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1.
J Immunother Cancer ; 10(1)2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35058326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preclinical data suggest that concurrent treatment of anti-CD38 and antiprogrammed death 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibodies substantially reduce primary tumor growth by reversing T-cell exhaustion and thus enhancing anti-PD-1/PD-L1 efficacy. METHODS: This phase I/II study enrolled patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) or advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The primary objectives of phase I were to investigate the safety and tolerability of isatuximab (anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody)+cemiplimab (anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody, Isa+Cemi) in patients with mCRPC (naïve to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy) or NSCLC (progressed on anti-PD-1/PD-L1-containing therapy). Phase II used Simon's two-stage design with response rate as the primary endpoint. An interim analysis was planned after the first 24 (mCRPC) and 20 (NSCLC) patients receiving Isa+Cemi were enrolled in phase II. Safety, immunogenicity, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and antitumor activity were assessed, including CD38, PD-L1, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in the tumor microenvironment (TME), and peripheral immune cell phenotyping. RESULTS: Isa+Cemi demonstrated a manageable safety profile with no new safety signals. All patients experienced ≥1 treatment-emergent adverse event. Grade≥3 events occurred in 13 (54.2%) patients with mCRPC and 12 (60.0%) patients with NSCLC. Based on PCWG3 criteria, assessment of best overall response with Isa+Cemi in mCRPC revealed no complete responses (CRs), one (4.2%) unconfirmed partial response (PR), and five (20.8%) patients with stable disease (SD). Per RECIST V.1.1, patients with NSCLC receiving Isa+Cemi achieved no CR or PR, and 13 (65%) achieved SD. In post-therapy biopsies obtained from patients with mCRPC or NSCLC, Isa+Cemi treatment resulted in a reduction in median CD38+ tumor-infiltrating immune cells from 40% to 3%, with no consistent modulation of PD-L1 on tumor cells or T regulatory cells in the TME. The combination triggered a significant increase in peripheral activated and cytolytic T cells but, interestingly, decreased natural killer cells. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that CD38 and PD-1 modulation by Isa+Cemi has a manageable safety profile, reduces CD38+ immune cells in the TME, and activates peripheral T cells; however, such CD38 inhibition was not associated with significant antitumor activity. A lack of efficacy was observed in these small cohorts of patients with mCRPC or NSCLC. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: NCT03367819.

3.
Curr Oncol Rep ; 23(12): 147, 2021 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748099

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Therapeutic alternatives to treat metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) are increasing, and combination therapies, including antiangiogenic agents and tyrosine kinase/mTOR/immune checkpoint inhibitors, are identified as the gold standard driven by the results of recent clinical studies. Nevertheless, the real-world RCC population is very heterogeneous, with categories of patients not represented in the enrolled trial population who may not benefit more from these treatments. The purpose of this expert review is to assess the rationale on which tyrosine kinase alone may still be a viable first-line treatment option for some subgroups of patients with mRCC. RECENT FINDINGS: The first-line treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitor monotherapy can still be considered an effective tool for addressing selected mRCCs, as highlighted by the successful outcome in a range of subjects such as favorable-risk patients, the ones suffering from autoimmune diseases, those with pancreatic or lung metastases, or previously undergoing organ transplantation and elderly subjects. Some selected categories of patients may still benefit from monotherapy with TKI, and smart sequential therapies can also be considered instead of a combination strategy. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors can also act as immune modulator agents, boosting the immune response to facilitate and potentiate the therapeutic effectiveness of subsequent immunotherapy.

