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1.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 124: 104833, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562764

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of grinding and polishing the inner surface of monolithic discs made of zirconia polycrystals (ZR) and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (LD) on the load-bearing capacity under fatigue of the restorations bonded onto a dentin analogue material (epoxy resin). ZR and LD ceramic discs (10 mm in diameter, 1 mm in thickness) were produced and randomly allocated into 10 groups considering the internal adjustment approach: Ctrl - No adjustment; F - Grinding with fine diamond bur (46 µm); F + Pol - Grinding with fine diamond bur followed by polishing with 2 tips (finisher and polisher); FF - Grinding with extrafine diamond bur (30 µm); FF + Pol - Grinding with extrafine diamond bur followed by polishing. In addition, discs (10 mm in diameter, 2.5 mm in thickness) of fiber reinforced epoxy resin were produced. Afterwards, the intaglio surface of the ZR discs were air-abraded with 45 µm alumina particles for 10 s, the LD and resin epoxy discs were etched with hydrofluoric acid (5%/20 s and 10%/60 s, respectively), and the treated discs were primed as recommended. Each ceramic disc was luted onto the epoxy resin disc with resin cement. Then, the samples were tested under a step-stress fatigue test (20 Hz, 10,000 cycles/step, step-size of 100 N starting at 200 N, and proceeding until failure detection). Fractographic, topographic and surface roughness analysis were also performed. The adjustments (grinding with or without polishing) (ZR: 733-880 N; LD: 1040-1106 N) triggered a detrimental effect on the fatigue behavior in both ceramics compared with the absence of treatment (control group; ZR: 973 N; LD: 1406 N). The polishing step had no effect on fatigue findings. Thus, grinding the inner surface of the tested ceramics should be avoided wherever possible to prevent introducing damage and its detrimental effects on the fatigue behavior.


Assuntos
Cerâmica , Zircônio , Porcelana Dentária , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície , Suporte de Carga
2.
J Prosthodont Res ; 65(2): 162-170, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028796

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study evaluated the influence of different surface treatments of zirconia used to enhance bonding with veneering porcelain, and thermocycling on the resistance to porcelain cracking and delamination during fatigue test. METHODS: Bilayer ceramic discs were made from zirconia blocks (IPS e.max Zircad MO, Ivoclar Vivadent - 0.7 mm thickness) and randomized into 8 groups (n= 15) according to two factors: 'zirconia surface treatment' (Control; Grinding - diamond bur; Air-abrasion - aluminum oxide particles; and Liner - application of a ceramic liner [IPS e.max Zirliner, Ivoclar Vivadent]); and 'thermocycling' (presence - 12,000 thermal cycles; 5-55ºC; or absence). The discs were veneered with porcelain (IPS e.max Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent - 0.7 mm; totaling 1.4 mm thickness) according to ISO 6872:2015 for biaxial flexure strength testing. Fatigue tests (step-stress approach; 20 to 100 MPa; step of 10 MPa; 10,000 cycles per step; 10 Hz frequency) were run, followed by the data analysis (Kaplan-Meier and Mantel-Cox post-hoc tests). Analysis of roughness, topography, crystallographic phase arranges and fractography were also executed. RESULTS: The surface treatment and thermocycling did not influence the porcelain crack nor delamination resistance. When only comparing the surface treatments for crack resistance outcome, the liner application depicted the worst fatigue performance in comparison to grinding and air-abrasion, while all groups were similar for delamination. CONCLUSIONS: Neither the surface treatment of the zirconia nor the thermocycling influences the porcelain crack resistance or the resistance to delamination of the bilayer porcelain-veneered zirconia specimens.


