defined, horizontally elongated humeral blotch continuous with a conspicuous midlateral dark stripe that becomes blurred towards the caudal peduncle, and can be distinguished from all other species of the group by possessing humeral blotch and continuous midlateral stripe broad, occupying vertical height equivalent of two scale rows. A tricolored pattern composed dorsally by a red or reddish longitudinal stripe, a middle iridescent, golden or silvery longitudinal stripe, and ventrally by a variably-developed longitudinal dark stripe is identified as a putative additional character shared by the species of the Hyphessobrycon heterorhabdus species-group. The presence of bony hooks in all fins in mature males of some species of the Hyphessobrycon heterorhabdus species-group is also discussed.


Assuntos
Characidae , Caraciformes , Nadadeiras de Animais , Animais , Brasil , Masculino
3.
Science ; 370(6512): 117-121, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004520

RESUMO

Conservation initiatives overwhelmingly focus on terrestrial biodiversity, and little is known about the freshwater cobenefits of terrestrial conservation actions. We sampled more than 1500 terrestrial and freshwater species in the Amazon and simulated conservation for species from both realms. Prioritizations based on terrestrial species yielded on average just 22% of the freshwater benefits achieved through freshwater-focused conservation. However, by using integrated cross-realm planning, freshwater benefits could be increased by up to 600% for a 1% reduction in terrestrial benefits. Where freshwater biodiversity data are unavailable but aquatic connectivity is accounted for, freshwater benefits could still be doubled for negligible losses of terrestrial coverage. Conservation actions are urgently needed to improve the status of freshwater species globally. Our results suggest that such gains can be achieved without compromising terrestrial conservation goals.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Rios , Animais , Biodiversidade , Brasil
4.
Glob Chang Biol ; 26(10): 5509-5523, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785968

RESUMO

Upstream range shifts of freshwater fishes have been documented in recent years due to ongoing climate change. River fragmentation by dams, presenting physical barriers, can limit the climatically induced spatial redistribution of fishes. Andean freshwater ecosystems in the Neotropical region are expected to be highly affected by these future disturbances. However, proper evaluations are still missing. Combining species distribution models and functional traits of Andean Amazon fishes, coupled with dam locations and climatic projections (2070s), we (a) evaluated the potential impacts of future climate on species ranges, (b) investigated the combined impact of river fragmentation and climate change and (c) tested the relationships between these impacts and species functional traits. Results show that climate change will induce range contraction for most of the Andean Amazon fish species, particularly those inhabiting highlands. Dams are not predicted to greatly limit future range shifts for most species (i.e., the Barrier effect). However, some of these barriers should prevent upstream shifts for a considerable number of species, reducing future potential diversity in some basins. River fragmentation is predicted to act jointly with climate change in promoting a considerable decrease in the probability of species to persist in the long-term because of splitting species ranges in smaller fragments (i.e., the Isolation effect). Benthic and fast-flowing water adapted species with hydrodynamic bodies are significantly associated with severe range contractions from climate change.

5.
J Fish Biol ; 97(4): 1072-1086, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672364

RESUMO

Aspidoras azaghal n. sp. was discovered during a multitaxonomic scientific expedition to the remote Amazon Terra do Meio region in tributaries to the rio Xingu basin, Pará, Brazil. The new species can be promptly distinguished from its congeners by the following combination of features: (a) absence of the first dorsal-fin element; (b) parieto-supraoccipital fontanel located medially on bone; (c) absence of a longitudinal dark-brown or black stripe along flank midline; (d) ventral surface of trunk covered by clearly smaller, irregular and/or roundish platelets; (e) inner laminar expansion of infraorbital 1 well developed; (f) relatively wide frontal bone, with width equal to half of entire length; (g) absence of a thick, longitudinal conspicuous dark-brown stripe along dorsal portion of flank; and (h) poorly developed serrations on posterior margin of the pectoral-fin spine. Besides morphological evidence, the molecular analyses indicated significant differences between the new species and its congeners, with A. albater and A. raimundi as its closest species, showing 6.53% of genetic differentiation in both cases. The intraspecific molecular data revealed gene flow (peer fixation index, FST = 0.05249, P > 0.05, for the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) marker and FST = -0.01466, P > 0.05, for the control region) between specimens upstream and downstream from a 30-m height waterfall at the type-locality, which therefore represent a single population. Furthermore, it was possible to observe a unidirectional gene flow pattern, with genetic diversity increasing in the downstream direction.

