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1.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(4): 548-557, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most uterine cervical high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are transient, with only a small fraction developing into cervical cancer. Family aggregation studies and heritability estimates suggest a significant inherited genetic component. Candidate gene studies and previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) report associations between the HLA region and cervical cancer. Adopting a genome-wide approach, we aimed to compare genetic variation in women with invasive cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 with that in healthy controls. METHODS: We did a GWAS in a cohort of unrelated European individuals using data from UK Biobank, a population-based cohort including 273 377 women aged 40-69 years at recruitment between March 13, 2006, and Oct 1, 2010. We used an additive univariate logistic regression model to analyse genetic variants associated with invasive cervical cancer or CIN3. We sought replication of candidate associations in FinnGen, a large independent dataset of 128 123 individuals. We also did a two-sample mendelian randomisation approach to explore the role of risk factors in the genetic risk of cervical cancer. FINDINGS: We included 4769 CIN3 and invasive cervical cancer case samples and 145 545 control samples in the GWAS. Of 9 600 464 assayed and imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), six independent variants were associated with CIN3 and invasive cervical cancer. These included novel loci rs10175462 (PAX8; odds ratio [OR] 0·87, 95% CI 0·84-0·91; p=1·07 × 10-9) and rs27069 (CLPTM1L; 0·88, 0·84-0·92; p=2·51 × 10-9), and previously reported signals at rs9272050 (HLA-DQA1; 1·27, 1·21-1·32; p=2·51 × 10-28), rs6938453 (MICA; 0·79, 0·75-0·83; p=1·97 × 10-17), rs55986091 (HLA-DQB1; 0·66, 0·60-0·72; p=6·42 × 10-28), and rs9266183 (HLA-B; 0·73, 0·64-0·83; p=1·53 × 10-6). Three SNPs were replicated in the independent Finnish dataset of 1648 invasive cervical cancer cases: PAX8 (rs10175462; p=0·015), CLPTM1L (rs27069; p=2·54 × 10-7), and HLA-DQA1 (rs9272050; p=7·90 × 10-8). Mendelian randomisation further supported the complementary role of smoking (OR 2·46, 95% CI 1·64-3·69), older age at first pregnancy (0·80, 0·68-0·95), and number of sexual partners (1·95, 1·44-2·63) in the risk of developing cervical cancer. INTERPRETATION: Our results provide new evidence for the genetic susceptibility to cervical cancer, specifically the PAX8, CLPTM1L, and HLA genes, suggesting disruption in apoptotic and immune function pathways. Future studies integrating host and viral, genetic, and epigenetic variation, could further elucidate complex host-viral interactions. FUNDING: NIHR Imperial BRC Wellcome 4i Clinician Scientist Training Programme.

2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The literature on associations of circulating concentrations of minerals and vitamins with risk of colorectal cancer is limited and inconsistent. Evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to support the efficacy of dietary modification or nutrient supplementation for colorectal cancer prevention is also limited. OBJECTIVES: To complement observational and RCT findings, we investigated associations of genetically predicted concentrations of 11 micronutrients (ß-carotene, calcium, copper, folate, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and zinc) with colorectal cancer risk using Mendelian randomization (MR). METHODS: Two-sample MR was conducted using 58,221 individuals with colorectal cancer and 67,694 controls from the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium, Colorectal Cancer Transdisciplinary Study, and Colon Cancer Family Registry. Inverse variance-weighted MR analyses were performed with sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of potential violations of MR assumptions. RESULTS: Nominally significant associations were noted for genetically predicted iron concentration and higher risk of colon cancer [ORs per SD (ORSD): 1.08; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.17; P value = 0.05] and similarly for proximal colon cancer, and for vitamin B-12 concentration and higher risk of colorectal cancer (ORSD: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21; P value = 0.01) and similarly for colon cancer. A nominally significant association was also noted for genetically predicted selenium concentration and lower risk of colon cancer (ORSD: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.00; P value = 0.05) and similarly for distal colon cancer. These associations were robust to sensitivity analyses. Nominally significant inverse associations were observed for zinc and risk of colorectal and distal colon cancers, but sensitivity analyses could not be performed. None of these findings survived correction for multiple testing. Genetically predicted concentrations of ß-carotene, calcium, copper, folate, magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamin B-6 were not associated with disease risk. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest possible causal associations of circulating iron and vitamin B-12 (positively) and selenium (inversely) with risk of colon cancer.