Assuntos
Porcelana Dentária , Zircônio , Cerâmica , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Facetas Dentárias , Fadiga , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície
3.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 107: 103769, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364945

RESUMO

Considering the long time spent in low frequency cyclic fatigue tests, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of loading frequency (2 Hz and 20 Hz) on the flexural fatigue strength (FFS) and on the time and number of cycles to failure of a leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic. Disc-shaped specimens were produced using leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic CAD/CAM blocks (IPS Empress CAD), according to ISO 6872/2015. Two fatigue tests were performed. The FFS (n = 17) was determined by staircase approach at a lifetime of 500,000 cycles, for 2 Hz (control - chewing frequency estimative) and 20 Hz (accelerated approach). To determine the time and the number of cycles to failure in flexural fatigue, discs (n = 20) were submitted to a cyclic loading ranging from 10 MPa to 99 MPa (60% of the monotonic strength), until a maximum of 500,000 cycles. Means, standard deviation and confidence intervals (CI) at 95% for FFS were calculated, whereas statistical differences were detected based on maximum likelihood estimations and overlapping of 95% CIs. Kaplan Meier (α = 0.05) and log rank post-hoc tests were used to analyze the time (in minutes) and the number of cycles to failure in the lifetime test. FFS did not differ significantly between 2 Hz (mean: 78 MPa; 95% CI: 69-88 MPa) and 20 Hz (mean: 84 MPa; 95% CI: 78-90 MPa). Regarding the lifetime test, there was no difference (p = 0.3) in the time to failure for 2 Hz (mean: 13 min; 95% CI: 6-20 min) and 20 Hz (mean: 69 min; 95% CI: 9-128 min). However, the group tested with 20 Hz survived a significantly (p < 0.01) higher number of cycles (mean: 82,247 cycles; 95% CI: 11,450-153,044) than the group tested with 2 Hz (mean: 1588 cycles; 95% CI: 779-2397). Therefore, in leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic fatigue strength tests, limited to a lifetime of 500,000 cycles, the use of loading frequencies up to 20 Hz did not influence the FFS estimations when compared to 2 Hz (chewing frequency estimative), and may be an alternative to accelerate data collection in this type of mechanical test. However, in lifetime tests, the use of higher loading frequencies, as 20 Hz, did not save time, since a higher number of cycles was necessary to promote the failure, when compared to 2 Hz.


Assuntos
Silicatos de Alumínio , Cerâmica , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Porcelana Dentária , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície
4.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 109: 103800, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347216

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of diamond bur grinding the intaglio surface of second (yttria partially-stabilized zirconia polycrystals, PSZ) and third-generation zirconia (fully-stabilized zirconia polycrystals, FSZ) adhesively cemented to dentin analogue substrate on the fatigue failure load, cycle number until failure, surface micromorphology and phase transformation. Disc-shaped specimens were produced from second (Katana ML-HT, Kuraray) and third-generation zirconia (Katana STML, Kuraray) and randomly allocated (n = 15) into two groups according to the intaglio surface treatment: Control - Ctrl (without grinding); Grinding - Gr (grinding at the center of the intaglio surface). The ceramic discs were adhesively cemented (Multilink Automix System) onto dentin analogue discs. Fatigue tests were executed by the step-stress method. The obtained data were analyzed by Kaplan Meier and Mantel-Cox tests. In addition, surface topography, roughness, phase transformation and fractography analyses were performed. SEM analysis showed that grinding increased the surface roughness and introduced defects in zirconia from both generations. Grinding increased the fatigue failure load, number of cycles to failure and survival rates of the second-generation zirconia statistically (control: 1373.33 N < grinding: 1600 N), while these same outcomes were reduced by grinding for the third-generation zirconia significantly (control: 766.67 N > grinding: 620 N). Thus, clinical adjustments with diamond burs damage the fatigue behavior of adhesively cemented third-generation zirconia.


Assuntos
Cerâmica , Ítrio , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície , Zircônio
5.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 103: 103528, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743822