4.
Cancer ; 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis has an important role in thymic epithelial tumors (TETs). Regorafenib inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs), platelet-derived growth factor receptor ß (PDGFR-ß), and fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs). This study explored the activity of regorafenib as monotherapy in patients with advanced or recurrent B2-B3 thymoma (T) and thymic carcinoma (TC) previously treated with platinum-containing chemotherapy. METHODS: A Fleming single-arm, single-stage, phase 2 trial to evaluate the activity of regorafenib (160 mg once a day by mouth for 3 weeks on/1 week off) was planned. The study was designed to reject the null hypothesis of an 8-week progression-free survival (PFS) rate ≤25% with a type I error of 0.10 and a statistical power of 80% at the alternative hypothesis of an 8-week PFS rate of ≥50% (≥8 of 19 evaluable patients progression-free at 2 months). RESULTS: From June 2016 to November 2017, 19 patients were enrolled (11T/8TC). We observed partial response (PR) in 1 patient (1T) (5.3%), stable disease (SD) in 14 patients (9T/5TC) (73.7%), and progressive disease in 2 patients (1T/1TC) (10.5%), with a disease control rate of 78.9%. According to Choi-criteria, 13 patients (68.4%) achieved PR, and 2 patients SD (10.5%). The median PFS was 9.6 months whereas median overall survival was 33.8 months. The 8-week PFS rate was 78.9% (15 of 19 patients). Grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events were observed in 10 patients (52.6%). CONCLUSIONS: The primary end point of this study was reached. The high rate of PR (Choi-criteria) suggests antitumor activity of regorafenib in TETs. On the basis of survival outcomes, the efficacy of regorafenib should be further evaluated in larger studies.

5.
Ther Adv Urol ; 13: 17562872211054302, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34707691

RESUMO

Background: Considering the growing genitourinary (GU) cancer population undergoing systemic treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, we planned a clinical audit in 24 Italian institutions treating GU malignancies. Objective: The primary objective was investigating the clinical impact of COVID-19 in GU cancer patients undergoing ICI-based therapy during the first outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 contagion in Italy. Design setting and participants: The included centers were 24 Oncology Departments. Two online forms were completed by the responsible Oncology Consultants, respectively, for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) and metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) patients receiving at least one administration of ICIs between 31 January 2020 and 30 June 2020. Results and limitation: In total, 287 mRCC patients and 130 mUC patients were included. The COVID-19 incidence was, respectively, 3.5%, with mortality 1%, in mRCC patients and 7.7%, with mortality 3.1%, in mUC patients. In both groups, 40% of patients developing COVID-19 permanently discontinued anticancer treatment. The pre-test SARS-CoV-2 probability in the subgroup of patients who underwent nasal/pharyngeal swab ranged from 14% in mRCC to 26% in mUC. The main limitation of the work was its nature of audit: data were not recorded at the single-patient level. Conclusion: GU cancer patients undergoing active treatment with ICIs have meaningful risk factors for developing severe events from COVID-19 and permanent discontinuation of therapy after the infection. Treatment delays due to organizational issues during the pandemic were unlikely to affect the treatment outcome in this population.