6.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 96, 2020 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193422

RESUMO

The Amazon Basin is an unquestionable biodiversity hotspot, containing the highest freshwater biodiversity on earth and facing off a recent increase in anthropogenic threats. The current knowledge on the spatial distribution of the freshwater fish species is greatly deficient in this basin, preventing a comprehensive understanding of this hyper-diverse ecosystem as a whole. Filling this gap was the priority of a transnational collaborative project, i.e. the AmazonFish project - https://www.amazon-fish.com/. Relying on the outputs of this project, we provide the most complete fish species distribution records covering the whole Amazon drainage. The database, including 2,406 validated freshwater native fish species, 232,936 georeferenced records, results from an extensive survey of species distribution including 590 different sources (e.g. published articles, grey literature, online biodiversity databases and scientific collections from museums and universities worldwide) and field expeditions conducted during the project. This database, delivered at both georeferenced localities (21,500 localities) and sub-drainages grains (144 units), represents a highly valuable source of information for further studies on freshwater fish biodiversity, biogeography and conservation.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Peixes , Animais , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Água Doce , Rios , América do Sul
7.
Conserv Biol ; 34(4): 956-965, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990088

RESUMO

Conserving freshwater habitats and their biodiversity in the Amazon Basin is a growing challenge in the face of rapid anthropogenic changes. We used the most comprehensive fish-occurrence database available (2355 valid species; 21,248 sampling points) and 3 ecological criteria (irreplaceability, representativeness, and vulnerability) to identify biodiversity hotspots based on 6 conservation templates (3 proactive, 1 reactive, 1 representative, and 1 balanced) to provide a set of alternative planning solutions for freshwater fish protection in the Amazon Basin. We identified empirically for each template the 17% of sub-basins that should be conserved and performed a prioritization analysis by identifying current and future (2050) threats (i.e., degree of deforestation and habitat fragmentation by dams). Two of our 3 proactive templates had around 65% of their surface covered by protected areas; high levels of irreplaceability (60% of endemics) and representativeness (71% of the Amazonian fish fauna); and low current and future vulnerability. These 2 templates, then, seemed more robust for conservation prioritization. The future of the selected sub-basins in these 2 proactive templates is not immediately threatened by human activities, and these sub-basins host the largest part of Amazonian biodiversity. They could easily be conserved if no additional threats occur between now and 2050.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Peixes , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Água Doce , Humanos
8.
J Fish Biol ; 96(1): 243-250, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755109

RESUMO

An expedition to the middle Rio Purus basin uncovered a remarkable new species of the genus Spinipterus. The new species has a very distinct and conspicuous colour pattern resembling a jaguar and it is almost four times larger than Spinipterus acsi, a small specimen (32 mm LS ) from Caño Santa Rita, a right bank tributary of Río Nanay in Peru and a second specimen was reported from Rio Juruá, Amazonas State, Brazil. Although the new species is more similar in size and colour pattern to Liosomadoras, it shares the synapomorphies for Spinipterus. The new species differs from the congener by the following characters: (a) colour pattern with large black rosette-like spots over a light yellow to brown background (v. brown background with small dark blotches over the body); (b) adult body size reaching 104.5 mm LS (v. maximum known size 37.1 mm LS ); (c) posterior process of cleithrum short, never reaching vertical through the dorsal-fin origin (v. posterior process long, surpassing vertical through the dorsal-fin origin); (d) seven soft pectoral-fin rays (v. six); (e) caudal fin truncated (v. caudal fin rounded).


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal , Peixes-Gato/anatomia & histologia , Peixes-Gato/classificação , Classificação , Animais , Brasil , Cor , Peru , Caracteres Sexuais
9.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 18(2): e190093, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1135375

RESUMO

Several organisms match their skin color to the prevalent background color, granting crypsis against predators. The rate at which body color changes occur varies among organisms as a result of physiological constraints and adaptation to variation in contrasts between objects and the environmental background. Faster darkening of body color is favored in environments that show higher amounts of contrast between common objects and the prevailing background. Soil types in Amazon forest streams (igarapés) create distinct environments with respect to the amount of contrast, a result of the amount of sand and clay, which offers different contrasts against dead leaves. Here, we investigated differences in the rates of color change among populations of the sailfin tetra (Crenuchus spilurus) that represent lineages that live in regions of different soil types. Populations inserted into blackwaters (sandy soil) showed higher rates of color darkening in response to exposure to a dark environment composed by dead leaves. We propose that natural selection stemming from predation can favor faster color change rate in environments where there is higher variability of contrasts between leaf litter and soil, which is common in most blackwater streams.(AU)