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the effect of distinct surface treatments (grinding, polishing and glaze) of the occlusal surface of fully-stabilized zirconia (FSZ) simplified restorations bonded onto epoxy resin on the fatigue behavior of the restorations. Disc shaped specimens of FSZ (IPS e.max Zircad MT Multi) were produced (Ø = 10 mm and 0.8 mm in thickness) and randomly allocated into 5 groups, considering the factor 'surface treatment' of the occlusal surface: Ctrl - as-sintered; Gr - ground with coarse diamond bur; Gr + Pol- grinding + polishing with two-step polishing system; Gr + Gl - grinding + glaze application; Gr + Pol + Gl - grinding + polishing + glaze application. Next, the FSZ intaglio surface was air-abraded with 45 µm aluminum oxide powder for 10 s at 15 mm of distance under 2 bar pressure and the discs were adhesively cemented (Multilink Automix) onto its dentin analogue pair (Ø = 10 mm; thickness = 2.7 mm). Finally, the step-stress fatigue test was executed (load ranging from 200 to 1300 N; step-size of 100N; 10,000 cycles per step, 20 Hz). In addition, surface topography, roughness, phase transformation and fractography analyses were performed. Grinding altered the topographical pattern introducing defects into the material surface and increasing roughness. Polishing and glaze application led to a smoothening effect, reducing surface defects and statistically decreasing roughness. However, the effect on roughness of polishing and glaze was statistically similar. No phase transformation was observed, thus only cubic and tetragonal phases were detected. No surface treatment had a deleterious effect regarding the fatigue failure load, number of cycles for failure and survival rates. All failures (cracks) started on the bonding surface. Thus, polishing and glaze are indicated to reduce surface roughness, despite not leading to differences in terms of fatigue performance.


Assuntos
Cerâmica , Zircônio , Polimento Dentário , Porcelana Dentária , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície , Taxa de Sobrevida , Suporte de Carga
6.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 102: 103457, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605929

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of shading procedures on the fatigue performance and optical properties of an yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal ceramic (4Y-TZP - stabilized by 4 mol% Y2O3). Disc-shaped specimens were produced at pre-sintered stage and randomly allocated into 5 groups (n=15) considering the shading technique: Ctrl (no pigmentation); Brush 1× and Brush 3× (brushing on 1 or 3 applications, respectively); Immer 2min and Immer 4min (immersion for 2 or 4 min, respectively). Following each pigment application, the specimens were dried in accordance with the manufacturers' guidelines (15 min in a stove at 70 °C) and sintered in a specific furnace. Biaxial flexural fatigue test followed a step-stress approach (initial strength: 200 MPa; step-size: 25 MPa; 10.000 cycles/step; frequency: 20 Hz). Optical measurements were conducted in a spectrophotometer following the CIEDE2000 parameters. Roughness, topography, crystalline grain size, crystalline phase content and fractography analysis were also performed. The flexural fatigue strength (FFS) and the number of cycles to fracture (CFF) were statistically affected by pigmentation techniques (mean FFS in MPa/mean CFF): Ctrl (446.7/105,619) > Brush 1 × (436.7/102,854) ≥ Brush 3 × (405.0/89,962) ≥ Immer 2 min (395.0/85,103) ≥ Immer 4 min (383.3/81,382), although the exposure intensity (increase in number of applications or in application time) to the pigment had no effect (Brush 1 × = Brush 3 × ; Immer 2 min = Immer 4 min). Regarding optical properties, shading techniques similarly affected translucency and opalescence parameters, regardless of the exposure intensity to the pigment (Brush 1 × = Brush 3 × = Immer 2 min = Immer 4 min > Ctrl), whereas the exposure intensity to the pigment only promoted relevant alterations in the color change parameter (ΔE00) for the brushing technique (Brush 3 × > Brush 1 × ). No difference was observed in crystalline phase content, topographic pattern or roughness, although an increase in the zirconia grain size could be detected. Thus, the shading technique might affect the fatigue behavior and promote optical changes in a 4Y-TZP ceramic.


Assuntos
Cerâmica , Ítrio , Resistência à Flexão , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície , Zircônio
7.
J Prosthodont Res ; 64(1): 12-19, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213364

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize the effect of two processing techniques (pressing and CAD/CAM - Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Machining) of lithium-disilicate (LD) based crowns on the microstructure, topography, roughness, fractal dimension, internal and marginal adaptation. METHODS: One-hundred identical preparations for monolithic crowns were made with dentin analogue material (G10 epoxy resin). One of the preparations was scanned and a monolithic crown in lithium-disilicate was planned in the CAD system. Fifty crowns were milled in a wax pattern and subjected to pressing (IPS e.max Press), while 50 crowns were machined at CAD/CAM (IPS e.max CAD) and posteriorly crystallized. Internal and marginal adaptation were assessed via replica technique at four manufacturing moments (Milled wax pattern; LDPRESS; Milled LDCAD; Crystallized LDCAD) and considering 5 regions (margin, cervico-axial angle, axial wall, axial-occlusal angle and occlusal wall). Complementary analysis considering microstructure and topography, roughness and fractal dimension were performed in Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). RESULTS: The processing technique resulted in different ceramic microstructure, topography, roughness and fractal dimension, whereas CAD/CAM lead to smoother, more homogeneous but more complex topography features (higher fractal dimension) in comparison to the pressing technique (P<0.05). Regarding marginal and internal fit, LDPRESS crowns showed to be more adapted at the margin, while LDCAD were more adapted at the occluso-axial angle; other regions were not statistically different (α=0.05). CONCLUSIONS: CAD/CAM and the pressing techniques for manufacturing LD crowns lead to completely different ceramic surface characteristics and affect crown adaptation at the margin and at occluso-axial angle.


