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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(9)2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35565422

RESUMO

This is a retrospective analysis on the safety and activity of compassionate Ipilimumab and Nivolumab (IPI-NIVO) administered to patients with metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma (mRCC) with intermediate or poor International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium (IMDC) score as a first-line regimen. IPI was infused at 1 mg/kg in combination with Nivolumab 3 mg/kg every three weeks for four doses, followed by maintenance Nivolumab (240 or 480 mg flat dose every two or four weeks, respectively) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. A total of 324 patients started IPI-NIVO at 86 Italian centers. Median age was 62 years, 68.2% IMDC intermediate risk. Primary tumor had been removed in 65.1% of patients. Two hundred and twenty patients (67.9%) completed the four IPI-NIVO doses. Investigator-assessed overall response rate was 37.6% (2.8% complete). Twelve-month survival rate was 66.8%, median progression-free survival was 8.3 months. Grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 67 patients (26.9%). IMDC intermediate risk, nephrectomy, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, and steroid use for toxicities correlated with improved survival, while age < 70 years did not. IPI-NIVO combination is a feasible and effective regimen for the first-line treatment of intermediate-poor IMDC risk mRCC patients in routine clinical practice.

2.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 23(8): 929-946, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508368

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The paucity of the therapeutic armamentarium currently available for patients with malignant mesothelioma clearly represents a huge unmet need. Over the last years, based on new advances in understanding the biology of mesothelioma, new therapeutic approaches have been investigated. AREAS COVERED: In this manuscript, the literature data regarding the advances in drug treatment for patients with mesothelioma are critically reviewed, focusing particularly on immunotherapy and targeted therapy. EXPERT OPINION: The latest findings on immunotherapy and targeted therapy are changing the therapeutic armamentarium for mesothelioma. However, mesothelioma comprises genomically different subtypes and the phenotypic diversity combined with the rarity of this disease represents a major criticality in developing new effective therapies. Although the first clinical data are encouraging, the treatment's stratification by molecular characteristics for mesothelioma is only at the beginning. Luckily, the rapid improvement of understanding the biology of mesothelioma is producing new opportunities in discovering new therapeutic targets to test in pre-clinical settings and to transfer in the clinical setting. In this evolving scenario, the future perspectives for mesothelioma patients seem really promising.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma Maligno , Mesotelioma , Neoplasias Pleurais , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mesotelioma/tratamento farmacológico , Mesotelioma Maligno/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pleurais/terapia
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(10)2022 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35628597

RESUMO

Pleural mesothelioma (PM) is an aggressive tumor with few therapeutic options. Although patients with epithelioid PM (ePM) survive longer than non-epithelioid PM (non-ePM), heterogeneity of tumor response in ePM is observed. The role of the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) in the development and progression of PM is currently considered a promising biomarker. A few studies have used high-throughput technologies correlated with TIME evaluation and morphologic and clinical data. This study aimed to identify different morphological, immunohistochemical, and transcriptional profiles that could potentially predict the outcome. A retrospective multicenter cohort of 129 chemonaive PM patients was recruited. Tissue slides were reviewed by dedicated pathologists for histotype classification and immunophenotype of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and lymphoid aggregates or tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS). ePM (n = 99) survivors were further classified into long (>36 months) or short (<12 months) survivors. RNAseq was performed on a subset of 69 samples. Distinct transcriptional profiling in long and short ePM survivors was found. An inflammatory background with a higher number of B lymphocytes and a prevalence of TLS formations were detected in long compared to short ePM survivors. These results suggest that B cell infiltration could be important in modulating disease aggressiveness, opening a pathway for novel immunotherapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Mesotelioma Maligno , Mesotelioma , Neoplasias Pleurais , Estruturas Linfoides Terciárias , Humanos , Mesotelioma/genética , Neoplasias Pleurais/genética , Sobreviventes , Estruturas Linfoides Terciárias/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
4.
J Bone Oncol ; 33: 100421, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35310388

