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1.
Leukemia ; 35(1): 235-238, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286543
2.
Eur J Haematol ; 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378569

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the capacity of ibrutinib (IB) and idelalisib-rituximab (IDELA-R) of prolonging overall survival (OS) as in CLL patients, previously previously treated with chemotherapy only. METHODS: A real-life cohort of 675 cases has been identified and investigated in the database of the groups participating in the study. RESULTS: At an unadjusted univariate analysis, a significant death risk reduction was observed favoring IB (IDELA-R versus IB HR=0.5, 95%CI=0.36-0.71) although with some limitations due to the non-randomized and retrospective nature of the study and to the lower number of patients in the IDELA-R group (112 cases) related to the current prescribing practice. To overcome the potential problem of confounding by indication, we adjusted the association between the type of therapy and mortality for all variables significantly associated with OS at Cox univariate analysis. Furthermore, those variables, differently distributed between the two-study groups, were introduced into the multivariate Cox model to improve the effectiveness of the analysis. By introducing all these variables into the multiple Cox regression model, we confirmed the protective effect of IB versus IDELA-R (HR=0.67, 95%CI=0.45-0.98, P=0.04) independent of potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Although our analysis presents some constraints, i.e. the unavailability of additional potential confounders and the retrospective nature of the study, this observation may be of help for the daily clinical practice, particularly in the absence of randomized trials comparing the two schedules.

3.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(10): ofaa421, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072814

RESUMO

Background: In hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, progression to acute respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Severe dysregulated systemic inflammation is the putative mechanism. We hypothesize that early prolonged methylprednisolone (MP) treatment could accelerate disease resolution, decreasing the need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality. Methods: We conducted a multicenter observational study to explore the association between exposure to prolonged, low-dose MP treatment and need for ICU referral, intubation, or death within 28 days (composite primary end point) in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to Italian respiratory high-dependency units. Secondary outcomes were invasive MV-free days and changes in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Results: Findings are reported as MP (n = 83) vs control (n = 90). The composite primary end point was met by 19 vs 40 (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.41; 95% CI, 0.24-0.72). Transfer to ICU and invasive MV were necessary in 15 vs 27 (P = .07) and 14 vs 26 (P = .10), respectively. By day 28, the MP group had fewer deaths (6 vs 21; aHR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.12-0.73) and more days off invasive MV (24.0 ±â€…9.0 vs 17.5 ±â€…12.8; P = .001). Study treatment was associated with rapid improvement in PaO2:FiO2 and CRP levels. The complication rate was similar for the 2 groups (P = .84). Conclusion: In patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, early administration of prolonged MP treatment was associated with a significantly lower hazard of death (71%) and decreased ventilator dependence. Treatment was safe and did not impact viral clearance. A large randomized controlled trial (RECOVERY trial) has been performed that validates these findings. Clinical trial registration. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04323592.

4.
Haematologica ; Online ahead of print: 0, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121237

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by a low CD20 expression, in part explained by an epigenetic-driven downregulation triggered by mutations of the NOTCH1 gene. In the present study, by taking advantage of a wide and well-characterized CLL cohort (n=537), we demonstrate that CD20 expression is downregulated in SF3B1-mutated CLL in an extent similar to NOTCH1-mutated CLL. In fact, SF3B1-mutated CLL cells show common features with NOTCH1-mutated CLL cells, including a gene expression profile enriched of NOTCH1-related gene sets and elevated expression of the active intracytoplasmic NOTCH1. Activation of the NOTCH1 signaling and down-regulation of surface CD20 in SF3B1-mutated CLL cells correlate with over-expression of an alternatively spliced form of DVL2, a component of the Wnt pathway and negative regulator of the NOTCH1 pathway. These findings are confirmed by separately analyzing the CD20-dim and CD20-bright cell fractions from SF3B1-mutated cases as well as by DVL2 knock-out experiments in CLL-like cell models. Altogether, the clinical and biological features that characterize NOTCH1-mutated CLL may also be recapitulated in SF3B1-mutated CLL, contributing to explain the poor prognosis of this CLL subset and providing the rationale for expanding novel agents-based therapies to SF3B1-mutated CLL.