6.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(10): 1438-1447, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a preclinical rationale for inhibiting angiogenesis in mesothelioma. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of the anti-VEGFR-2 antibody ramucirumab combined with gemcitabine in patients with pretreated malignant pleural mesothelioma. METHODS: RAMES was a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial done at 26 hospitals in Italy. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-2, and histologically proven malignant pleural mesothelioma progressing during or after first-line treatment with pemetrexed plus platinum. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks plus either intravenous placebo (gemcitabine plus placebo group) or ramucirumab 10 mg/kg (gemcitabine plus ramucirumab group) on day 1 every 3 weeks, until tumour progression or unacceptable toxicity. Central randomisation was done according to a minimisation algorithm method, associated with a random element using the following stratification factors: ECOG performance status, age, histology, and first-line time-to-progression. The primary endpoint was overall survival, measured from the date of randomisation to the date of death from any cause. Efficacy analyses were assessed in all patients who had been correctly randomised and received their allocated treatment, and safety analyses were assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of their assigned treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03560973, and with EudraCT, 2016-001132-36. FINDINGS: Between Dec 22, 2016, and July 30, 2018, of 165 patients enrolled 161 were correctly assigned and received either gemcitabine plus placebo (n=81) or gemcitabine plus ramucirumab (n=80). At database lock (March 8, 2020), with a median follow-up of 21·9 months (IQR 17·7-28·5), overall survival was longer in the ramucirumab group (HR 0·71, 70% CI 0·59-0·85; p=0·028). Median overall survival was 13·8 months (70% CI 12·7-14·4) in the gemcitabine plus ramucirumab group and 7·5 months (6·9-8·9) in the gemcitabine plus placebo group. Grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events were reported in 35 (44%) of 80 patients in the gemcitabine plus ramucirumab group and 24 (30%) of 81 in the gemcitabine plus placebo group. The most common treatment-related grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (16 [20%] for gemcitabine plus ramucirumab vs ten [12%] for gemcitabine plus placebo) and hypertension (five [6%] vs none). Treatment-related serious adverse events were reported in five (6%) in the gemcitabine plus ramucirumab group and in four (5%) patients in the gemcitabine plus placebo group; the most common was thromboembolism (three [4%] for gemcitabine plus ramucirumab vs two [2%] for gemcitabine plus placebo). There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: Ramucirumab plus gemcitabine significantly improved overall survival after first-line standard chemotherapy, with a favourable safety profile. This combination could be a new option in this setting. FUNDING: Eli Lilly Italy. TRANSLATION: For the Italian translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Mesotelioma Maligno/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pleurais/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Mesotelioma Maligno/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma Maligno/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pleurais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pleurais/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Fatores de Tempo
8.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(5)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Until now, no robust data supported the efficacy, safety and recommendation for influenza vaccination in patients with cancer receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). METHODS: The prospective multicenter observational INfluenza Vaccine Indication During therapy with Immune checkpoint inhibitors (INVIDIa-2) study investigated the clinical effectiveness of influenza vaccination in patients with advanced cancer receiving ICIs, enrolled in 82 Italian centers from October 2019 to January 2020. The primary endpoint was the time-adjusted incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) until April 30, 2020. Secondary endpoints regarded ILI severity and vaccine safety. RESULTS: The study enrolled 1279 patients; 1188 patients were evaluable for the primary endpoint analysis. Of them, 48.9% (581) received influenza vaccination. The overall ILI incidence was 8.2% (98 patients). Vaccinated patients were significantly more frequently elderly (p<0.0001), males (p=0.004), with poor European Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (p=0.009), affected by lung cancer (p=0.01), and by other non-cancer comorbidities (p<0.0001) when compared with unvaccinated. ILI incidence was not different basing on influenza vaccination: the time-to-ILI was similar in vaccinated and unvaccinated patients (p=0.62). ILI complications were significantly less frequent for patients receiving the vaccination (11.8% vs 38.3% in unvaccinated, p=0.002). ILI-related intravenous therapies were significantly less frequent in vaccinated patients than in unvaccinated (11.8% vs 29.8%, p=0.027). ILI lethality was, respectively, 0% in vaccinated and 4.3% in unvaccinated patients. Vaccine-related adverse events were rare and mild (1.5%, grades 1-2). CONCLUSION: The INVIDIa-2 study results support a positive recommendation for influenza vaccination in patients with advanced cancer receiving immunotherapy.

9.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 13: 17588359211019642, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046089