3.
Nat Genet ; 53(1): 54-64, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414548

RESUMO

In cross-platform analyses of 174 metabolites, we identify 499 associations (P < 4.9 × 10-10) characterized by pleiotropy, allelic heterogeneity, large and nonlinear effects and enrichment for nonsynonymous variation. We identify a signal at GLP2R (p.Asp470Asn) shared among higher citrulline levels, body mass index, fasting glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and type 2 diabetes, with ß-arrestin signaling as the underlying mechanism. Genetically higher serine levels are shown to reduce the likelihood (by 95%) and predict development of macular telangiectasia type 2, a rare degenerative retinal disease. Integration of genomic and small molecule data across platforms enables the discovery of regulators of human metabolism and translation into clinical insights.


Assuntos
Saúde , Metabolismo/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Oftalmopatias/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Loci Gênicos , Pleiotropia Genética , Genoma Humano , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 2/genética , Glicina/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/genética , Metaboloma/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Telangiectasia Retiniana/genética , Tamanho da Amostra , Serina/metabolismo
4.
Hypertension ; 77(2): 383-392, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356394

RESUMO

Serum urate has been implicated in hypertension and cardiovascular disease, but it is not known whether it is exerting a causal effect. To investigate this, we performed Mendelian randomization analysis using data from UK Biobank, Million Veterans Program and genome-wide association study consortia, and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. The main Mendelian randomization analyses showed that every 1-SD increase in genetically predicted serum urate was associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (odds ratio, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.10-1.30]; P=4×10-5), peripheral artery disease (1.12 [95% CI, 1.03-1.21]; P=9×10-3), and stroke (1.11 [95% CI, 1.05-1.18]; P=2×10-4). In Mendelian randomization mediation analyses, elevated blood pressure was estimated to mediate approximately one-third of the effect of urate on cardiovascular disease risk. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials showed a favorable effect of urate-lowering treatment on systolic blood pressure (mean difference, -2.55 mm Hg [95% CI, -4.06 to -1.05]; P=1×10-3) and major adverse cardiovascular events in those with previous cardiovascular disease (odds ratio, 0.40 [95% CI, 0.22-0.73]; P=3×10-3) but no significant effect on major adverse cardiovascular events in all individuals (odds ratio, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.44-1.03]; P=0.07). In summary, these Mendelian randomization and clinical trial data support an effect of higher serum urate on increasing blood pressure, which may mediate a consequent effect on cardiovascular disease risk. High-quality trials are necessary to provide definitive evidence on the specific clinical contexts where urate lowering may be of cardiovascular benefit.

5.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic variants can be used to prioritize risk factors as potential therapeutic targets via Mendelian randomization (MR). An agnostic statistical framework using Bayesian model averaging (MR-BMA) can disentangle the causal role of correlated risk factors with shared genetic predictors. Here, our objective is to identify lipoprotein measures as mediators between lipid-associated genetic variants and coronary artery disease (CAD) for the purpose of detecting therapeutic targets for CAD. METHODS: As risk factors we consider 30 lipoprotein measures and metabolites derived from a high-throughput metabolomics study including 24 925 participants. We fit multivariable MR models of genetic associations with CAD estimated in 453 595 participants (including 113 937 cases) regressed on genetic associations with the risk factors. MR-BMA assigns to each combination of risk factors a model score quantifying how well the genetic associations with CAD are explained. Risk factors are ranked by their marginal score and selected using false-discovery rate (FDR) criteria. We perform supplementary and sensitivity analyses varying the dataset for genetic associations with CAD. RESULTS: In the main analysis, the top combination of risk factors ranked by the model score contains apolipoprotein B (ApoB) only. ApoB is also the highest ranked risk factor with respect to the marginal score (FDR <0.005). Additionally, ApoB is selected in all sensitivity analyses. No other measure of cholesterol or triglyceride is consistently selected otherwise. CONCLUSIONS: Our agnostic genetic investigation prioritizes ApoB across all datasets considered, suggesting that ApoB, representing the total number of hepatic-derived lipoprotein particles, is the primary lipid determinant of CAD.