6.
Haematologica ; 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732360

RESUMO

The introduction of agents inhibiting the BCR-associated kinases such as ibrutinib has dramatically changed treatments algorithms of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) as well as the role of different adverse prognosticators. We evaluated the efficacy of ibrutinib as single agent, in a real-life context, on 180 patients with CLL mostly pre-treated, recruited from three independent cohorts from Italy. Patients received 420 mg oral ibrutinib once daily until progression or occurrence of unacceptable side effects. Seventy-three patients discontinued ibrutinib for progression or for adverse events. NOTCH1 mutations (M) were correlated with a reduced redistribution lymphocytosis, calculated at 3 months on ibrutinib (p=0.022). Moreover, NOTCH1 mutated patients showed inferior nodal response at 6 months on ibrutinib compared to NOTCH1 wild type patients (p<0.0001). Significant shorter progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were observed in NOTCH1 mutated patients (p=0.00002 and p=0.001). Interestingly, NOTCH1 M plus lower bax/bcl-2 ratio identified a CLL subset showing the worst PFS and OS (p=0.0002 and p=0.005). In multivariate analysis of PFS and OS, NOTCH1 M were confirmed an independent prognosticator (p=0.00006 and p=0.0039). In conclusion, NOTCH1 M are strongly associated with lower bax/bcl-2 ratio, consistent with a defective apoptosis, lower redistribution lymphocytosis and lower nodal shrinkage under ibrutinib treatment, this last responsible for partial responses, subsequent relapses, shorter PFS and OS. The therapeutic options for NOTCH1 mutated patients could be represented by either new small molecules combination approaches or from antibodies targeting NOTCH1.

7.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(2-3): 145-153, 2020.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631014

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the incidence of advanced-stage breast cancer (BC) - an early surrogate indicator of effectiveness of mammography screening - among women who attended the Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG) Region (Northern Italy) screening programme compared to women who did not attend. DESIGN: retrospective cohort study. Women invited to the first screening round (2006-2007) were identified from the database of the programme. The cohort was record-linked to the archive of women invited to the second round (2008-2009). The definition of attendance to screening was based on attendance to at least one of the two rounds. The incidence of BC was assessed through record linkage with the FVG cancer registry using an anonymous univocal identifier (end of follow-up: 31st December 2013). Three distinct definitions of advanced stage were used: pT2 or greater (pT2+), positive lymph nodes (pN+), and TNM stage II or greater (stage II+). SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: organized mammography screening programme for women aged 50-69 years in the five regional healthcare districts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: incidence rate ratio (IRR) between attenders and non-attenders, adjusted for age and deprivation index, with 95% confidence interval (95%CI). RESULTS: the cohort included 104,488 attenders and 49,839 non-attenders. During follow-up (median duration 84 months), 2,717 invasive BCs were diagnosed among attenders and 1,149 among non-attenders. Total incidence rate was 13% higher among attenders (IRR 1.13; 95%CI 1.05-1.21). These, conversely, had a 36% lower rate of pT2+ BC (IRR 0.64; 95%CI 0.56-0.72), a 13% lower rate of pN+ BC (IRR 0.87; 95%CI 0.78-0.98), a 22% lower rate of stage II+ BC (IRR 0.78; 95%CI 0.70-0.87), and a 32% lower rate of mastectomy (IRR 0.68; 95%CI 0.60-0.78). CONCLUSIONS: attenders had lower incidence rates of advanced-stage BC. This early effect is suggestive of a future impact of the screening programme on BC mortality.

8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(4)2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272636

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a heterogeneous disease with a variable clinical course. Novel biomarkers discovered over the past 20 years have revolutionized the way clinicians approach prognostication and treatment especially in the chemotherapy-free era. Herein, we review the best established prognostic and predictive biomarkers in the setting of chemoimmunotherapy (CIT) and novel targeted therapy. We propose that TP53 disruption (defined as either TP53 mutation or chromosome 17p deletion), unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene status (UM IGHV), NOTCH1 mutation, and CD49d expression are the strongest prognosticators of disease progression and overall survival in the field of novel biomarkers including recurrent gene mutations. We also highlight the predictive role of TP53 disruption, UM IGHV, and NOTCH1 mutation in the setting of CIT and TP53 disruption and CD49d expression in the setting of novel targeted therapy employing B-cell receptor (BCR) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL2) inhibition. Finally, we discuss future directions in the field of biomarker development to identify those with relapsed/refractory disease at risk for progression despite treatment with novel therapies.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(6)2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210016