RESUMO

Background and Objective: Prediction of fractures in cancer survivors exposed to hormone-deprivation therapies (HDTs) is a challenge since bone loss is rapid and severe, and determinants of fractures in this setting are still largely unknown. In this study we investigated reliability of the WHO Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) and bone mineral density (BMD) to identify subjects developing vertebral fractures during HDTs. Design: Five-hundred-twenty-seven consecutive subjects (429 females with breast cancer, 98 males with prostate cancer; median age 61 years), under HDTs for at least 6 months, were evaluated for vertebral fractures by a radiological and morphometric approach, in relationship with FRAX score, body mass index (BMI), BMD, age and duration of HDTs. Results: Vertebral fractures were found in 140 subjects (26.6%) and spine deformity index was significantly associated with duration of HDTs (rho 0.38; p < 0.001). Only in females, vertebral fractures were significantly associated with FRAX score for major fractures [OR 1.08; P < 0.001]. The best cut-off of FRAX score for major fractures, as calculated by receiving operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was 6.35%. In males, however, vertebral fractures were significantly and independently associated with BMI ≥ 25 Kg/m2 (OR 17.63; P < 0.001), BMD T-score below -1.0 SD at any skeletal site (OR 7.79; P < 0.001) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) plus abiraterone treatment (OR 11.51; P = 0.001). Conclusions: FRAX and BMD may be useful for predicting vertebral fractures in subjects undergoing HDTs, but the thresholds seem to be lower than those used in the general population. High BMI is a determinant of vertebral fractures in males under HDT.

5.
Eur J Cancer ; 166: 202-207, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35306318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: International guidelines recommend severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine for patients with cancer. A substantial risk of developing vaccine-related autoimmune toxicities could be hypothesised for patients with thymic epithelial tumours (TETs) due to their high risk of autoimmune disorders (ADs). Moreover, a cross-reaction between SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibodies and various tissue proteins has been shown, and antibodies against nucleoproteins showed overlaps in the autoimmune cross-reaction with antibodies to spike protein. Due to the rarity of TETs, no data addressing this hypothesis are available. METHODS: Patients with TETs who received SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, treated in 4 referral centres of the Italian Collaborative Group for ThYmic MalignanciEs (TYME) network between February 2021 and September 2021, were interviewed through a standardised 15-items questionnaire in order to describe the safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in patients affected by TETs. RESULTS: Data from 245 doses of vaccine administered to 126 patients (41 = thymic carcinoma, 85 = thymoma; 38 with AD, of which 26 with active AD) were collected. Nine patients had a previous COVID-19-positive swab. No cases of AD reactivation or worsening of a pre-existing AD were seen in the study population. A new diagnosis of myasthenia gravis likely unrelated to the vaccine was made in two patients after the vaccination. Sixty-four patients (51%) experienced a total of 103 adverse events, all G1/G2, most commonly fatigue, new or worsening muscle pain and chills. None AE required patients' hospitalisation. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines appear to be safe in patients with TET, even in case of active or pre-existing AD.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes , COVID-19 , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares , Neoplasias do Timo , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus
6.
Clin Exp Metastasis ; 39(3): 449-457, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35190933