Assuntos
Adaptação Marginal Dentária , Lítio , Cerâmica , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Coroas , Técnica de Fundição Odontológica , Técnica de Moldagem Odontológica , Porcelana Dentária , Planejamento de Prótese Dentária , Fractais , Propriedades de Superfície
8.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 100: 103401, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445400

RESUMO

This study compared the fatigue performance and the stress distribution of endodontically treated molars restored with endocrowns obtained with lithium disilicate glass-ceramic or a polymer-infiltrated ceramic network, both processed by CAD-CAM, and direct composite restorations. Forty-eight human mandibular molars were randomly assigned into 03 groups (n = 16) and restored with endocrowns (LD - lithium disilicate glass-ceramic or PICN - polymer-infiltrated ceramic network) or with direct composite restorations. Fatigue testing followed a step-stress approach (initial maximum load of 200 N and 5000 cycles, incremental step load of 200N and 10,000 cycles/step, being the specimens loaded until failure or to a maximum of 135,000 cycles at 2800 N). The fatigue failure load and number of cycles until failure were recorded and statistically analyzed. Fractographic and finite element (FEA) analyzes were conducted as well. There were no differences in fatigue failure load, number of cycles until fracture and mean survival probabilities among groups. However, indirect endocrowns had higher mechanical structural reliability, and LD restorations lasted more time before start to failing. FEA showed that the stress concentration in tooth tissues was higher for the resin composite, followed by PICN and LD in a decreasing order. Almost all fractures were restricted to the restorative material (without tooth involvement), and origins were identified at occlusal surface. The type of restoration did not influence the fatigue failure load, number of cycles until fracture and mean survival probabilities of the restorative strategies. Despite that, the mechanical structural reliability of endocrowns, especially those made of lithium disilicate, was higher and lasted more time before start to failing.


Assuntos
Cerâmica , Coroas , Porcelana Dentária/química , Falha de Restauração Dentária , Polímeros/química , Resinas Sintéticas/química , Resinas Compostas/química , Força Compressiva , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Restauração Dentária Permanente , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Vidro , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Lítio , Teste de Materiais , Dente Molar/fisiologia , Falha de Prótese , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Cimentos de Resina/química , Estresse Mecânico , Propriedades de Superfície
9.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 99: 198-205, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374515

RESUMO

This study evaluated and compared the effects of two glaze application methods (brush and spray) on the fatigue strength and surface characteristics (topography and roughness) of a translucent yttrium stabilized partially tetragonal zirconia polycrystal ceramic (Y-TZP) prior to and after grinding. Disc-shaped specimens of translucent Y-TZP (Vita YZ-HT; Vita-Zahnfabrik) were processed (ISO 6872-2015) and randomly allocated into 6 groups, according to the surface treatments performed on the tensile surface: Ctrl - as-sintered (no treatment); Gr - grinding with a diamond bur (181 µm-grit; #3101G); Br - glaze obtained from a powder-liquid mix and applied by brush (Vita Akzent; Vita Zahnfabrik); Sp - glaze application via spray (Vita Akzent Plus; Vita Zahnfabrik); Gr + Br and Gr + Sp - association of grinding + respective glaze method. Analyses of surface roughness (Ra and Rz), fatigue strength (staircase method), surface topography and fractography were carried out. The as-sintered condition had the smoothest surface, while grinding led to the rougher and more heterogeneous topography. Both glaze application methods showed a potential for topography evenness (smoothening effect), while the glaze spray method led to thinner layers of material, showing a limitation in reducing the roughness compared to the brush method. No deleterious effect on fatigue strength of the Y-TZP could be observed, as the glaze-spray application on the as-sintered surface showed the highest values. Fractography depicted two distinct fracture origin regions: from defects in the surface/sub-surface region for the Ctrl and Gr groups; and at the zirconia-glaze layer interface for Br, Sp, Gr + Br and Gr + Sp. The clinical relevance of this work is that the tested glaze application methods did not damage the fatigue strength of the tested Y-TZP.