RESUMO

Lineage commitment and differentiation of hematopoietic cells takes place in well-defined microenvironmental surroundings. Communication with other cell types is a vital prerequisite for the normal functions of the immune system, while disturbances in this communication support the development and progression of neoplastic disease. Integrins such as the integrin very late antigen-4 (VLA-4; CD49d/CD29) control the localization of healthy as well as malignant B cells within the tissue, and thus determine the patterns of organ infiltration. Malignant B cells retain some key characteristics of their normal counterparts, with B cell receptor (BCR) signaling and integrin-mediated adhesion being essential mediators of tumor cell homing, survival and proliferation. It is thus not surprising that targeting the BCR pathway using small molecule inhibitors has proved highly effective in the treatment of B cell malignancies. Attenuation of BCR-dependent lymphoma-microenvironment interactions was, in this regard, described as a main mechanism critically contributing to the efficacy of these agents. Here, we review the contribution of VLA-4 to normal B cell differentiation on the one hand, and to the pathophysiology of B cell malignancies on the other hand. We describe its impact as a prognostic marker, its interplay with BCR signaling and its predictive role for novel BCR-targeting therapies, in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and beyond.


Assuntos
Integrina alfa4beta1/genética , Integrina alfa4beta1/metabolismo , Leucemia de Células B/etiologia , Leucemia de Células B/metabolismo , Linfoma de Células B/etiologia , Linfoma de Células B/metabolismo , Animais , Linfócitos B/citologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Microambiente Celular/genética , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Hematopoese/genética , Humanos , Integrinas/genética , Integrinas/metabolismo , Leucemia de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia de Células B/patologia , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Linfoma de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma de Células B/patologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Blood ; 135(15): 1244-1254, 2020 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006000

RESUMO

CD49d is a remarkable prognostic biomarker of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The cutoff value for the extensively validated 30% of positive CLL cells is able to separate CLL patients into 2 subgroups with different prognoses, but it does not consider the pattern of CD49d expression. In the present study, we analyzed a cohort of 1630 CLL samples and identified the presence of ∼20% of CLL cases (n = 313) characterized by a bimodal expression of CD49d, that is, concomitant presence of a CD49d+ subpopulation and a CD49d- subpopulation. At variance with the highly stable CD49d expression observed in CLL patients with a homogeneous pattern of CD49d expression, CD49d bimodal CLL showed a higher level of variability in sequential samples, and an increase in the CD49d+ subpopulation over time after therapy. The CD49d+ subpopulation from CD49d bimodal CLL displayed higher levels of proliferation compared with the CD49d- cells; and was more highly represented in the bone marrow compared with peripheral blood (PB), and in PB CLL subsets expressing the CXCR4dim/CD5bright phenotype, known to be enriched in proliferative cells. From a clinical standpoint, CLL patients with CD49d bimodal expression, regardless of whether the CD49d+ subpopulation exceeded the 30% cutoff or not, experienced clinical behavior similar to CD49d+ CLL, both in chemoimmunotherapy (n = 1522) and in ibrutinib (n = 158) settings. Altogether, these results suggest that CD49d can drive disease progression in CLL, and that the pattern of CD49d expression should also be considered to improve the prognostic impact of this biomarker in CLL.