Diversos organismos combinam sua coloração corporal com a cor de fundo predominante no ambiente, conferindo cripticidade contra predadores. A taxa na qual as mudanças de coloração corpórea ocorrem varia entre os organismos como resultado de restrições fisiológicas e adaptação à variação de contrastes entre objetos e o ambiente. O escurecimento mais rápido da cor do corpo é favorecido em ambientes que mostram maiores quantidades de contraste entre objetos comuns e o fundo predominante. Tipos de solo em igarapés da floresta amazônica criam ambientes distintos em relação à quantidade de contraste, resultado da quantidade de areia e argila, que oferece diferentes contrastes contra folhiço submerso. Nós investigamos as diferenças nas taxas de mudança de cor entre populações do tetra-colibri Crenuchus spilurus que representam linhagens que vivem em regiões de diferentes tipos de solo. Populações inseridas em águas pretas (solo arenoso) apresentaram maiores taxas de escurecimento da cor em resposta à exposição ao ambiente escuro de folhiço submerso. Nós propomos que a seleção natural decorrente da predação pode favorecer uma taxa de mudança de cor mais rápida em ambientes onde há maior variabilidade de contrastes entre o folhiço submerso e o solo, o que é comum na maioria dos igarapés de águas pretas.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Seleção Genética , Solo , Adaptação , Characidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Characidae/fisiologia
10.
Zookeys ; 881: 53-89, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662611

RESUMO

This study presents an extensive review of published and unpublished occurrence records of fish species in the Rio Negro drainage system within the Brazilian territory. The data was gathered from two main sources: 1) litterature compilations of species occurrence records, including original descriptions and revisionary studies; and 2) specimens verification at the INPA fish collection. The results reveal a rich and diversified ichthyofauna, with 1,165 species distributed in 17 orders (+ two incertae sedis), 56 families, and 389 genera. A large portion of the fish fauna (54.3% of the species) is composed of small-sized fishes < 10 cm in standard length. The main groups are Characiformes (454 species; 39.0%), Siluriformes (416; 35.7%), Gymnotiformes (105; 9.0%), and Cichliformes (102; 8.8%). The species composition differs between the main aquatic environments, such as: main channel (159 species), lakes (296), tributary rivers (596), small streams (234), seasonal beaches (186), and rapids (41). Part of the ichthyofauna is shared with adjacent basins, such as the Orinoco, rivers of the Guiana Shield, lower Solimões/Amazonas and upper Amazonas, which contributes to the remarkable ichthyofaunal diversity of the basin. A high rate of species endemism was observed in Characidae (24), Loricariidae (18), Cichlidae (18) and Callichthyidae (18), totalling 156 species (13.4%) endemic to the basin. An estimation of the species richness for the Rio Negro basin, considering 23 published references, resulted in 1,466 and 1,759 species (Jackknife 1 and 2, respectively), which seems reasonable when considering the large number of morphotypes left out of the present list and the low sampling effort in many areas of the basin. The results presented herein provide an additional tool for environmental managers and decision makers for conservation purposes of one of the richest and most well-preserved sub-basins of the Rio Amazonas system.

11.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223880, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622395

RESUMO

Longitudinal-zonation hypotheses generally predict gradual changes in fish composition from upstream to downstream due to changes in habitat conditions, but largely disregard downstream effects on upstream segments. Floodplains of large rivers represent areas of high connectivity during flood periods and can act as stable refuges in dry seasons, which may attenuate deterministic constraints imposed by local conditions on fish assemblages in surrounding habitats. In this study, we investigated the effects of proximity to large rivers on taxonomic- and functional-diversity patterns of stream-fish assemblages in an extensive region of Central Amazonia. We sampled 31 headwater-stream reaches in nine catchments in the Purus and Madeira Rivers interfluve between December 2014 and March 2015. Ninety seven fish species from seven orders and 19 families were captured. The results indicate that distance to large rivers is more important than distance among sites and local conditions in explaining functional and taxonomic diversity of stream-fish assemblages at large spatial scales. We also found a decrease in taxonomic and functional richness towards headwaters, mainly related to the loss of benthic and sedentary species along the distance gradient. These species may be favored by the proximity to refuge areas and high resource availability near the floodplain. In contrast, upstream assemblages were mainly occupied by small-sized, nektonic species with higher dispersal capacity, highly dependent of allochthonous resources. Downstream effects could be detected for many kilometers upstream in hydrographic catchments and this reinforces the crucial role of connectivity between fluvial habitats in maintenance of stream-fish diversity patterns in the region.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Peixes/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Rios , Estações do Ano
12.
Sci Adv ; 5(9): eaav8681, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535018