Assuntos
Cerâmica/química , Ítrio/química , Zircônio/química , Porcelana Dentária , Falha de Equipamento , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Pós , Pressão , Propriedades de Superfície , Difração de Raios X
10.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 93: 222-229, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831358

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of various polishing systems associated or not to finishing with diamond burs of lower-grit size on the topography, roughness, and fatigue behavior of a ground yttrium-stabilized tetragonal polycrystalline zirconia (Y-TZP). Disc specimens of Y-TZP (Zenostar T, Ivoclar-Vivadent) were produced (diameter = 15 mm, thickness = 1.2 ±â€¯0.2 mm; ISO 6872-2015) and randomly allocated into 8 groups: [Ctrl] as-sintered; [Gr] ground with coarse diamond bur; [Gr+Eve] grinding + polishing with EveDiacera (2-step polishing system); [Gr+Fin+Eve] grinding + finishing + polishing with EveDiacera; [Gr+Kg] grinding + polishing with Kg Viking (2-step polishing system); [Gr+Fin+Kg] grinding + finishing + polishing with Kg Viking; [Gr+Op] grinding + polishing with Optrafine (3-step polishing system); and [Gr+Fin+Op] grinding + finishing + polishing with Optrafine. Next, surface topography, roughness, phase transformation, fatigue strength (staircase method), and fractography analyses were performed. Grinding changed the surface topography and generated higher roughness (Ra in µm) (1.214); the subsequent finishing/polishing procedures were able to reduce the roughness (0.326-0.839); however, it remained higher than the control [ctrl] group (0.221). All samples subjected to surface treatment presented an increase in m-phase content (8.04-17.46%). In terms of fatigue strength (in MPa), the grinding group (677.36) and polishing/finishing groups (641.66-707.20) presented higher fatigue strength than the control [ctrl] group (592.48). Finishing before polishing had no effect on fatigue strength (645.37-707.20). Grinding altered the Y-TZP surface features and increased their fatigue strength by phase transformation mechanism, while the finishing/polishing procedures promoted surface smoothening, while maintaining high fatigue strengths. Finishing as an additional step before polishing had no effect on roughness reduction and fatigue strength improvements; thus, the finishing procedure might be unnecessary.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Mecânicos , Ítrio/química , Zircônio/química , Propriedades de Superfície
11.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 94: 144-154, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897502

RESUMO

To evaluate the fatigue failure load (FFL), number of cycles for failure (CFF) and survival probabilities of lithium-disilicate (LD) monolithic crowns manufactured by two processing techniques (pressing vs. CAD/CAM) adhesively cemented to a dentin-analogue material, considering two surface treatments (conventional vs. simplified). Surface characteristics (topography, roughness and fractal dimensions) were also assessed. Forty (40) monolithic crowns were manufactured considering two specific processing techniques for each ceramic system: LDCAD - CAD/CAM lithium-disilicate (IPS e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent); LDPRESS - pressed lithium-disilicate (IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar Vivadent). The crowns were adhesively cemented (Multilink Automix System, Ivoclar Vivadent) onto dentin analogue preparations considering two distinct protocols of surface treatments (conventional - hydrofluoric acid etching + silane application [HF+Sil] or simplified - etching with one-step primer (Monobond Etch&Prime, Ivoclar Vivadent) [EP]). The cemented assembly was stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 3 days and fatigue tests were run (step-stress approach: load ranging from 400 to 2000 N, step-size of 100 N, 15,000 cycles/step, 20 Hz). Fractography, surface topography, roughness, and fractal dimension analyses were performed. LDPRESS[EP] group depicted higher FFL, CFF and survival probabilities in comparison to LDCAD groups, regardless of the conditioning method. A tendency of higher Weibull modulus (mechanical reliability) was observed when using [EP] for both LDPRESS and LDCAD. SEM and AFM analysis showed very distinct initial surface patterns for the distinct processing techniques considered (LDCAD with higher fractal dimension and lower roughness than LDPRESS), and both surface treatments distinctly affected these surface characteristics. All failures were radial cracks originating at the ceramic-cement interface. Pressed lithium-disilicate monolithic crowns showed better fatigue performance in comparison to CAD/CAM milled crowns, especially when they were treated with self-etching ceramic primer. The surface treatment with self-etching primer led to similar fatigue performance when compared to hydrofluoric acid plus silane application for the same processing technique, but it tended to provide higher mechanical reliability.