Assuntos
Integrina alfa4/análise , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/diagnóstico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/terapia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(8): 4320-4327, 2020 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047037

RESUMO

The prognosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) depends on different markers, including cytogenetic aberrations, oncogenic mutations, and mutational status of the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy-chain variable (IGHV) gene. The number of IGHV mutations distinguishes mutated (M) CLL with a markedly superior prognosis from unmutated (UM) CLL cases. In addition, B cell antigen receptor (BCR) stereotypes as defined by IGHV usage and complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) classify ∼30% of CLL cases into prognostically important subsets. Subset 2 expresses a BCR with the combination of IGHV3-21-derived heavy chains (HCs) with IGLV3-21-derived light chains (LCs), and is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. Importantly, the subset 2 LC carries a single-point mutation, termed R110, at the junction between the variable and constant LC regions. By analyzing 4 independent clinical cohorts through BCR sequencing and by immunophenotyping with antibodies specifically recognizing wild-type IGLV3-21 and R110-mutated IGLV3-21 (IGLV3-21R110), we show that IGLV3-21R110-expressing CLL represents a distinct subset with poor prognosis independent of IGHV mutations. Compared with other alleles, only IGLV3-21*01 facilitates effective homotypic BCR-BCR interaction that results in autonomous, oncogenic BCR signaling after acquiring R110 as a single-point mutation. Presumably, this mutation acts as a standalone driver that transforms IGLV3-21*01-expressing B cells to develop CLL. Thus, we propose to expand the conventional definition of CLL subset 2 to subset 2L by including all IGLV3-21R110-expressing CLL cases regardless of IGHV mutational status. Moreover, the generation of monoclonal antibodies recognizing IGLV3-21 or mutated IGLV3-21R110 facilitates the recognition of B cells carrying this mutation in CLL patients or healthy donors.


Assuntos
Cadeias lambda de Imunoglobulina/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Regiões Determinantes de Complementaridade/genética , Regiões Determinantes de Complementaridade/imunologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/genética , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Cadeias lambda de Imunoglobulina/imunologia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/imunologia , Mutação Puntual , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/genética
13.
Haematologica ; 105(6): 1613-1620, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582547

RESUMO

We present a laboratory-based prognostic calculator (designated CRO score) to risk stratify treatment-free survival in early stage (Rai 0) chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) developed using a training-validation model in a series of 1,879 cases from Italy, the United Kingdom and the United States. By means of regression analysis, we identified five prognostic variables with weighting as follows: deletion of the short arm of chromosome 17 and unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain gene status, 2 points; deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11, trisomy of chromosome 12, and white blood cell count >32.0x103/microliter, 1 point. Low-, intermediate- and high-risk categories were established by recursive partitioning in a training cohort of 478 cases, and then validated in four independent cohorts of 144 / 395 / 540 / 322 cases, as well as in the composite validation cohort. Concordance indices were 0.75 in the training cohort and ranged from 0.63 to 0.74 in the four validation cohorts (0.69 in the composite validation cohort). These findings advocate potential application of our novel prognostic calculator to better stratify early-stage CLL, and aid case selection in risk-adapted treatment for early disease. Furthermore, they support immunocytogenetic analysis in Rai 0 CLL being performed at the time of diagnosis to aid prognosis and treatment, particularly in today's chemofree era.

16.
Cell Death Differ ; 26(11): 2493, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728458

RESUMO

Since publication of the article, the authors were notified by ATCC that the cell line HCC1395 (ATCC® CRL-2324™ Lot 62235652) suffered a "low level of cell line cross-contamination" with another cell line.

19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1881: 101-112, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350200

RESUMO

The integrin heterodimer CD49d/CD29 (a.k.a. Very Late Antigen-4, VLA-4) mediates cell-cell and cell-matrix interaction through the binding of its ligands VCAM-1 and fibronectin. VLA-4 can be present on the cell surface at different conformation states that affect the binding affinity for the ligands. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), higher VLA-4 levels, as determined by measuring the expression of CD49d chain by flow cytometry, have been demonstrated to associate with a worse prognosis, in keeping with the role of VLA-4 as key molecule favoring CLL cell localization in protective niches of bone marrow and lymph nodes. Given the emerging clinical relevance of VLA-4 evaluation in CLL, both in the setting of the conventional chemo-immunotherapy and the novel drugs targeting the BCR pathway, here we describe the flow cytometric approaches followed by us to quantify the CD49d expression levels and the VLA-4 activation status in CLL cells.


Assuntos
Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Integrina alfa4/análise , Integrina alfa4beta1/metabolismo , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Citometria de Fluxo/instrumentação , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/sangue , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Linfócitos/patologia , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/metabolismo
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