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1.
Small ; : e2102855, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647416

RESUMO

2D materials, of which the carrier type and concentration are easily tuned, show tremendous superiority in electronic and optoelectronic applications. However, the achievements are still quite far away from practical applications. Much more effort should be made to further improve their performance. Here, p-type MoSe2 is successfully achieved via substitutional doping of Ta atoms, which is confirmed experimentally and theoretically, and outstanding homojunction photodetectors and inverters are fabricated. MoSe2 p-n homojunction device with a low reverse current (300 pA) exhibits a high rectification ratio (104 ). The analysis of dark current reveals the domination of the Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) and band-to-band tunneling (BTB) current. The homojunction photodetector exhibits a large open-circuit voltage (0.68 V) and short-circuit currents (1 µA), which is suitable for micro-solar cells. Furthermore, it possesses outstanding responsivity (0.28 A W-1 ), large external quantum efficiency (42%), and a high signal-to-noise ratio (≈107 ). Benefiting from the continuous energy band of homojunction, the response speed reaches up to 20 µs. Besides, the Ta-doped MoSe2 inverter exhibits a high voltage gain (34) and low power consumption (127 nW). This work lays a foundation for the practical application of 2D material devices.

2.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 2021 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493464

RESUMO

RESEARCH QUESTION: Male infertility is a global issue worldwide and multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella (MMAF) is one of the most severe forms of the qualitative sperm defects with a heterogeneous genetic cause that has not been completely understood. Can whole-exome sequencing (WES) reveal novel genetic causes contributing to MMAF in a consanguineous Pakistani family, comprising three infertile brothers? DESIGN: WES and bioinformatic analysis were conducted to screen potential pathogenic variants. The identified variant was validated by Sanger sequencing in all available family members Transmission electron microscopy analyses was carried out to examine the flagella ultrastructure of spermatozoa from patient. RESULTS: WES and Sanger sequencing identified a novel homozygous stop-gain mutation (ENST00000392644.4, c.182C>G, p.S61X) in ARMC2, which is expected to lead to loss of protein functions. Transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed that the flagellar ultrastructure of the patient's spermatozoa was disorganized along with a complete absence of central pair complex (CPC), suggesting that ARMC2 is involved in the assembly, stability of the axonemal complex, or both, particularly the CPC. CONCLUSION: We report that a familial stop-gain mutation in ARMC2 is associated with male infertility in humans caused by MMAF accompanied with loss of CPCs and axonemal disorganization. We provide genetic evidence that ARMC2 is essential for human spermatogenesis and its mutation may be pathogenic for MMAF. These findings will improve the knowledge about the genetic basis of MMAF and provide information for genetic counselling of this disease.

3.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500664

RESUMO

This study aims to identify and isolate the secondary metabolites of Zingiber officinale using GC-MS, preparative TLC, and LC-MS/MS methods, to evaluate the inhibitory potency on SARS-CoV-2 3 chymotrypsin-like protease enzyme, as well as to study the molecular interaction and stability by using docking and molecular dynamics simulations. GC-MS analysis suggested for the isolation of terpenoids compounds as major compounds on methanol extract of pseudostems and rhizomes. Isolation and LC-MS/MS analysis identified 5-hydro-7, 8, 2'-trimethoxyflavanone (9), (E)-hexadecyl-ferulate (1), isocyperol (2), N-isobutyl-(2E,4E)-octadecadienamide (3), and nootkatone (4) from the rhizome extract, as well as from the leaves extract with the absence of 9. Three known steroid compounds, i.e., spinasterone (7), spinasterol (8), and 24-methylcholesta-7-en-3ß-on (6), were further identified from the pseudostem extract. Molecular docking showed that steroids compounds 7, 8, and 6 have lower predictive binding energies (MMGBSA) than other metabolites with binding energy of -87.91, -78.11, and -68.80 kcal/mole, respectively. Further characterization on the single isolated compound by NMR showed that 6 was identified and possessed 75% inhibitory activity on SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease enzyme that was slightly different with the positive control GC376 (77%). MD simulations showed the complex stability with compound 6 during 100 ns simulation time.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Protease de Coronavírus/farmacologia , Gengibre/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/ultraestrutura , Inibidores de Protease de Coronavírus/química , Inibidores de Protease de Coronavírus/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Protease de Coronavírus/uso terapêutico , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Ácidos Sulfônicos/farmacologia
4.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577076