7.
Neurology ; 95(14): e1963-e1970, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817390

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the causal relationships between sleep, major depressive disorder (MDD), and Alzheimer disease (AD). METHODS: We conducted bidirectional 2-sample Mendelian randomization analyses. Genetic associations were obtained from the largest genome-wide association studies currently available in UK Biobank (n = 446,118), Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (n = 18,759), and International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (n = 63,926). We used the inverse variance-weighted Mendelian randomization method to estimate causal effects and weighted median and Mendelian randomization-Egger for sensitivity analyses to test for pleiotropic effects. RESULTS: We found that higher risk of AD was significantly associated with being a "morning person" (odds ratio [OR] 1.01, p = 0.001), shorter sleep duration (self-reported: ß = -0.006, p = 1.9 × 10-4; accelerometer based: ß = -0.015, p = 6.9 × 10-5), less likely to report long sleep (ß = -0.003, p = 7.3 × 10-7), earlier timing of the least active 5 hours (ß = -0.024, p = 1.7 × 10-13), and a smaller number of sleep episodes (ß = -0.025, p = 5.7 × 10-14) after adjustment for multiple comparisons. We also found that higher risk of AD was associated with lower risk of insomnia (OR 0.99, p = 7 × 10-13). However, we did not find evidence that these abnormal sleep patterns were causally related to AD or for a significant causal relationship between MDD and risk of AD. CONCLUSION: We found that AD may causally influence sleep patterns. However, we did not find evidence supporting a causal role of disturbed sleep patterns for AD or evidence for a causal relationship between MDD and AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Sono , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Fenótipo , Sono/genética
9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(14): e016771, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635790

RESUMO

Background Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent administration are cornerstones of clinical practice, yet concerns exist as to potential increased risk of thrombotic events. This study aims to identify RBC traits most relevant to venous thromboembolism (VTE) and assess their genetically predicted effects on VTE in the general population. Methods and Results We used multivariable mendelian randomization with bayesian model averaging for exposure selection. We obtained genetic variants predicting any of 12 RBC traits from the largest genome-wide association study of hematological traits (173 480 participants of European ancestry) and applied them to the UK Biobank (265 424 white British participants). We used univariable mendelian randomization methods as sensitivity analyses for validation. Among 265 424 unrelated participants in the UK Biobank, there were 9752 cases of VTE (4490 men and 5262 women). Hemoglobin was selected as the plausible important RBC trait for VTE (marginal inclusion probability=0.91). The best-fitting model across all RBC traits contained hemoglobin only (posterior probability=0.46). Using the inverse variance-weighted method, genetically predicted hemoglobin was positively associated (odds ratio, 1.21 per g/dL unit of hemoglobin; 95% CI, 1.05-1.41) with VTE. Sensitivity analyses (mendelian randomization-Egger, weighted median, and mendelian randomization pleiotropy residual sum and outlier test) gave consistent estimates. Conclusions Endogenous hemoglobin is the key RBC trait causing VTE, with a detrimental effect in the general population on VTE. Given men have higher hemoglobin than women, this finding may help explain the sexual disparity in VTE rates. The benefits of therapies and other factors that raise hemoglobin need to be weighed against their risks.

10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(14): e016773, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627641

RESUMO

Background Elevated blood pressure is a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, it is not known whether midlife blood pressure affects later life cardiovascular risk independent of later life blood pressure. Methods and Results Using genetic association estimates from the UK Biobank and CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortium, univariable mendelian randomization was performed to investigate the total effect of genetically predicted mean arterial pressure (MAP) at age ≤55 years on coronary artery disease (CAD) risk, and multivariable mendelian randomization was performed to investigate the effect of genetically predicted MAP on CAD risk after adjusting for genetically predicted MAP at age >55 years. In both univariable and multivariable mendelian randomization analyses, there was consistent evidence of higher genetically predicted MAP at age ≤55 years increasing CAD risk. This association persisted after adjusting for genetically predicted MAP at age >55 years, when considering nonoverlapping populations for the derivation of MAP and CAD risk genetic association estimates, when investigating only incident CAD events after age >55 years, and when restricting the analysis to variants with most heterogeneity in their associations with MAP ≤55 and >55 years. For a 10-mm Hg increase in genetically predicted MAP at age ≤55 years, the odds ratio of later life CAD was 1.43 (95% CI, 1.16-1.77; P=0.001) after adjusting for genetically predicted MAP at age >55 years. Conclusions These mendelian randomization findings support a cumulative lifetime effect of elevated blood pressure on increasing CAD risk. Clinical and public health efforts toward cardiovascular disease reduction should optimize blood pressure control throughout life.