RESUMO

Background: Despite the survival advantage, not all metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients achieve a long-term benefit from immunotherapy. Moreover, the identification of prognostic biomarkers is still an unmet clinical need. Methods: This multicenter retrospective study investigated the prognostic role of peripheral-blood inflammatory indices and clinical factors to develop a novel prognostic score in mRCC patients receiving at least second-line nivolumab. The complete blood count before the first cycle of therapy was assessed by calculating neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived NLR (dNLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), systemic inflammation index (SII), and systemic inflammation response index (SIRI). Clinical factors included pre-treatment International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium (IMDC) score, line of therapy, and metastatic sites. Results: From October 2015 to November 2019, 571 mRCC patients received nivolumab as second- and further-line treatment in 69% and 31% of cases. In univariable and multivariable analyses all inflammatory indices, IMDC score, and bone metastases significantly correlated with overall survival (OS). The multivariable model with NLR, IMDC score, and bone metastases had the highest c-index (0.697) and was chosen for the developing of the score (Schneeweiss scoring system). After internal validation (bootstrap re-sampling), the final index (Meet-URO score) composed by NLR, IMDC score, and bone metastases had a c-index of 0.691. It identified five categories with distinctive OSs: group 1 (median OS - mOS = not reached), group 2 (mOS = 43.9 months), group 3 (mOS = 22.4 months), group 4 (mOS = 10.3 months), and group 5 (mOS = 3.2 months). Moreover, the Meet-URO score allowed for a fine risk-stratification across all three IMDC groups. Conclusion: The Meet-URO score allowed for the accurate stratification of pretreated mRCC patients receiving nivolumab and is easily applicable for clinical practice at no additional cost. Future steps include its external validation, the assessment of its predictivity, and its application to first-line combinations.

10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809465

RESUMO

Cancer patients may be at high risk of infection and poor outcomes related to SARS-CoV-2. Analyzing their prognosis, examining the effects of baseline characteristics and systemic anti-cancer active therapy (SACT) are critical to their management through the evolving COVID-19 pandemic. The AIOM-L CORONA was a multicenter, observational, ambispective, cohort study, with the intended participation of 26 centers in the Lombardy region (Italy). A total of 231 cases were included between March and September 2020. The median age was 68 years; 151 patients (62.2%) were receiving SACT, mostly chemotherapy. During a median follow-up of 138 days (range 12-218), 93 events occurred. Age ≥60 years, metastatic dissemination, dyspnea, desaturation, and interstitial pneumonia were all independent mortality predictors. Overall SACT had a neutral effect (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.83, 95%Confidence Interval [95%CI] 0.32-2.15); however, metastatic patients receiving SACT were less likely to die as compared to untreated counterparts, after adjusting for other confounding variables (OR 0.23, 95%CI 0.11-0.51, p < 0.001). Among cancer patients infected by SARS-CoV-2, those with metastases were most at risk of death, especially in the absence of SACT. During the ongoing pandemic, these vulnerable patients should avoid exposure to SARS-CoV-2, while treatment adjustments and prioritizing vaccination are being considered according to international recommendations.

11.
Thorac Cancer ; 12(9): 1271-1278, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Significant efforts have been made to investigate the molecular pathways involved in thymic carcinogenesis. However, genetic findings have still not impacted clinical practice. The aim of this exploratory trial was to evaluate the immunoscore and molecular profile of a series of thymic carcinomas (TCs), correlating this data with clinical outcome. METHODS: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) TC tissues were retrieved from our center archive. The immunoscore was evaluated according to Angell and Gallon. DNA was extracted from FFPE tumor samples and, when available, from adjacent histologically normal tissues. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed targeting hotspot regions of 50 oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. RESULTS: A series of 15 TCs were analyzed. After a median follow-up of 82.4 months, the median overall survival was 104.7 months. The immunoscore was >2 in 5/15 patients (33%). Among the investigated genes, absence of mutations was observed in 5/15 patients (33%), whereas three variants in 1/15 (6%) patient, two variants in 4/15 (26%) patients, and one variant in 5/15 patients (33%) were found. The most recurrently mutated genes were FGFR3 (five mutations) and CDKN2A (three mutations, two of which were nonsense). Patients with CDKN2A loss showed a statistically significantly worse survival (P = 0.0013), whereas patients with FGFR3 mutations showed a statistically significantly better survival (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS: This study adds data to the few existing reports on the mutational landscape of TCs, providing the first comprehensive analysis to date. Here, we confirm the low rate of mutations in TCs and suggest FGFR3 and CDKN2A mutations as intriguing potential therapeutic targets.