RESUMO

Using the most comprehensive fish occurrence database, we evaluated the importance of ecological and historical drivers in diversity patterns of subdrainage basins across the Amazon system. Linear models reveal the influence of climatic conditions, habitat size and sub-basin isolation on species diversity. Unexpectedly, the species richness model also highlighted a negative upriver-downriver gradient, contrary to predictions of increasing richness at more downriver locations along fluvial gradients. This reverse gradient may be linked to the history of the Amazon drainage network, which, after isolation as western and eastern basins throughout the Miocene, only began flowing eastward 1-9 million years (Ma) ago. Our results suggest that the main center of fish diversity was located westward, with fish dispersal progressing eastward after the basins were united and the Amazon River assumed its modern course toward the Atlantic. This dispersal process seems not yet achieved, suggesting a recent formation of the current Amazon system.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Meio Ambiente , Peixes/classificação , Peixes/fisiologia , Animais , Rios , América do Sul , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4000, 2019 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506444

RESUMO

Is there only one electric eel species? For two and a half centuries since its description by Linnaeus, Electrophorus electricus has captivated humankind by its capacity to generate strong electric discharges. Despite the importance of Electrophorus in multiple fields of science, the possibility of additional species-level diversity in the genus, which could also reveal a hidden variety of substances and bioelectrogenic functions, has hitherto not been explored. Here, based on overwhelming patterns of genetic, morphological, and ecological data, we reject the hypothesis of a single species broadly distributed throughout Greater Amazonia. Our analyses readily identify three major lineages that diverged during the Miocene and Pliocene-two of which warrant recognition as new species. For one of the new species, we recorded a discharge of 860 V, well above 650 V previously cited for Electrophorus, making it the strongest living bioelectricity generator.


Assuntos
Órgão Elétrico/fisiologia , Electrophorus/classificação , Electrophorus/fisiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Electrophorus/anatomia & histologia , Electrophorus/genética , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Filogenia , América do Sul , Especificidade da Espécie
14.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222880, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560725

RESUMO

In the absence of constraints, preference for larger mates is expected to evolve, as larger individuals are typical of higher potential fitness. Large females are often more fecund and carry larger eggs (which result in higher number and better quality of offspring), whereas large males usually have more conspicuous ornaments and are better at defending resources. However, intrasexual competition can constrain the access to larger partners, especially when opportunities for mate takeover abound. Here we investigate the relationship between individual's size and mate choice in relation to one's own size and their respective mate's size using the sailfin tetra, a sexually dimorphic Amazonian fish species. We show that ornaments of larger males are exponentially more conspicuous, and larger females are more fecund and carry larger eggs. Contrary to expectation, neither males nor females associated for longer with the larger of two offered potential mates. Instead, individuals of both genders chose opposite-sex individuals of similar sizes to themselves. Additionally, similar-sized pairs were more likely to spawn than couples with higher size asymmetries. Grounded on field observations, we propose that prudent choice should be particularly important in this system, since courtship is long (often taking several days), which offers opportunities for mate takeover. Intrasexual competition, however, cannot readily explain female choice for similar-sized males. We thus suggest that such preference might be best explained by avoidance of filial cannibalism.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/fisiologia , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Preferência de Acasalamento Animal/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Brasil , Canibalismo , Comportamento Competitivo , Corte , Feminino , Masculino , Rios , Fatores Sexuais
15.
Acta amaz ; 49(3): 213-220, jul. - set. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119047

RESUMO

Sexual dimorfism refers to morphological differences between males and females of a species. It may be a result of different selection pressures acting on either or both sexes and may occur in any sexually-reproducing dioecious species, including fishes. We analyzed 63 females and 63 adult males of Gymnorhamphichthys rondoni (Gymnotiformes) collected by us or deposited in museum collections. Sex was identified through abdominal dissection. We measured length from snout to posterior end of anal-fin, anal-fin length, distance from anus to anal-fin origin, distance from genital papilla to anal-fin origin, body width at beginning of anal-fin, and head length. Morphometric data submitted to a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) grouped males and females according to variables related to body size (along the first component) and to head length and body height along the second and third components. Females were larger than males, whereas males had proportionally larger heads and higher bodies than females. The urogenital papilla of males and females showed differences in shape, size and relative position on the body. The female papilla was elongated horizontally, larger than that of males, and was located on a vertical line below the eye, while the papilla of the males was vertically elongated and located on a vertical line below the operculum. To our knowledge, this is the first recorded case of sexual dimorphism in a species of Rhamphichthyidae, a condition that is now known in all the currently recognized families of Gymnotiformes. (AU)