11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 29, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911605

RESUMO

Modern high-throughput experiments provide a rich resource to investigate causal determinants of disease risk. Mendelian randomization (MR) is the use of genetic variants as instrumental variables to infer the causal effect of a specific risk factor on an outcome. Multivariable MR is an extension of the standard MR framework to consider multiple potential risk factors in a single model. However, current implementations of multivariable MR use standard linear regression and hence perform poorly with many risk factors. Here, we propose a two-sample multivariable MR approach based on Bayesian model averaging (MR-BMA) that scales to high-throughput experiments. In a realistic simulation study, we show that MR-BMA can detect true causal risk factors even when the candidate risk factors are highly correlated. We illustrate MR-BMA by analysing publicly-available summarized data on metabolites to prioritise likely causal biomarkers for age-related macular degeneration.


Assuntos
Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Modelos Genéticos , Teorema de Bayes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(7): 1477-1486, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886334

RESUMO

While comorbidity between coronary heart disease (CHD) and depression is evident, it is unclear whether the two diseases have shared underlying mechanisms. We performed a range of analyses in 367,703 unrelated middle-aged participants of European ancestry from UK Biobank, a population-based cohort study, to assess whether comorbidity is primarily due to genetic or environmental factors, and to test whether cardiovascular risk factors and CHD are likely to be causally related to depression using Mendelian randomization. We showed family history of heart disease was associated with a 20% increase in depression risk (95% confidence interval [CI] 16-24%, p < 0.0001), but a genetic risk score that is strongly associated with CHD risk was not associated with depression. An increase of 1 standard deviation in the CHD genetic risk score was associated with 71% higher CHD risk, but 1% higher depression risk (95% CI 0-3%; p = 0.11). Mendelian randomization analyses suggested that triglycerides, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) are likely causal risk factors for depression. The odds ratio for depression per standard deviation increase in genetically-predicted triglycerides was 1.18 (95% CI 1.09-1.27; p = 2 × 10-5); per unit increase in genetically-predicted log-transformed IL-6 was 0.74 (95% CI 0.62-0.89; p = 0.0012); and per unit increase in genetically-predicted log-transformed CRP was 1.18 (95% CI 1.07-1.29; p = 0.0009). Our analyses suggest that comorbidity between depression and CHD arises largely from shared environmental factors. IL-6, CRP and triglycerides are likely to be causally linked with depression, so could be targets for treatment and prevention of depression.

13.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 12(12): e002711, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence from randomized trials has shown that therapies that lower LDL (low-density lipoprotein)-cholesterol and triglycerides reduce coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. However, there is still uncertainty about their effects on other cardiovascular outcomes. We therefore performed a systematic investigation of causal relationships between circulating lipids and cardiovascular outcomes using a Mendelian randomization approach. METHODS: In the primary analysis, we performed 2-sample multivariable Mendelian randomization using data from participants of European ancestry. We also conducted univariable analyses using inverse-variance weighted and robust methods, and gene-specific analyses using variants that can be considered as proxies for specific lipid-lowering medications. We obtained associations with lipid fractions from the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium, a meta-analysis of 188 577 participants, and genetic associations with cardiovascular outcomes from 367 703 participants in UK Biobank. RESULTS: For LDL-cholesterol, in addition to the expected positive associations with CAD risk (odds ratio [OR] per 1 SD increase, 1.45 [95% CI, 1.35-1.57]) and other atheromatous outcomes (ischemic cerebrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease), we found independent associations of genetically predicted LDL-cholesterol with abdominal aortic aneurysm (OR, 1.75 [95% CI, 1.40-2.17]) and aortic valve stenosis (OR, 1.46 [95% CI, 1.25-1.70]). Genetically predicted triglyceride levels were positively associated with CAD (OR, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.12-1.40]), aortic valve stenosis (OR, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.04-1.61]), and hypertension (OR, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.07-1.27]), but inversely associated with venous thromboembolism (OR, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.67-0.93]) and hemorrhagic stroke (OR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.62-0.98]). We also found positive associations of genetically predicted LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides with heart failure that appeared to be mediated by CAD. CONCLUSIONS: Lowering LDL-cholesterol is likely to prevent abdominal aortic aneurysm and aortic stenosis, in addition to CAD and other atheromatous cardiovascular outcomes. Lowering triglycerides is likely to prevent CAD and aortic valve stenosis but may increase thromboembolic risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue
14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3653, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409800