12.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 22(4): 361-370.e3, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732073

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: New therapeutic approaches in unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) are eagerly awaited. Trabectedin is an antitumor agent with an effect on cancer cell proliferation and a modulating action on tumor microenvironment. The ATREUS study explored the activity and safety of trabectedin in patients with unresectable MPM. METHODS: Epithelioid patients with MPM received trabectedin as second-line while biphasic/sarcomatoid patients with MPM as first- or second-line therapy. Treatment was given intravenously at an initially planned dose of 1.3 mg/m2 every 3 weeks, until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival rate at 12 weeks (PFS12wks). RESULTS: Overall, 78 patients (54%) had epithelioid and 67 (46%) nonepithelioid MPM. PFS12wks in 62 evaluable patients with epithelioid MPM was 43.5% (80% confidence interval 34.9%-52.5%); median progression-free and overall survival were 2.4 and 9.0 months, respectively. PFS12wks in 52 evaluable patients with nonepithelioid MPM was 30.8% (90% confidence interval 20.3%-42.9%); median progression-free and overall survival were 1.7 and 5.4 months. Trabectedin starting dose was amended due to excess of liver toxicity. Eighty-four (64%) and 48 (36%) patients received 1.3 mg/m2 and 1.1. mg/m2, respectively. The most common grade 3-4 toxicities were hepatotoxicity, leukopenia/neutropenia, and fatigue. Grade 3-4 hepatotoxicity was reported in 59 (70%) patients treated at 1.3 mg/m2, and in 19 (40%) treated at 1.1 mg/m2. CONCLUSIONS: Trabectedin showed modest clinical activity, at the expense of relevant liver toxicity. Further development of this drug in MPM at full doses is not warranted.

13.
Front Oncol ; 10: 568279, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194654

RESUMO

Patients with muscle-infiltrating bladder cancer (MIBC) present a high risk of postoperative recurrence and death from metastatic urothelial cancer despite surgical resection. Before the use of peri-operative chemotherapy, about half (52%) of patients undergoing radical cystectomy had had a relapse of tumor disease within 5 years of surgery. However, when peri-operative cisplatin-based chemotherapy is added to radical cystectomy for patients with MIBC it provides limited benefit in terms of survival, disease recurrence and development of metastases, at the expense of toxic effects. In fact, a significant proportion of patients still recurs and die to metastatic disease. Given the success of immune-oncological drugs in metastatic urothelial cancer, several trials started to test them in patients with non-metastatic MIBC either in neo-adjuvant and adjuvant setting. The preliminary results of these studies in neo-adjuvant setting are showing great promise, confirming the potential benefits of immunotherapy also in patients with non-metastatic MIBC. The aim of this review is to present an overview of developments happening on the introduction of immunotherapy in peri-operative setting in non-metastatic urothelial cancer. Moreover, an analysis of the critical issues regarding how best customize the delivery of immunotherapy to optimize efficacy and minimize the adverse effects, with particular focus on potential prognostic and predictive molecular biomarkers, is done.

14.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 12: 1758835920968463, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33224275