RESUMO

A series of (E)-4-bromo-N-((3-bromothiophen-2-yl)methylene)-2-methylaniline analogs synthesized in considerable yields through Suzuki cross-coupling reactions. Various electron donating and withdrawing functional moieties were successfully incorporated under the employed reaction conditions. Reaction of 4-bromo-2-methylaniline (1) with 3-bromothiophene-2-carbaldehyde (2b) in the existence of glacial acetic acid, provided (E)-4-bromo-N-((3-bromothiophen-2-yl)methylene)-2-methylaniline (3b) in excellent yield (94%). Suzuki coupling of 3b with different boronic acids in the presence of Pd(PPh3)4/K3PO4 at 90 °C led to the synthesis of the monosubstituted and bisubstituted products 5a-5d and 6a-6d in moderate yields (33-40% and 31-46%, respectively). Density functional theory (DFT) investigations were performed on different synthesized analogues 5a-5d, 6a-6d to determine their structural characteristics. The calculations provide insight into the frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) of the imine-based analogues and their molecular electrostatic potential (MESP). Reactivity descriptors like ionization energy (I), electron affinity (A), chemical hardness (ƞ) and index of nucleophilicity have been calculated for the first time for the synthesized molecules.

5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 485, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581865

RESUMO

The objective of the current review was to summarize the protocols used for estrous synchronization in ewes during the last two decades. Progesterone (P4) is a major hormone used in most protocols. P4 in the form of a controlled internal drug releasing (CIDR) device, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP), and fluorogestone acetates (FGA) has been used for estrous synchronization. Also, gonadotropins such as equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) are often administered at the end of P4-based protocols to improve fertility. Moreover, the administration of prostaglandins (PG) and ram effects have been used for estrus induction and synchronization of ewes. The findings of previous studies indicate that the outcome of administering various synthetics P4 analogues (CIDR, MAP, and FGA) in ewes is comparable in terms of estrous synchronization/induction. The supplementation of P4-based protocols with eCG, however, improves the estrus response and pregnancy rate during breeding and non-breeding season. On the other hand, PG is effective for successful estrous synchronization during the breeding season only. Often, two injections of PG are administered either 11 or 14 days apart along with P4-based protocols to lyse ovine corpus luteum (CL) when it is receptive to PG i.e., 3 days post-ovulation. Alternatively, the "ram effect" has been shown to improve the efficacy of P4-based protocols and can be used as an alternative to eCG in ewes. The current review describes the methods of synchronization and their outcomes during breeding and a non-breeding season in ewes.


Assuntos
Sincronização do Estro , Estro , Animais , Feminino , Acetato de Fluorogestona , Gonadotropinas Equinas , Cavalos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Masculino , Gravidez , Progesterona , Ovinos
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 342: 126004, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583109

RESUMO

Anaerobic fermentation of corn straw with rumen microorganisms as inoculum to produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs) is important for biomass valorization. In this study, dynamic variation in bacterial and fungal community composition, carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) and key functional genes related with VFA production was explored via metagenomic sequencing. Rumen microorganisms efficiently hydrolyzed and acidified corn straw, and VFA concentration reached 8.99 g/L in 72 h. Bacterial and fungal community significantly changed, but the core genera kept stable. Low pH and VFA accumulation were the main factors affecting bacterial and fungal communities. The positive correlations between bacteria were more complex than those between fungi. Most CAZyme abundance significantly decreased after 72 h fermentation, and functional gene abundance participating in VFA generation also decreased. This study provided new insights into dynamic variation of bacteria and fungi during anaerobic ruminal fermentation in vitro, promoting the application of rumen microorganisms in practice.