RESUMO

Urinary sodium and potassium excretion are associated with blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The exact biological link between these traits is yet to be elucidated. Here, we identify 50 loci for sodium and 13 for potassium excretion in a large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) on urinary sodium and potassium excretion using data from 446,237 individuals of European descent from the UK Biobank study. We extensively interrogate the results using multiple analyses such as Mendelian randomization, functional assessment, co localization, genetic risk score, and pathway analyses. We identify a shared genetic component between urinary sodium and potassium expression and cardiovascular traits. Ingenuity pathway analysis shows that urinary sodium and potassium excretion loci are over-represented in behavioural response to stimuli. Our study highlights pathways that are shared between urinary sodium and potassium excretion and cardiovascular traits.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Potássio/urina , Sódio/urina , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
15.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(14): e81, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049595

RESUMO

Bisulfite amplicon sequencing has become the primary choice for single-base methylation quantification of multiple targets in parallel. The main limitation of this technology is a preferential amplification of an allele and strand in the PCR due to methylation state. This effect, known as 'PCR bias', causes inaccurate estimation of the methylation levels and calibration methods based on standard controls have been proposed to correct for it. Here, we present a Bayesian calibration tool, MethylCal, which can analyse jointly all CpGs within a CpG island (CGI) or a Differentially Methylated Region (DMR), avoiding 'one-at-a-time' CpG calibration. This enables more precise modeling of the methylation levels observed in the standard controls. It also provides accurate predictions of the methylation levels not considered in the controlled experiment, a feature that is paramount in the derivation of the corrected methylation degree. We tested the proposed method on eight independent assays (two CpG islands and six imprinting DMRs) and demonstrated its benefits, including the ability to detect outliers. We also evaluated MethylCal's calibration in two practical cases, a clinical diagnostic test on 18 patients potentially affected by Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, and 17 individuals with celiac disease. The calibration of the methylation levels obtained by MethylCal allows a clearer identification of patients undergoing loss or gain of methylation in borderline cases and could influence further clinical or treatment decisions.


Assuntos
Teorema de Bayes , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA , Impressão Genômica , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Algoritmos , Síndrome de Beckwith-Wiedemann/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Beckwith-Wiedemann/genética , Síndrome de Beckwith-Wiedemann/terapia , Calibragem , Doença Celíaca/diagnóstico , Doença Celíaca/genética , Doença Celíaca/terapia , Humanos , Canais de Potássio de Abertura Dependente da Tensão da Membrana/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Stat Med ; 38(13): 2413-2427, 2019 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of classification methods for personalized medicine is highly dependent on the identification of predictive genetic markers. In survival analysis, it is often necessary to discriminate between influential and noninfluential markers. It is common to perform univariate screening using Cox scores, which quantify the associations between survival and each of the markers to provide a ranking. Since Cox scores do not account for dependencies between the markers, their use is suboptimal in the presence of highly correlated markers. METHODS: As an alternative to the Cox score, we propose the correlation-adjusted regression survival (CARS) score for right-censored survival outcomes. By removing the correlations between the markers, the CARS score quantifies the associations between the outcome and the set of "decorrelated" marker values. Estimation of the scores is based on inverse probability weighting, which is applied to log-transformed event times. For high-dimensional data, estimation is based on shrinkage techniques. RESULTS: The consistency of the CARS score is proven under mild regularity conditions. In simulations with high correlations, survival models based on CARS score rankings achieved higher areas under the precision-recall curve than competing methods. Two example applications on prostate and breast cancer confirmed these results. CARS scores are implemented in the R package carSurv. CONCLUSIONS: In research applications involving high-dimensional genetic data, the use of CARS scores for marker selection is a favorable alternative to Cox scores even when correlations between covariates are low. Having a straightforward interpretation and low computational requirements, CARS scores are an easy-to-use screening tool in personalized medicine research.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Análise de Regressão , Conduta Expectante
17.
JAMA ; 320(24): 2553-2563, 2018 12 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30575882