RESUMO

Background: This prospective, multicentre, observational INVIDIa-2 study is investigating the clinical efficacy of influenza vaccination in advanced-cancer patients receiving immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), enrolled in 82 Italian centres, from October 2019 to January 2020. The primary endpoint was the incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) until 30 April 2020. All the ILI episodes, laboratory tests, complications, hospitalizations and pneumonitis were recorded. Therefore, the study prospectively recorded all the COVID-19 ILI events. Patients and methods: Patients were included in this non-prespecified COVID-19 analysis, if alive on 31 January 2020, when the Italian government declared the national emergency. The prevalence of confirmed COVID-19 cases was detected as ILI episode with laboratory confirmation of SARS-CoV-2. Cases with clinical-radiological diagnosis of COVID-19 (COVID-like ILIs), were also reported. Results: Out of 1257 enrolled patients, 955 matched the inclusion criteria for this unplanned analysis. From 31 January to 30 April 2020, 66 patients had ILI: 9 of 955 cases were confirmed COVID-19 ILIs, with prevalence of 0.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.3-2.4], a hospitalization rate of 100% and a mortality rate of 77.8%. Including 5 COVID-like ILIs, the overall COVID-19 prevalence was 1.5% (95% CI: 0.5-3.1), with 100% hospitalization and 64% mortality. The presence of elderly, males and comorbidities was significantly higher among patients vaccinated against influenza versus unvaccinated (p = 0.009, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001). Overall COVID-19 prevalence was 1.2% for vaccinated (six of 482 cases, all confirmed) and 1.7% for unvaccinated (8 of 473, 3 confirmed COVID-19 and 5 COVID-like), p = 0.52. The difference remained non-significant, considering confirmed COVID-19 only (p = 0.33). Conclusion: COVID-19 has a meaningful clinical impact on the cancer-patient population receiving ICIs, with high prevalence, hospitalization and an alarming mortality rate among symptomatic cases. Influenza vaccination does not protect from SARS-CoV-2 infection.

15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065998

RESUMO

Purpose: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive cancer. Data are not available in prospective trials on correlations between genetic alterations and outcomes of therapies. In this study, we assessed the genetic profile of MPM patients (pts) in tissue samples. Patients and Methods: From December 2016 to July 2018 (end of enrolment), 164 pts were enrolled. We evaluated by targeted sequencing the mutational profile of a panel of 34 genes: ACTB, ACTG1, ACTG2, ACTR1A, BAP1, CDH8, CDK4, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, COL3A1, COL5A2, CUL1, DHFR, GOT1, KDR, KIT, MXRA5, NF2, NFRKB, NKX6-2, NOD2, PCBD2, PDZK1IP1, PIK3CA, PIK3CB, PSMD13, RAPGEF6, RDX, SETDB1, TAOK1, TP53, TXNRD1, UQCRC1, XRCC6. Genetic profiling was correlated with clinical and pathological variables. Results: Overall, 110 pts (67%) from both treatment arms had samples available for molecular analysis. Median age was 63 years (45-81), 25.5% (n = 28) were females, and 74.5% (n = 82) were males. Tumor histotype was 81.8% (n = 90) epithelioid and 18.2% (n = 20) non-epithelioid; 28.5% of the tumors (n = 42) were stage IV, 71.5% (n = 68) were stage III. Targeted sequencing of tissue specimens identified 275 functional somatic mutations in the 34 genes analyzed. The number of mutated genes was positively associated with higher stage and metastatic disease (p = 0.025). RDX (42%), MXRA5 (23%), BAP1 (14%), and NF2 (11%) were the most frequently mutated genes. Mutations in RAPGEF6 (p = 0.03) and ACTG1 (p = 0.02) were associated with the non-epithelioid subtype, and mutations in BAP1 (p = 0.04) were related to progression-free survival (PFS) > 6 months. Conclusions: In the Ramucirumab Mesothelioma clinical trial (RAMES), mutation of the gene BAP1 is related to a prolonged PFS for patients treated with platinum/pemetrexed regimens (p = 0.04).