Assuntos
Peixe Elétrico , Caracteres Sexuais , Gimnotiformes , Cabeça
16.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211869, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794558

RESUMO

Habitat selection and extension of the area used by a given species may vary during different phases of its life and are often determined by the distribution and availability of resources throughout the landscape, such as food, breeding sites, and shelters. In this study, we assessed the influence of body size on the areas used by 21 individuals of the yellow-footed tortoises (Chelonoidis denticulatus) from January to June 2017 in a dense rain forest area in Central Amazonia. We also investigated whether individuals selected different ranges of terrain slope, elevation, areas with high food availability, or areas with treefall gaps that could be used for shelter or thermoregulation. We monitored tortoise movements using thread-bobbins, and sampled terrain characteristics, availability of potential food resources and forest gaps along the routes used by the tortoises. We also measured the same variables in plots distributed systematically throughout the study area to evaluate resource availability. Tortoises used an average area of 1.56 ha (SD = 1.51, min = 0.03, max = 6.44). The size of the area used was positively associated with the individual body size, but did not vary between sexes. Small individuals selected higher and flatter areas where the availability of fallen flowers was higher, whereas the area used by larger individuals did not differ from the natural availability of topographic traits and food in the region. Although tortoises did not select areas according to availability of tree-fall gaps, most larger tortoises were found sheltered under fallen trees (85%). Conversely, small individuals were mainly found hidden under litter (66%). Body size determined the patterns of landscape use by tortoises; larger individuals were mainly generalists, but small individuals occupied high and flat areas. The yellow-footed tortoise is endangered by hunting, illegal collection for the pet trade, habitat destruction and effects of climate change. Size-related differences in habitat selection should be taken into account in species-distribution models for the identification of suitable areas for reintroduction and the development of management plans in protected areas.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Tartarugas/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Alimentos , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 17(4): e190041, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1056804

RESUMO

A new species of Paralithoxus is described from the Ajarani River, a small tributary of the Branco River basin, Roraima State, Brazilian Amazon. The genus Paralithoxus comprises species described from the Essequibo drainage in Guyana, Approuague and Maroni in French Guiana, Suriname River in Surinam, and more recently, from Jari and Amapá rivers, in Brazil. Despite occurring in a rock-bottomed fast-flowing stream as the other species of Paralithoxus, this is the first species of the genus collected at 900 m altitude, in the Serra da Mocidade highlands, an isolated and poorly accessible small mountain chain at the southern border of the Guiana Shield. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by having truncate teeth, color pattern with green spots on dark olive-brown background, alternating dark and light blotches on fins and by the pelvic fin being as long as or longer than the pectoral fin. Sex dimorphism of the species is described. Comments on morphology and osteology are provided and compared with congeners.(AU)


Uma nova espécie de Paralithoxus é descrita do rio Ajarani, um pequeno tributário da bacia do rio Branco, Estado de Roraima, Amazônia Brasileira. O gênero Paralithoxus é composto por espécies descritas para as drenagens do Essequibo na Guiana, Approuague e Maroni na Guiana Francesa, rio Suriname no Suriname, e mais recentemente, para os rios Jari e Amapá, no Brasil. Apesar de ocorrer em pequenos riachos com fundo rochoso e correnteza forte como o restante dos representantes de Paralithoxus, esta é a primeira espécie do gênero coletada a 900 m de altitude, na Serra da Mocidade, uma pequena cadeia de montanhas localizada em uma área isolada e de difícil acesso na porção sul do Escudo das Guianas. A nova espécie distingue-se de suas congêneres pela presença de dentes truncados, pelo padrão de coloração com manchas verde claras sobre fundo oliva-marrom escuro, alternando manchas claras e escuras nas nadadeiras e pelo comprimento relativo da nadadeira pélvica igual ou maior que o comprimento da nadadeira peitoral. O dimorfismo sexual da espécie é descrito. Comentários sobre a morfologia e osteologia da espécie são feitos e comparados com suas congêneres.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Peixes-Gato/classificação , Osteologia/classificação
18.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0204114, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30231064