RESUMO

Importance: Body fat distribution, usually measured using waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), is an important contributor to cardiometabolic disease independent of body mass index (BMI). Whether mechanisms that increase WHR via lower gluteofemoral (hip) or via higher abdominal (waist) fat distribution affect cardiometabolic risk is unknown. Objective: To identify genetic variants associated with higher WHR specifically via lower gluteofemoral or higher abdominal fat distribution and estimate their association with cardiometabolic risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for WHR combined data from the UK Biobank cohort and summary statistics from previous GWAS (data collection: 2006-2018). Specific polygenic scores for higher WHR via lower gluteofemoral or via higher abdominal fat distribution were derived using WHR-associated genetic variants showing specific association with hip or waist circumference. Associations of polygenic scores with outcomes were estimated in 3 population-based cohorts, a case-cohort study, and summary statistics from 6 GWAS (data collection: 1991-2018). Exposures: More than 2.4 million common genetic variants (GWAS); polygenic scores for higher WHR (follow-up analyses). Main Outcomes and Measures: BMI-adjusted WHR and unadjusted WHR (GWAS); compartmental fat mass measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, type 2 diabetes, and coronary disease risk (follow-up analyses). Results: Among 452 302 UK Biobank participants of European ancestry, the mean (SD) age was 57 (8) years and the mean (SD) WHR was 0.87 (0.09). In genome-wide analyses, 202 independent genetic variants were associated with higher BMI-adjusted WHR (n = 660 648) and unadjusted WHR (n = 663 598). In dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry analyses (n = 18 330), the hip- and waist-specific polygenic scores for higher WHR were specifically associated with lower gluteofemoral and higher abdominal fat, respectively. In follow-up analyses (n = 636 607), both polygenic scores were associated with higher blood pressure and triglyceride levels and higher risk of diabetes (waist-specific score: odds ratio [OR], 1.57 [95% CI, 1.34-1.83], absolute risk increase per 1000 participant-years [ARI], 4.4 [95% CI, 2.7-6.5], P < .001; hip-specific score: OR, 2.54 [95% CI, 2.17-2.96], ARI, 12.0 [95% CI, 9.1-15.3], P < .001) and coronary disease (waist-specific score: OR, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.39-1.84], ARI, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.5-3.3], P < .001; hip-specific score: OR, 1.76 [95% CI, 1.53-2.02], ARI, 3.0 [95% CI, 2.1-4.0], P < .001), per 1-SD increase in BMI-adjusted WHR. Conclusions and Relevance: Distinct genetic mechanisms may be linked to gluteofemoral and abdominal fat distribution that are the basis for the calculation of the WHR. These findings may improve risk assessment and treatment of diabetes and coronary disease.


Assuntos
Gordura Abdominal , Adiposidade/genética , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
18.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0202812, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30188921