RESUMO

Oligoprogression is defined as limited metastatic clone resistant to on-going systemic treatment that grows in a background of stable or responding systemic disease. Aim of the present study was to analyze oligoprogressive prostate cancer (PC) patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) during systemic treatment to identify predictive factors and improve patients' selection. We included PC patients treated with SBRT on a maximum of 3 sites of oligoprogression during systemic therapy. Endpoints were freedom from polymetastatic progression (FPP), local control (LC), distant progression free survival (DPFS), overall survival (OS), and next systemic therapy free survival (NEST-FS). Fifty-three patients were treated on 85 oligoprogressive metastases. Lymph nodes were the most common sites (56.47%), followed by bone (39.29%). Median follow-up was 24.9 months. Rates of FPP at 1- and 2-year were 80.1% and 68.9%, respectively. Median time to polymetastatic progression was 33.7 months. Disease free interval (p = 0.004), site of metastases (p = 0.011), and type of systemic therapy (p = 0.003) were significant for FPP. Switch or intensification of systemic therapy after SBRT was observed in 29 (54.72%) patients with a median NEST-FS of 15.2 months. LC at 1- and 2-year was 94.0% and 92.0%, with PSA doubling time resulted to be significantly associated (p = 0.047). Median DPFS was 8.93 months and median OS was 50.6 months. In conclusion, we confirmed the efficacy of SBRT for oligoprogression from PC, with the potential to prolong the on-going systemic therapy and interrupt the metastatic cascade.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , Radiocirurgia , Humanos , Linfonodos/patologia , Masculino , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Immunother Cancer ; 10(1)2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35058326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preclinical data suggest that concurrent treatment of anti-CD38 and antiprogrammed death 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibodies substantially reduce primary tumor growth by reversing T-cell exhaustion and thus enhancing anti-PD-1/PD-L1 efficacy. METHODS: This phase I/II study enrolled patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) or advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The primary objectives of phase I were to investigate the safety and tolerability of isatuximab (anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody)+cemiplimab (anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody, Isa+Cemi) in patients with mCRPC (naïve to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy) or NSCLC (progressed on anti-PD-1/PD-L1-containing therapy). Phase II used Simon's two-stage design with response rate as the primary endpoint. An interim analysis was planned after the first 24 (mCRPC) and 20 (NSCLC) patients receiving Isa+Cemi were enrolled in phase II. Safety, immunogenicity, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and antitumor activity were assessed, including CD38, PD-L1, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in the tumor microenvironment (TME), and peripheral immune cell phenotyping. RESULTS: Isa+Cemi demonstrated a manageable safety profile with no new safety signals. All patients experienced ≥1 treatment-emergent adverse event. Grade≥3 events occurred in 13 (54.2%) patients with mCRPC and 12 (60.0%) patients with NSCLC. Based on PCWG3 criteria, assessment of best overall response with Isa+Cemi in mCRPC revealed no complete responses (CRs), one (4.2%) unconfirmed partial response (PR), and five (20.8%) patients with stable disease (SD). Per RECIST V.1.1, patients with NSCLC receiving Isa+Cemi achieved no CR or PR, and 13 (65%) achieved SD. In post-therapy biopsies obtained from patients with mCRPC or NSCLC, Isa+Cemi treatment resulted in a reduction in median CD38+ tumor-infiltrating immune cells from 40% to 3%, with no consistent modulation of PD-L1 on tumor cells or T regulatory cells in the TME. The combination triggered a significant increase in peripheral activated and cytolytic T cells but, interestingly, decreased natural killer cells. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that CD38 and PD-1 modulation by Isa+Cemi has a manageable safety profile, reduces CD38+ immune cells in the TME, and activates peripheral T cells; however, such CD38 inhibition was not associated with significant antitumor activity. A lack of efficacy was observed in these small cohorts of patients with mCRPC or NSCLC. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: NCT03367819.


Assuntos
ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/metabolismo , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Microambiente Tumoral
8.
Cancer ; 128(4): 719-726, 2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis has an important role in thymic epithelial tumors (TETs). Regorafenib inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs), platelet-derived growth factor receptor ß (PDGFR-ß), and fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs). This study explored the activity of regorafenib as monotherapy in patients with advanced or recurrent B2-B3 thymoma (T) and thymic carcinoma (TC) previously treated with platinum-containing chemotherapy. METHODS: A Fleming single-arm, single-stage, phase 2 trial to evaluate the activity of regorafenib (160 mg once a day by mouth for 3 weeks on/1 week off) was planned. The study was designed to reject the null hypothesis of an 8-week progression-free survival (PFS) rate ≤25% with a type I error of 0.10 and a statistical power of 80% at the alternative hypothesis of an 8-week PFS rate of ≥50% (≥8 of 19 evaluable patients progression-free at 2 months). RESULTS: From June 2016 to November 2017, 19 patients were enrolled (11T/8TC). We observed partial response (PR) in 1 patient (1T) (5.3%), stable disease (SD) in 14 patients (9T/5TC) (73.7%), and progressive disease in 2 patients (1T/1TC) (10.5%), with a disease control rate of 78.9%. According to Choi-criteria, 13 patients (68.4%) achieved PR, and 2 patients SD (10.5%). The median PFS was 9.6 months whereas median overall survival was 33.8 months. The 8-week PFS rate was 78.9% (15 of 19 patients). Grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events were observed in 10 patients (52.6%). CONCLUSIONS: The primary end point of this study was reached. The high rate of PR (Choi-criteria) suggests antitumor activity of regorafenib in TETs. On the basis of survival outcomes, the efficacy of regorafenib should be further evaluated in larger studies.