RESUMO

Several hypotheses are used to explain species richness patterns. Some of them (e.g. species-area, species-energy, environment-energy, water-energy, terrestrial primary productivity, environmental spatial heterogeneity, and climatic heterogeneity) are known to explain species richness patterns of terrestrial organisms, especially when they are combined. For aquatic organisms, however, it is unclear if these hypotheses can be useful to explain for these purposes. Therefore, we used a selection model approach to assess the predictive capacity of such hypotheses, and to determine which of them (combined or not) would be the most appropriate to explain the fish species distribution in small Brazilian streams. We perform the Akaike's information criteria for models selections and the eigenvector analysis to control the special autocorrelation. The spatial structure was equal to 0.453, Moran's I, and require 11 spatial filters. All models were significant and had adjustments ranging from 0.370 to 0.416 with strong spatial component (ranging from 0.226 to 0.369) and low adjustments for environmental data (ranging from 0.001 to 0.119) We obtained two groups of hypothesis are able to explain the richness pattern (1) water-energy, temporal productivity-heterogeneity (AIC = 4498.800) and (2) water-energy, temporal productivity-heterogeneity and area (AIC = 4500.400). We conclude that the fish richness patterns in small Brazilian streams are better explained by a combination of Water-Energy + Productivity + Temporal Heterogeneity hypotheses and not by just one.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Peixes/fisiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Rios , Clima Tropical , Animais , Brasil , Geografia , Análise de Regressão , Especificidade da Espécie , Estatística como Assunto
19.
Front Genet ; 9: 295, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30154824

RESUMO

Rapids and waterfalls, and their associated fauna and flora are in peril. With the construction of each new hydroelectric dam, more rapids and waterfalls are destroyed, leading to the disappearance of associated fauna and flora. Areas of rapids harbor distinct, highly endemic rheophilic fauna and flora adapted to an extreme environment. Rheophilic habitats also have disjunct distribution both within and across rivers. Rheophilic habitats thus represent islands of suitable habitat separated by stretches of unsuitable habitat. In this study, we investigated to what extent, if any, species of cichlid and anostomid fishes associated with rheophilic habitats were structured among the rapids of Araguaia River in the Brazilian Amazon. We tested both for population structuring as well as non-random distribution of lineages among rapids. Eight of the nine species had multiple lineages, five of these nine species were structured, and three of the eight species with multiple lineages showed non-random distribution of lineages among rapids. These results demonstrate that in addition to high levels of endemicism of rheophilic fishes, different rapids even within the same river are occupied by different lineages. Rheophilic species and communities occupying different rapids are, therefore, not interchangeable, and this realization must be taken into account when proposing mitigatory/compensatory measures in hydroelectric projects, and in conservation planning.

20.
Ecography ; 41(1): 219-232, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29910537

RESUMO

Agricultural land use is a primary driver of environmental impacts on streams. However, the causal processes that shape these impacts operate through multiple pathways and at several spatial scales. This complexity undermines the development of more effective management approaches, and illustrates the need for more in-depth studies to assess the mechanisms that determine changes in stream biodiversity. Here we present results of the most comprehensive multi-scale assessment of the biological condition of streams in the Amazon to date, examining functional responses of fish assemblages to land use. We sampled fish assemblages from two large human-modified regions, and characterized stream conditions by physical habitat attributes and key landscape-change variables, including density of road crossings (i.e. riverscape fragmentation), deforestation, and agricultural intensification. Fish species were functionally characterized using ecomorphological traits describing feeding, locomotion, and habitat preferences, and these traits were used to derive indices that quantitatively describe the functional structure of the assemblages. Using structural equation modeling, we disentangled multiple drivers operating at different spatial scales, identifying causal pathways that significantly affect stream condition and the structure of the fish assemblages. Deforestation at catchment and riparian network scales altered the channel morphology and the stream bottom structure, changing the functional identity of assemblages. Local deforestation reduced the functional evenness of assemblages (i.e. increased dominance of specific trait combinations) mediated by expansion of aquatic vegetation cover. Riverscape fragmentation reduced functional richness, evenness and divergence, suggesting a trend toward functional homogenization and a reduced range of ecological niches within assemblages following the loss of regional connectivity. These results underscore the often-unrecognized importance of different land use changes, each of which can have marked effects on stream biodiversity. We draw on the relationships observed herein to suggest priorities for the improved management of stream systems in the multiple-use landscapes that predominate in human-modified tropical forests.

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