RESUMO

The genome-wide association study of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium identified over one hundred schizophrenia susceptibility loci. The number of non-coding variants discovered suggests that gene regulation could mediate the effect of these variants on disease. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) contribute to variation in levels of mRNA. Given the co-occurrence of schizophrenia and several traits not involving the central nervous system (CNS), we investigated the enrichment of schizophrenia associations among eQTLs for four non-CNS tissues: adipose tissue, epidermal tissue, lymphoblastoid cells and blood. Significant enrichment was seen in eQTLs of all tissues: adipose (ß = 0.18, p = 8.8 × 10-06), epidermal (ß = 0.12, p = 3.1 × 10-04), lymphoblastoid (ß = 0.19, p = 6.2 × 10-08) and blood (ß = 0.19, p = 6.4 × 10-06). For comparison, we looked for enrichment of association with traits of known relevance to one or more of these tissues (body mass index, height, rheumatoid arthritis, systolic blood pressure and type-II diabetes) and found that schizophrenia enrichment was of similar scale to that observed when studying diseases in the context of a more likely causal tissue. To further investigate tissue specificity, we looked for differential enrichment of eQTLs with relevant Roadmap affiliation (enhancers and promoters) and varying distance from the transcription start site. Neither factor significantly contributed to the enrichment, suggesting that this is equally distributed in tissue-specific and cross-tissue regulatory elements. Our analyses suggest that functional correlates of schizophrenia risk are prevalent in non-CNS tissues. This could be because of pleiotropy or the effectiveness of variants affecting expression in different contexts. This suggests the utility of large, single-tissue eQTL experiments to increase eQTL discovery power in the study of schizophrenia, in addition to smaller, multiple-tissue approaches. Our results conform to the notion that schizophrenia is a systemic disorder involving many tissues.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Esquizofrenia/genética , Tecido Adiposo/química , Análise Química do Sangue , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Epiderme/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
19.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 494, 2018 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29940862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is considerable evidence that many complex traits have a partially shared genetic basis, termed pleiotropy. It is therefore useful to consider integrating genome-wide association study (GWAS) data across several traits, usually at the summary statistic level. A major practical challenge arises when these GWAS have overlapping subjects. This is particularly an issue when estimating pleiotropy using methods that condition the significance of one trait on the signficance of a second, such as the covariate-modulated false discovery rate (cmfdr). RESULTS: We propose a method for correcting for sample overlap at the summary statistic level. We quantify the expected amount of spurious correlation between the summary statistics from two GWAS due to sample overlap, and use this estimated correlation in a simple linear correction that adjusts the joint distribution of test statistics from the two GWAS. The correction is appropriate for GWAS with case-control or quantitative outcomes. Our simulations and data example show that without correcting for sample overlap, the cmfdr is not properly controlled, leading to an excessive number of false discoveries and an excessive false discovery proportion. Our correction for sample overlap is effective in that it restores proper control of the false discovery rate, at very little loss in power. CONCLUSIONS: With our proposed correction, it is possible to integrate GWAS summary statistics with overlapping samples in a statistical framework that is dependent on the joint distribution of the two GWAS.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Simulação por Computador , Genótipo , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
20.
Int J Epidemiol ; 47(4): 1242-1254, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29846613

RESUMO

Background: A robust method for Mendelian randomization does not require all genetic variants to be valid instruments to give consistent estimates of a causal parameter. Several such methods have been developed, including a mode-based estimation method giving consistent estimates if a plurality of genetic variants are valid instruments; i.e. there is no larger subset of invalid instruments estimating the same causal parameter than the subset of valid instruments. Methods: We here develop a model-averaging method that gives consistent estimates under the same 'plurality of valid instruments' assumption. The method considers a mixture distribution of estimates derived from each subset of genetic variants. The estimates are weighted such that subsets with more genetic variants receive more weight, unless variants in the subset have heterogeneous causal estimates, in which case that subset is severely down-weighted. The mode of this mixture distribution is the causal estimate. This heterogeneity-penalized model-averaging method has several technical advantages over the previously proposed mode-based estimation method. Results: The heterogeneity-penalized model-averaging method outperformed the mode-based estimation in terms of efficiency and outperformed other robust methods in terms of Type 1 error rate in an extensive simulation analysis. The proposed method suggests two distinct mechanisms by which inflammation affects coronary heart disease risk, with subsets of variants suggesting both positive and negative causal effects. Conclusions: The heterogeneity-penalized model-averaging method is an additional robust method for Mendelian randomization with excellent theoretical and practical properties, and can reveal features in the data such as the presence of multiple causal mechanisms.


Assuntos
Pleiotropia Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Modelos Genéticos , Variação Genética , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
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