Assuntos
Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Timoma , Neoplasias do Timo , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Piridinas , Receptor beta de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Timoma/tratamento farmacológico , Timoma/patologia , Neoplasias do Timo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Timo/patologia
10.
Curr Oncol Rep ; 23(12): 147, 2021 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748099

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Therapeutic alternatives to treat metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) are increasing, and combination therapies, including antiangiogenic agents and tyrosine kinase/mTOR/immune checkpoint inhibitors, are identified as the gold standard driven by the results of recent clinical studies. Nevertheless, the real-world RCC population is very heterogeneous, with categories of patients not represented in the enrolled trial population who may not benefit more from these treatments. The purpose of this expert review is to assess the rationale on which tyrosine kinase alone may still be a viable first-line treatment option for some subgroups of patients with mRCC. RECENT FINDINGS: The first-line treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitor monotherapy can still be considered an effective tool for addressing selected mRCCs, as highlighted by the successful outcome in a range of subjects such as favorable-risk patients, the ones suffering from autoimmune diseases, those with pancreatic or lung metastases, or previously undergoing organ transplantation and elderly subjects. Some selected categories of patients may still benefit from monotherapy with TKI, and smart sequential therapies can also be considered instead of a combination strategy. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors can also act as immune modulator agents, boosting the immune response to facilitate and potentiate the therapeutic effectiveness of subsequent immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/secundário , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Humanos , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Análise de Sobrevida
11.
Ther Adv Urol ; 13: 17562872211054302, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34707691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Considering the growing genitourinary (GU) cancer population undergoing systemic treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, we planned a clinical audit in 24 Italian institutions treating GU malignancies. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was investigating the clinical impact of COVID-19 in GU cancer patients undergoing ICI-based therapy during the first outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 contagion in Italy. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The included centers were 24 Oncology Departments. Two online forms were completed by the responsible Oncology Consultants, respectively, for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) and metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) patients receiving at least one administration of ICIs between 31 January 2020 and 30 June 2020. RESULTS AND LIMITATION: In total, 287 mRCC patients and 130 mUC patients were included. The COVID-19 incidence was, respectively, 3.5%, with mortality 1%, in mRCC patients and 7.7%, with mortality 3.1%, in mUC patients. In both groups, 40% of patients developing COVID-19 permanently discontinued anticancer treatment. The pre-test SARS-CoV-2 probability in the subgroup of patients who underwent nasal/pharyngeal swab ranged from 14% in mRCC to 26% in mUC. The main limitation of the work was its nature of audit: data were not recorded at the single-patient level. CONCLUSION: GU cancer patients undergoing active treatment with ICIs have meaningful risk factors for developing severe events from COVID-19 and permanent discontinuation of therapy after the infection. Treatment delays due to organizational issues during the pandemic were unlikely to affect the treatment outcome in this population.