7.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577105

RESUMO

Granulosa cells (GCs) are essential for follicular growth, development, and atresia. The orexin-A (OXA) neuropeptide is widely involved in the regulation of various biological functions. OXA selectively binds to orexin receptor type 1 (OX1R) and mediates all its biological actions via OX1R. This study aimed to explore the expression of OXA and OX1R and their regulatory role in GCs proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, oocyte maturation, and underlying molecular mechanisms of these processes and elucidate its novel signaling pathway. Western blotting and RT-qPCR showed that OXA and OX1R were expressed during different developmental stages of GCs, and siRNA transfection successfully inhibited the expression of OX1R at the translational and transcriptional levels. Flow cytometry revealed that OX1R knockdown upregulated GCs apoptosis and triggered S-phase arrest in cell cycle progression. RT-qPCR and Western blotting showed significantly reduced expression of Bcl-2 and elevated expression of Bax, caspase-3, TNF-α, and P21 in OX1R-silenced GCs. Furthermore, the CCK-8 assay showed that knockdown of OX1R suppressed GCs proliferation by downregulating the expression of PCNA, a proliferation marker gene, at the translational and transcriptional levels. Western blotting revealed that knockdown of OX1R resulted in a considerable decrease of the phosphorylation level of the AKT and ERK1/2 proteins, indicating that the AKT/ERK1/2 pathway is involved in regulating GCs proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, OX1R silencing enhanced the mRNA expression of GDF9 and suppressed the mRNA expression of BMP15 in mouse GCs. Collectively, these results reveal a novel regulatory role of OXA in the development of GCs and folliculogenesis by regulating proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle progression. Therefore, OXA can be a promising therapeutic agent for female infertility.

8.
J Genet ; 1002021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470921

RESUMO

Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a rare form of early onset vision loss or blindness due to retinal dystrophy. This condition is characterized by early vision loss, nystagmus and severe retinal dysfunction. To date, genetic studies have reported 19 genes to be associated with autosomal recessive LCA, most of which are involved in the retinal morphology and the physiology of the phototransduction pathway. In the current study, a large consanguineous family segregating congenital blindness was ascertained from the Dera Ismail Khan region of Pakistan. Genetic analysis was performed through genomewide SNP genotyping (for homozygosity-by-descent mapping), whole-exome sequencing (for mutation identification) and Sanger sequencing (for segregation analysis). In silico structural predictions were performed through SWISS-Model (structure prediction) and ClusPro (molecular docking). Molecular investigation of the present LCA family identified a novel homozygous missense mutation p.Asp306Val in GUCY2D gene (NM_000180.3:c.917A>T). In silico structural modelling and interaction studies predicted significant changes in protein folding and interacting residues. The present molecular genetic study further extends the mutational spectrum of GUCY2D in LCA, and its genetic heterogeneity in the Pakistani population. The findings of the computational studies on protein structure and interaction profile predicted pathogenic consequences of p.Asp306Val on GUCY2D function.

9.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(9): 2198-2202, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580514

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether or not prior laparoscopic training improves performance during robotic surgery utilising DaVinci robotic skills simulator. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Civil Hospital, Karachi, from May 4 to November 11, 2018, and comprised first year residents in Group A with no laparoscopic skills and fourth year residents doing laparoscopic cholecystectomy independently and surgical faculty members in Group B who had laparoscopic skills. Both the groups had no previous exposure to robotic surgery and skills simulator. There were 4 exercises which were repeated three times by each participant. Scoring was done using the DaVinci robotic skills simulator software. Data was analysed using SPSS 22. RESULTS: Of the 30 surgeons, there were 15(50%) in Group A with a mean age of 26±0.56 years, and 15(50%) in Group B with a mean age of 32 ± 9.16 Years (p<0.001). The overall mean age was 32±9.16 years (range: 25-52 years). There were 19(63.3) females in the sample compared to 11(36.6%) males. Mean scores of Ring walk 2, Peg board 2, and Suture sponge 3 were better in Group A, while mean score of Matchboard 2 was better in Group although B (p>0.05). Group B fared better in the individual scoring of Suture sponge 2 (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic skills apparently did not confer any benefit while performing exercises on the DaVinci skills simulator.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral , Laparoscopia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Treinamento por Simulação , Adulto , Competência Clínica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 38(1): 1188-1204, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376103