16.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 18(6): 477-488, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy has brought clinical benefits to patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC). Most patients tolerate immunotherapy but serious immune-related adverse events (irAEs) have been reported. Some studies indicate a correlation between irAEs and clinical response in other cancer types (eg, lung cancer and melanoma). For patients with mRCC, the impact of irAE on clinical outcome is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 167 patients with mRCC treated with nivolumab as standard of care between March 2017 and January 2018 in 16 Italian centers was performed. irAEs were assessed using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v.4.0. RESULTS: Any grade and grade 3/4 irAEs occurred in 46% and 8.9% of patients, respectively. The median time to appearance of irAEs was 10 weeks; 38.8% of patients required steroid treatment. The most common irAEs were cutaneous (33.7%) and gastrointestinal (23.3%). The median overall survival and progression-free survival were 20.13 and 7.86 months, respectively. Patients with irAEs showed a greater overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-0.63) and progression-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.29-0.66) benefit as well as better overall response rate (27.3% vs. 13.7%; odds ratio, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.03-5.44) and disease control rate (68.8% vs. 48%; odds ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.23-4.67) if compared with those without irAEs. No correlation was found between steroid use and clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis revealed that the appearance of irAEs was associated with better outcomes in patients treated with nivolumab. This data may be limited by sample size and the retrospective nature of the study.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Br J Cancer ; 123(4): 644-656, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Expression of proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) is associated with survival of mesothelioma patients treated with pemetrexed, and is reduced by hypoxia, prompting studies to elucidate their correlation. METHODS: Modulation of glycolytic gene expression was evaluated by PCR arrays in tumour cells and primary cultures growing under hypoxia, in spheroids and after PCFT silencing. Inhibitors of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-A) were tested in vitro and in vivo. LDH-A expression was determined in tissue microarrays of radically resected malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM, N = 33) and diffuse peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM, N = 56) patients. RESULTS: Overexpression of hypoxia marker CAIX was associated with low PCFT expression and decreased MPM cell growth inhibition by pemetrexed. Through integration of PCR arrays in hypoxic cells and spheroids and following PCFT silencing, we identified the upregulation of LDH-A, which correlated with shorter survival of MPM and DMPM patients. Novel LDH-A inhibitors enhanced spheroid disintegration and displayed synergistic effects with pemetrexed in MPM and gemcitabine in DMPM cells. Studies with bioluminescent hypoxic orthotopic and subcutaneous DMPM athymic-mice models revealed the marked antitumour activity of the LDH-A inhibitor NHI-Glc-2, alone or combined with gemcitabine. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel insights into hypoxia/PCFT-dependent chemoresistance, unravelling the potential prognostic value of LDH-A, and demonstrating the preclinical activity of LDH-A inhibitors.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Anidrase Carbônica IX/genética , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/genética , Mesotelioma Maligno/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Peritoneais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pleurais/tratamento farmacológico , Transportador de Folato Acoplado a Próton/genética , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Hipóxia Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mesotelioma Maligno/genética , Mesotelioma Maligno/metabolismo , Camundongos , Pemetrexede/administração & dosagem , Pemetrexede/farmacologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/genética , Neoplasias Peritoneais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pleurais/genética , Neoplasias Pleurais/metabolismo , Transportador de Folato Acoplado a Próton/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Lung Cancer ; 142: 132-137, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102735

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Second-line chemotherapy is not a standard of care in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) that progresses after first-line treatment with cisplatin and pemetrexed. In pre-clinical models, the combination of gemcitabine (GEM) and imatinib mesylate (IM), compared with GEM alone, led to a further tumor growth inhibition and improved survival. This phase II study evaluates the antitumor activity of a combination of IM and GEM in platinum-pemetrexed-pretreated MPM patients expressing PDGFR-ß and/or cKIT by immunohistochemistry (IHC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: GEM (1000 mg/m2) was given on days 3 and 10; IM (400 mg) was taken orally on days 1-5 and 8-12 of a 21-day cycle. The primary endpoint was the 3-month progression-free survival (PFS) rate. The study follows the optimal two-stage design of Simon. A 3-month PFS target of 75 % was required. With a probability error α = 10 % and a power of 80 %, the calculated sample size was 22 patients. In particular, in the first step, six out of nine patients and globally 14/22 patients free from progressive disease at 3 months were required. Secondary endpoints included response rate, duration of response, toxicity and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: In total, 23 patients were enrolled (ECOG PS 0-1/2: 9/13; one previous line/≥two previous lines: 10/13). Partial response was achieved in four patients (17.4 %) and stable disease in 11 (47.8 %) with a disease control rate of 65.3 %. After a median follow-up of 34.5 months, median PFS and OS were 2.8 and 5.7 months, respectively. The 3-month PFS rate was 39.1 % (9/23 patients). All-grade drug-related adverse events occurred in 17 (73.9 %) patients. Grade 3 treatment-related adverse events were observed in four (17 %) patients. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of IM and GEM is well tolerated in platinum-pemetrexed-pretreated MPM patients expressing PDGFR-ß and/or cKIT by IHC, but it does not show a significant PFS benefit.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Mesotelioma Maligno/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pleurais/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Salvação , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Mesotelioma Maligno/patologia , Pemetrexede/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
Nucl Med Commun ; 40(11): 1179-1186, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568271