12.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(10): 1438-1447, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a preclinical rationale for inhibiting angiogenesis in mesothelioma. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of the anti-VEGFR-2 antibody ramucirumab combined with gemcitabine in patients with pretreated malignant pleural mesothelioma. METHODS: RAMES was a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial done at 26 hospitals in Italy. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-2, and histologically proven malignant pleural mesothelioma progressing during or after first-line treatment with pemetrexed plus platinum. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks plus either intravenous placebo (gemcitabine plus placebo group) or ramucirumab 10 mg/kg (gemcitabine plus ramucirumab group) on day 1 every 3 weeks, until tumour progression or unacceptable toxicity. Central randomisation was done according to a minimisation algorithm method, associated with a random element using the following stratification factors: ECOG performance status, age, histology, and first-line time-to-progression. The primary endpoint was overall survival, measured from the date of randomisation to the date of death from any cause. Efficacy analyses were assessed in all patients who had been correctly randomised and received their allocated treatment, and safety analyses were assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of their assigned treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03560973, and with EudraCT, 2016-001132-36. FINDINGS: Between Dec 22, 2016, and July 30, 2018, of 165 patients enrolled 161 were correctly assigned and received either gemcitabine plus placebo (n=81) or gemcitabine plus ramucirumab (n=80). At database lock (March 8, 2020), with a median follow-up of 21·9 months (IQR 17·7-28·5), overall survival was longer in the ramucirumab group (HR 0·71, 70% CI 0·59-0·85; p=0·028). Median overall survival was 13·8 months (70% CI 12·7-14·4) in the gemcitabine plus ramucirumab group and 7·5 months (6·9-8·9) in the gemcitabine plus placebo group. Grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events were reported in 35 (44%) of 80 patients in the gemcitabine plus ramucirumab group and 24 (30%) of 81 in the gemcitabine plus placebo group. The most common treatment-related grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (16 [20%] for gemcitabine plus ramucirumab vs ten [12%] for gemcitabine plus placebo) and hypertension (five [6%] vs none). Treatment-related serious adverse events were reported in five (6%) in the gemcitabine plus ramucirumab group and in four (5%) patients in the gemcitabine plus placebo group; the most common was thromboembolism (three [4%] for gemcitabine plus ramucirumab vs two [2%] for gemcitabine plus placebo). There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: Ramucirumab plus gemcitabine significantly improved overall survival after first-line standard chemotherapy, with a favourable safety profile. This combination could be a new option in this setting. FUNDING: Eli Lilly Italy. TRANSLATION: For the Italian translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Mesotelioma Maligno/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pleurais/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Mesotelioma Maligno/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma Maligno/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pleurais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pleurais/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Fatores de Tempo
14.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(5)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Until now, no robust data supported the efficacy, safety and recommendation for influenza vaccination in patients with cancer receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). METHODS: The prospective multicenter observational INfluenza Vaccine Indication During therapy with Immune checkpoint inhibitors (INVIDIa-2) study investigated the clinical effectiveness of influenza vaccination in patients with advanced cancer receiving ICIs, enrolled in 82 Italian centers from October 2019 to January 2020. The primary endpoint was the time-adjusted incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) until April 30, 2020. Secondary endpoints regarded ILI severity and vaccine safety. RESULTS: The study enrolled 1279 patients; 1188 patients were evaluable for the primary endpoint analysis. Of them, 48.9% (581) received influenza vaccination. The overall ILI incidence was 8.2% (98 patients). Vaccinated patients were significantly more frequently elderly (p<0.0001), males (p=0.004), with poor European Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (p=0.009), affected by lung cancer (p=0.01), and by other non-cancer comorbidities (p<0.0001) when compared with unvaccinated. ILI incidence was not different basing on influenza vaccination: the time-to-ILI was similar in vaccinated and unvaccinated patients (p=0.62). ILI complications were significantly less frequent for patients receiving the vaccination (11.8% vs 38.3% in unvaccinated, p=0.002). ILI-related intravenous therapies were significantly less frequent in vaccinated patients than in unvaccinated (11.8% vs 29.8%, p=0.027). ILI lethality was, respectively, 0% in vaccinated and 4.3% in unvaccinated patients. Vaccine-related adverse events were rare and mild (1.5%, grades 1-2). CONCLUSION: The INVIDIa-2 study results support a positive recommendation for influenza vaccination in patients with advanced cancer receiving immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Incidência , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 13: 17588359211019642, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the survival advantage, not all metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients achieve a long-term benefit from immunotherapy. Moreover, the identification of prognostic biomarkers is still an unmet clinical need. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study investigated the prognostic role of peripheral-blood inflammatory indices and clinical factors to develop a novel prognostic score in mRCC patients receiving at least second-line nivolumab. The complete blood count before the first cycle of therapy was assessed by calculating neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived NLR (dNLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), systemic inflammation index (SII), and systemic inflammation response index (SIRI). Clinical factors included pre-treatment International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium (IMDC) score, line of therapy, and metastatic sites. RESULTS: From October 2015 to November 2019, 571 mRCC patients received nivolumab as second- and further-line treatment in 69% and 31% of cases. In univariable and multivariable analyses all inflammatory indices, IMDC score, and bone metastases significantly correlated with overall survival (OS). The multivariable model with NLR, IMDC score, and bone metastases had the highest c-index (0.697) and was chosen for the developing of the score (Schneeweiss scoring system). After internal validation (bootstrap re-sampling), the final index (Meet-URO score) composed by NLR, IMDC score, and bone metastases had a c-index of 0.691. It identified five categories with distinctive OSs: group 1 (median OS - mOS = not reached), group 2 (mOS = 43.9 months), group 3 (mOS = 22.4 months), group 4 (mOS = 10.3 months), and group 5 (mOS = 3.2 months). Moreover, the Meet-URO score allowed for a fine risk-stratification across all three IMDC groups. CONCLUSION: The Meet-URO score allowed for the accurate stratification of pretreated mRCC patients receiving nivolumab and is easily applicable for clinical practice at no additional cost. Future steps include its external validation, the assessment of its predictivity, and its application to first-line combinations.