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the design of an endoluminal deployable ultrasound applicator for delivering volumetric hyperthermia to deep tissue sites as a possible adjunct to radiation and chemotherapy. METHOD: This study considers an ultrasound applicator consisting of two tubular transducers situated at the end of a catheter assembly, encased within a distensible conical shaped balloon-based reflector that redirects acoustic energy distally into the tissue. The applicator assembly can be inserted endoluminally or laparoscopically in a compact form and expanded after delivery to the target site. Comprehensive acoustic and biothermal simulations and parametric studies were employed in generalized 3D and patient-specific pancreatic head and body tumor models to characterize the acoustic performance and evaluate heating capabilities of the applicator by investigating the device at a range of operating frequencies, tissue acoustic and thermal properties, transducer configurations, power modulation, applicator positioning, and by analyzing the resultant 40, 41, and 43 °C isothermal volumes and penetration depth of the heating volume. Intensity distributions and volumetric temperature contours were calculated to define moderate hyperthermia boundaries. RESULTS: Parametric studies demonstrated the frequency selection to control volume and depth of therapeutic heating from 62 to 22 cm3 and 4 to 2.6 cm as frequency ranges from 1 MHz to 4.7 MHz, respectively. Width of the heating profile tracks closely with the aperture. Water cooling within the reflector balloon was effective in controlling temperature to 37 °C maximum within the luminal wall. Patient-specific studies indicated that applicators with extended OD in the range of 3.6-6.2 cm with 0.5-1 cm long and 1 cm OD transducers can heat volumes of 1.1-7 cm3, 3-26 cm3, and 3.3-37.4 cm3 of pancreatic body and head tumors above 43, 41, and 40 °C, respectively. CONCLUSION: In silico studies demonstrated the feasibility of combining endoluminal ultrasound with an integrated expandable balloon reflector for delivering volumetric hyperthermia in regions adjacent to body lumens and cavities.


Assuntos
Hipertermia Induzida , Terapia por Ultrassom , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Hipertermia , Transdutores , Ultrassonografia
11.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-11, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459711

RESUMO

Due to a lack of therapeutic options for the pathological condition of leishmaniasis, which is characterized by polymorphic lesions and skin surface infections, Leishmania genus parasites damaged dermis and mucosa. There was a need to synthesize and characterize some new complexes. This study evaluated the biological activities preferably anti-Leishmanial activity of organotin (IV) containing sulphonyl hydrazide derivatives. A series of six new organotin (IV) complexes 1-6 labeled as R2SnL2; R = Methyl (1), Butyl (2), Phenyl (3) and R3SnL; R = Methyl (4), Butyl (5), Phenyl (6) has been synthesized as reflux method derived from N'- (2,4-dinitrophenyl)-4-methylphenylsulfonylhydrazide (L). All compounds were characterized through FT-IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, and elemental analysis. Structural analysis confirms the formation of six complexes (1-6). All derivatives have been screened for their pharmacological activities. Interestingly, compound 1 showed promising activity against leishmania promastigotes with low cytotoxicity. All results were further elaborated through docking studies performed on leishmania donovoni synthetase PDB: ID 3QW3 that acts as an essential building block for the viability of Leishmania promastigotes. This research effectively synthesized sulphonyl hydrazide ligand and its six new organotin (IV) derivatives, which were tested for biological properties such as antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-oxidant, and ideally anti-leishmanial activity and cytotoxicity. Studies have confirmed that these compounds have the potency to be a good candidate against leishmaniasis. Computational studies were carried out to recognize the binding affinities for leishmania donovoni synthetase.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