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In-vivo characterization of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) with C-methionine PET/computed tomography (MET PET). METHODS: Between September 2014 and February 2016, 30 consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of MPM were prospectively recruited. The study was approved and registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02519049). Patients were evaluated at baseline with MET PET (experimental) and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET/computed tomography (FDG PET) (standard). Principal parameters analyzed were SUVmax, SUVmean, metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and metabolic tumor burden (MTB = MTV ×SUVmean). The reference standard for diagnostic performance was based on histology. RESULTS: The presence of malignancy was confirmed in 29/30 patients: 23 (76.6%) with MPM (20 epithelioid, two biphasic, and one sarcomatoid), five (16.6%) with adenocarcinoma of the lung, and one (3.3%) with an undifferentiated carcinoma. In one case, diagnosis was benign pleural inflammation. All tumors showed increased uptake of C-methionine: median SUVmax, SUVmean, MTV, and MTB were, respectively, 5.70 [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.51-6.79], 3.15 (95% CI: 2.71-3.40), 33.85 (95% CI: 14.08-66.64), and 105.25 (95% CI: 41.77-215.25). Pathology data revealed MTV and MTB to be significantly higher in nonepithelioid histology (P < 0.05). The other parameters showed a homogeneous distribution across the tumor types. Overall, MET PET identified 49 lymph nodes, compared with 34 nodes on FDG PET, demonstrating a sensitivity of 91% (95% CI: 80-96%), a positive predictive value of 92% (95% CI: 82- 97%), and an accuracy of 85% (P = 0.0042). CONCLUSIONS: MET PET is able to characterize MPM lesions regardless of histology. This technique shows higher sensitivity than FDG PET for the identification of secondary lymph nodes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Mesotelioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Metionina/metabolismo , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Radioisótopos de Carbono , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Masculino , Mesotelioma Maligno , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 71: 76-87, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30366202

RESUMO

Thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) are a heterogenous group of rare tumors, with a complex histopatological classification. Furthermore, the recent introduction of the first TNM staging system, that is scheduled to replace the Masaoka-Koga system, may create further difficulties in TET management, that remains challenging. Several guidelines for treatment of TETs are available and provide recommendations based mainly on non randomized trials and retrospective or limited series. Often the lack of evidence leads to formulation of indications based on expert opinions. As for other rare cancers it is crucial to create networks to coordinate the work among centres involved in treatment of these diseases in order to offer the best diagnostic and therapeutic tools. For this purpose, in 2014 a network named TYME (ThYmic MalignanciEs), was founded in Italy with the aim of improving care and research in TETs. In September 2017 a panel of multidisciplinary experts from TYME network and from other Italian centres strongly involved in TET diagnosis and treatment convened a first Italian Expert meeting together with representatives of association for patients affected by rare thoracic cancers Tu.To.R, to explore how these tumors are managed in the different centres of Italy compared to ESMO guidelines. In this paper we summarize the issues discussed during that meeting and we propose recommandations based on Masaoka Koga and the new TNM staging system.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/terapia , Neoplasias do Timo/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Timo/terapia , Doenças Autoimunes/etiologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/patologia , Neoplasias do Timo/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Timo/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
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