16.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809465

RESUMO

Cancer patients may be at high risk of infection and poor outcomes related to SARS-CoV-2. Analyzing their prognosis, examining the effects of baseline characteristics and systemic anti-cancer active therapy (SACT) are critical to their management through the evolving COVID-19 pandemic. The AIOM-L CORONA was a multicenter, observational, ambispective, cohort study, with the intended participation of 26 centers in the Lombardy region (Italy). A total of 231 cases were included between March and September 2020. The median age was 68 years; 151 patients (62.2%) were receiving SACT, mostly chemotherapy. During a median follow-up of 138 days (range 12-218), 93 events occurred. Age ≥60 years, metastatic dissemination, dyspnea, desaturation, and interstitial pneumonia were all independent mortality predictors. Overall SACT had a neutral effect (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.83, 95%Confidence Interval [95%CI] 0.32-2.15); however, metastatic patients receiving SACT were less likely to die as compared to untreated counterparts, after adjusting for other confounding variables (OR 0.23, 95%CI 0.11-0.51, p < 0.001). Among cancer patients infected by SARS-CoV-2, those with metastases were most at risk of death, especially in the absence of SACT. During the ongoing pandemic, these vulnerable patients should avoid exposure to SARS-CoV-2, while treatment adjustments and prioritizing vaccination are being considered according to international recommendations.

17.
Thorac Cancer ; 12(9): 1271-1278, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Significant efforts have been made to investigate the molecular pathways involved in thymic carcinogenesis. However, genetic findings have still not impacted clinical practice. The aim of this exploratory trial was to evaluate the immunoscore and molecular profile of a series of thymic carcinomas (TCs), correlating this data with clinical outcome. METHODS: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) TC tissues were retrieved from our center archive. The immunoscore was evaluated according to Angell and Gallon. DNA was extracted from FFPE tumor samples and, when available, from adjacent histologically normal tissues. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed targeting hotspot regions of 50 oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. RESULTS: A series of 15 TCs were analyzed. After a median follow-up of 82.4 months, the median overall survival was 104.7 months. The immunoscore was >2 in 5/15 patients (33%). Among the investigated genes, absence of mutations was observed in 5/15 patients (33%), whereas three variants in 1/15 (6%) patient, two variants in 4/15 (26%) patients, and one variant in 5/15 patients (33%) were found. The most recurrently mutated genes were FGFR3 (five mutations) and CDKN2A (three mutations, two of which were nonsense). Patients with CDKN2A loss showed a statistically significantly worse survival (P = 0.0013), whereas patients with FGFR3 mutations showed a statistically significantly better survival (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS: This study adds data to the few existing reports on the mutational landscape of TCs, providing the first comprehensive analysis to date. Here, we confirm the low rate of mutations in TCs and suggest FGFR3 and CDKN2A mutations as intriguing potential therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Timo/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias do Timo/patologia
18.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 22(4): 361-370.e3, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732073