12.
Nano Lett ; 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460270

RESUMO

Hot carrier harvest could save 30% energy loss in solar cells. So far, however, it is still unreachable as the photoexcited hot carriers are short-lived, ∼1 ps, determined by a rapid relaxation process, thus invalidating any reprocessing efforts. Here, we propose and demonstrate a feasible route to reserve hot electrons for efficient collection. It is accomplished by an intentional mix of cubic zinc-blend and hexagonal wurtzite phases in III-V semiconductor nanowires. Additional energy levels are then generated above the conduction band minimum, capturing and storing hot electrons before they cool down to the band edges. We also show the superiority of core/shell nanowire (radial heterostructure) in extracting hot electrons. The strategy disclosed here may offer a unique opportunity to modulate hot carriers for efficient solar energy harvest.

13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112575, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352575

RESUMO

Treatment of liver cancer has always been a challenge for clinicians and development of appropriate drug against hepatocellular carcinoma is the major focus for researchers working in the field. The synthesis of metal-based nanoparticles (NPs) by green method for pharmacological uses has attained considerable attention recently. In current study three different NPs (AgO2, CeO2, CuO2) were synthesized by using Trianthima portulacastrum and Chinopodium quinoa leaf extracts. These biogenic NPs were analyzed by High-tech. approaches including Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscope, SEM-EDS spot analysis, elemental mapping and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The anticancer potential of these nanoparticles was estimated using MTT assay, against hepatic cancer cell line (HepG2). SEM secondary electron images presented the nano size of prepared particles in agglomerated form with few porous forms. Average size of Ag-, Ce-, and CuNPs was observed 19-24 nm, 8-12 nm, 13-15 nm respectively. Elemental mapping and EDS-spot analysis ratifies the formation of AgNPs, CeNPs, and CuNPs. These NPs have shown good anticancer activity at different concentrations against HepG2 cell line. Further studies are however needed to identify the molecular mechanisms of these anticancer activities.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Antibacterianos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prata , Difração de Raios X
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17006, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417479

RESUMO

Due to urbanization and industrialization, there has been an increase in solid waste generation and has become a global concern and leakage of leachate from landfills contaminate the soil and groundwater and hence can have a severe impact on human health. The present study aimed to determine the composition of toxic metals (Cr, Mn, Cu, As) and heavy metals (Cd, Ba, Hg, Pb) in soil and water by an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). To ensure accuracy during the analysis of Cr, Mn, Cu, As, Cd, Ba, Hg, and Pb in real samples, certified reference material (CRM, SRM 2709a) of San Joaquin soil and water (SRM 1640a) were analyzed and results were presented in terms of % recovery studies. The mean concentration of all the metals in soil and water did not exceed the limit set by the European Community (EU), WHO, and US EPA except Cu where the permissible limit defined by the EU is 50-140 mg/kg in soil. The soil is uncontaminated to moderately contaminated with respect to all metals except the Cu and Pb. Among the average daily dose (ADD) of soil, ADDing and ADDinh for children had the maximum dose for all metals than adults while ADDderm was higher in adults. Hazard quotient (HQ) trend in both adults and children was found in order HQing > HQderm > HQinh of soil for all metals except Ba which followed HQing > HQinh > HQderm. Hazard index (HI) values of soil for Cr and Pb in children were 7 and 7.5 times higher than adults respectively. Lifetime cancer risk (LCR) value for Cr by different exposure pathways of soil was 5.361 × 10-4 for children which are at the lower borderline of risk for cancer.

15.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(9): 5417-5423, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402947

RESUMO

Plastics are usually made up of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) that serve as the environmental nuisance. The recalcitrant nature of plastics is a huge concern, whereas the increasing demand has made it difficult to handle the plastic waste that eventually leads to plastic pollution. In recent years, due to increasing demand and high pressure for its safe disposal, plastic biodegradation has gained a lot of attention. In the current study, four bacterial strains were isolated from the solid-waste dumpsites of Faisalabad, Pakistan, using enrichment culture technique. The isolated bacterial strains were capable of growing on media having polystyrene as the sole carbon source. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the isolated strains Serratia sp., Stenotrophomonas sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were identified as the potential strains for the biodegradation of LDPE. Serratia sp. resulted in 40% weight loss of the LDPE plastic pieces after 150 days of treatment. Stenotrophomonas sp. and Pseudomonas species resulted in 32 and 21% weight loss of the treated piece of plastics (LDPE), respectively. Polyethylene pieces were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis before and after biodegradation. The FTIR spectra indicated that the isolated bacterial strains have a good potential to degrade LDPE. Future studies are required to investigate the bacterial genetic makeup, mechanisms of LDPE biodegradation and the factors that can enhance the biodegradable characteristics of these indigenously isolated bacterial strains.

16.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203543

RESUMO

In this paper, the steady electrically conducting hybrid nanofluid (CuO-Cu/blood) laminar-mixed convection incompressible flow at the stagnation-point with viscous and gyrotactic microorganisms is considered. Additionally, hybrid nanofluid flow over a horizontal porous stretching sheet along with an induced magnetic field and external magnetic field effectsthat can be used in biomedical fields, such as in drug delivery and the flow dynamics of the microcirculatory system. This investigation can also deliver a perfect view about the mass and heat transfer behavior of blood flow in a circulatory system and various hyperthermia treatments such as the treatment of cancer. The simple partial differential equations (PDEs) are converted into a series of dimensional ordinary differential equations (ODEs), which are determined using appropriate similarities variables (HAM). The influence of the suction or injection parameter, mixed convection, Prandtl number, buoyancy ratio parameter, permeability parameter, magnetic parameter, reciprocal magnetic prandtl number, bioconvection Rayleigh number, coupled stress parameter, thermophoretic parameter, Schmidt number, inertial parameter, heat source parameter, and Brownian motion parameter on the concentration, motile microorganisms, velocity, and temperature is outlined, and we study the physical importance of the present problem graphically.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Campos Magnéticos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Modelos Biológicos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Humanos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/metabolismo
17.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(7): 837-840, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the germline oncogenic mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, associated with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients under study, by targeted sequencing of their DNA with next-generation sequencing (NGS) platform. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Histopathology Department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) Rawalpindi, Pakistan from May to June 2020. METHODOLOGY: Peripheral blood of 14 women (aged ≤60) with triple negative breast carcinoma (TNBC) was taken with the consent of performing germline genetic testing. Targeted NGS was performed for all coding regions and splicing sites of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, using AmpliSeq for Illumina BRCA Panel and Illumina MiSeq sequencer (placed at AFIP). Analysis and interpretation of the sequencing results have been done by using Illumina bioinformatics tools and external databases. RESULTS: Two hundred and fifty-four variants were detected in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, having variant quality score of 100 in all cases under study. As a result, two pathogenic variants and three variants of uncertain significance were interpreted in this germline pipeline. Cases with pathogenic variants had early onset breast cancer with age less than 35. CONCLUSION: Germline variants in BRCA were detected in the known cases of TNBC, which will not only identify the most prevalent mutations in this region; but will also make them a candidate to receive targeted therapies, which was previously not possible without genetic testing. Moreover, this study further validates the importance of early BRCA genetic screening in young patients, who have positive family history of breast carcinoma. Key Words: Breast cancer, Triple negative, Next-generation sequencing, BRCA1, BRCA2.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Paquistão
18.
J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol ; 32(4): 845-851, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214356

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant and antiviral potency of n-hexane, ethyl acetate and, water fractions of Begonia medicinalis Ardi & D.C.Thomas as well as to identify the chemical constituents. METHODS: Assays for antioxidant and antiviral activity (HIV-1) were carried out on MT-4 cells infected with HIV using the DPPH method and the determination of the cytopathic effect. Meanwhile, GC-MS was used to identify the chemical compounds. RESULTS: The determination of antioxidants showed that all fractions possessed potent activity with the IC50 ranging from 2.61 to 8.26 µg/mL. From the antiviral activity of MT-4 cells infected by HIV, the n-hexane fraction of B. medicinalis showed the most potency with the IC50 of 0.04 ± 0.05 µg/mL. It has less cytotoxicity (11.08 ± 4.60 µg/mL) affording the high selectivity index of 238.80. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis of n-hexane fraction found the major compound of carboxylic acid derivate with the area percentage of 76.4% and the presence of phenolic compounds (8.38%). Meanwhile, in water fraction, terpenoids were found in a higher concentration (10.05%) than others. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, this study supports the application of B. medicinalis as a herbal medicine for antioxidant and antiviral.