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: New therapeutic approaches in unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) are eagerly awaited. Trabectedin is an antitumor agent with an effect on cancer cell proliferation and a modulating action on tumor microenvironment. The ATREUS study explored the activity and safety of trabectedin in patients with unresectable MPM. METHODS: Epithelioid patients with MPM received trabectedin as second-line while biphasic/sarcomatoid patients with MPM as first- or second-line therapy. Treatment was given intravenously at an initially planned dose of 1.3 mg/m2 every 3 weeks, until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival rate at 12 weeks (PFS12wks). RESULTS: Overall, 78 patients (54%) had epithelioid and 67 (46%) nonepithelioid MPM. PFS12wks in 62 evaluable patients with epithelioid MPM was 43.5% (80% confidence interval 34.9%-52.5%); median progression-free and overall survival were 2.4 and 9.0 months, respectively. PFS12wks in 52 evaluable patients with nonepithelioid MPM was 30.8% (90% confidence interval 20.3%-42.9%); median progression-free and overall survival were 1.7 and 5.4 months. Trabectedin starting dose was amended due to excess of liver toxicity. Eighty-four (64%) and 48 (36%) patients received 1.3 mg/m2 and 1.1. mg/m2, respectively. The most common grade 3-4 toxicities were hepatotoxicity, leukopenia/neutropenia, and fatigue. Grade 3-4 hepatotoxicity was reported in 59 (70%) patients treated at 1.3 mg/m2, and in 19 (40%) treated at 1.1 mg/m2. CONCLUSIONS: Trabectedin showed modest clinical activity, at the expense of relevant liver toxicity. Further development of this drug in MPM at full doses is not warranted.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/administração & dosagem , Mesotelioma Maligno/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pleurais/tratamento farmacológico , Trabectedina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/epidemiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mesotelioma Maligno/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Taxa de Sobrevida , Trabectedina/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral
19.
Mediastinum ; 5: 24, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35118329

RESUMO

Thymic epithelial tumours (TETs) are rare tumours originating from the thymus. Considering the rarity of this disease, the management of TETs is still challenging and difficult. In fact, all the worldwide clinical practice guidelines are based on data from retrospective analyses, prospective single arm trials or experts' opinions. The results of combined modality therapy (chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy) in thymic malignancies are reasonably good in less advanced cases whereas in case of advanced (unsuitable for surgery) or metastatic disease, a platinum-based chemotherapy is considered standard of care. Unfortunately, chemotherapy in the palliative setting has modest efficacy. Moreover, due to the lack of known oncogenic molecular alterations, no targeted therapy has been shown to be efficient for these tumours. In order to offer the best diagnostic and therapeutic tools, patients with TETs should be managed with a continuous and specific multidisciplinary expertise at any step of the disease, especially in the era of a novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Current evidences show that cancer patients might have more severe symptoms and poorer outcomes from COVID-19 infection than general population. With the exception of the patients carrying a Good's syndrome, there is no evidence that patients with TETs present a higher risk of infection compared with other cancer patients and their management should be the same. The aim of this review is to summarize the existing literature about systemic treatments for TETs in all clinical setting (local and locally advanced/metastatic disease) exploring how these therapeutic strategies have been managed in the COVID-19 era.

20.
Front Oncol ; 10: 568279, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194654

RESUMO

Patients with muscle-infiltrating bladder cancer (MIBC) present a high risk of postoperative recurrence and death from metastatic urothelial cancer despite surgical resection. Before the use of peri-operative chemotherapy, about half (52%) of patients undergoing radical cystectomy had had a relapse of tumor disease within 5 years of surgery. However, when peri-operative cisplatin-based chemotherapy is added to radical cystectomy for patients with MIBC it provides limited benefit in terms of survival, disease recurrence and development of metastases, at the expense of toxic effects. In fact, a significant proportion of patients still recurs and die to metastatic disease. Given the success of immune-oncological drugs in metastatic urothelial cancer, several trials started to test them in patients with non-metastatic MIBC either in neo-adjuvant and adjuvant setting. The preliminary results of these studies in neo-adjuvant setting are showing great promise, confirming the potential benefits of immunotherapy also in patients with non-metastatic MIBC. The aim of this review is to present an overview of developments happening on the introduction of immunotherapy in peri-operative setting in non-metastatic urothelial cancer. Moreover, an analysis of the critical issues regarding how best customize the delivery of immunotherapy to optimize efficacy and minimize the adverse effects, with particular focus on potential prognostic and predictive molecular biomarkers, is done.

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