19.
Chemosphere ; 283: 131107, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144284

RESUMO

Lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr) are one of the most harmful heavy metals (HMs), entering into the food chain through the irrigation of crops with an industrial effluent. The present study was performed to evaluate the toxic effects of textile effluents and performance of citric acid (CA) on phytoextraction potential of Lemna minor L. and Typha latifolia L. in an artificially designed wetland. Different doses of textile wastewater (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) and CA (10 mM) were applied alone and in combination. Plants were harvested and the data was collected regarding agronomic traits, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant enzymes, reactive oxygen species (ROS), electrolytic leakage (EL) and HMs uptake and accumulation. The results depicted that the concentration and accumulation of Cu, Pb and Cr in different parts of T. latifolia plant was increased with and without CA addition. The maximum concentration of Pb, Cu and Cr increased in leaves by 279, 240 & 171%, in stem by 192, 172 & 154%, and in roots by 224, 183 & 168%, respectively. Similarly, the accumulation of Pb, Cu and Cr increased in leaves by 91, 71 & 36%, in stem by 57, 46 & 36% and in roots by 76, 53 & 45%, respectively in plants treated with 100% textile effluent as compared to the 25% textile effluent treated plants under CA amendment. In L. minor, the concentration of Pb, Cu & Cr increased by 542, 411 and 397% while accumulation increased by 101, 59 & 55% respectively in overall plant biomass.


Assuntos
Araceae , Metais Pesados , Typhaceae , Biodegradação Ambiental , Ácido Cítrico , Indústria Têxtil , Águas Residuárias , Áreas Alagadas
20.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 2679-2694, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34188447

RESUMO

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative illness described predominantly by dementia. Even though Alzheimer's disease has been known for over a century, its origin remains a mystery, and researchers are exploring many therapy options, including the cholinesterase technique. A decreased acetylcholine ACh neurotransmitter level is believed to be among the important factors in the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Methods: In continuation of synthesizing potential anti-Alzheimer agents and known appreciative pharmacological potential of amide-containing compounds, this study presents the synthesis of two novel amide-based transition metal zinc (II) complexes, AAZ7 and AAZ8, attached with a heterocyclic pyridine ring, which was synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), elemental analysis, 1H_NMR, and 13C_NMR. FT-IR spectroscopic records showed the development of bidentate ligand as Δν value was decreased in both complexes when compared with the free ligand. Both of the synthesized complexes were analyzed for acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory potential along with the antioxidizing activity. Results: Importantly, the complex of AAZ8 exhibited more potent activity giving IC50 values of 14 µg/mL and 18µg/mL as AChE and BChE cholinesterase inhibitors, respectively, when compared with standard positive control galantamine. Interestingly, AAZ8 also displayed promising antioxidant potential by showing IC50 values of 35 µg/mL for DPPH and 29 µg/mL for ABTS in comparison with positive control ascorbic acid. Conclusion: Herein, we report two new amide carboxylate zinc (II) complexes which were potentially analyzed for various biological applications like acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory potentials, and antioxidant assays. Computational docking studies also simulated results to understand the interactions. Additionally, thermodynamic parameters utilizing molecular dynamic simulation were performed to determine the ligand protein stability and flexibility that supported the results. Studies have shown that these compounds have the potential to be good anti-Alzheimer candidates for future studies due to inhibition of cholinesterase enzymes and display of free radical scavenging potential against DPPH as well as ABTS free radicals.

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