Assuntos
Cerâmica/química , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Coroas , Porcelana Dentária/química , Estresse Mecânico , Adesividade , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície
12.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 91: 122-130, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579109

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the fatigue behavior of monolithic translucent zirconia polycrystals (TZ) and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (LD) bonded to different substrates. Disc-shaped specimens of ceramic materials TZ and LD were bonded to three substrates with different elastic modulus (E) (fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) - softest material, E = 14.9 GPa; titanium alloy (Ti) - intermediary properties, E = 115 GPa; and zirconia (Yz) - stiffest material, E = 210 GPa). The surfaces were treated and bonded with resin cement (disc-disc set-up). Fatigue testing followed a step-stress approach (initial maximum load = 200 N for 5000 cycles, incremental step load = 200 N for 10,000 cycles/step). The fatigue failure load and number of cycles until failure were recorded and statistically analyzed. Fractographic and finite element (FEA) analyzes were conducted as well. TZ ceramic depicted higher fatigue failure load, number of cycles until failure, and survival probabilities than LD, irrespective of the substrate. Moreover, TZ and LD presented better fatigue behaviors when bonded to substrates Ti and Yz in comparison to FRC. FEA revealed lower tensile stresses at restorative material when bonded to stiffer substrates. Fractography showed that the fracture origin started at bottom surface of restorative material (except for TZ bonded to Yz, in which crack initiated at load contact point). Translucent zirconia polycrystals present superior mechanical behavior than lithium disilicate glass-ceramic. The substrate type influences the mechanical performance of monolithic dental ceramics (stiffer substrates lead to better fatigue behavior).


Assuntos
Cerâmica/química , Colagem Dentária , Porcelana Dentária/química , Teste de Materiais , Zircônio/química , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Estresse Mecânico , Suporte de Carga
13.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 90: 673-680, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522089

RESUMO

This study evaluated the fatigue failure load, number of cycles for failure and survival probability of 2nd and 3rd generation yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) adhesively cemented to a dentin analogue substrate. Disc-shaped specimens (n = 10; Ø = 10 mm; thickness = 1.0 mm) were produced from four 2nd generation YSZs (Lava Plus, 3M ESPE; Vita In-Ceram YZ-HT, VITA Zahnfabrik; Zirlux FC, Ivoclar Vivadent; Katana ML-HT, Kuraray) and two 3rd generation YSZs (Katana UTML and Katana STML, Kuraray). Each YSZ disc was adhesively cemented (Multilink Automix System) onto its dentin analogue pair (epoxy resin, Ø = 10 mm; thickness = 2.5 mm). Fatigue tests were conducted through step-stress approach (load ranging from 400 to 2600 N; step-size of 200 N; 20,000 cycles per step, 20 Hz) and the obtained data were analyzed using Kaplan Meier and Mantel-Cox tests. Surface topography and phase transformation (m-, t-, and c-phases) inspections after particle air-abrasion of the YSZs were performed, as well as fractographic analysis of the failed specimens. Second-generation zirconia materials presented higher fatigue failure load, number of cycles for failure, and survival probability than 3rd generation. Similar topographical characteristics of the YSZs could be noted. Phase transformation (t- to m-phase) after YSZ air-abrasion was only observed for 2nd generation materials. All failures started from the surface/sub-surface defects located at the cementation interface. 2nd generation zirconia presented higher load-bearing capacity under cyclic loading than 3rd generation materials.


Assuntos
Cimentos Dentários/química , Teste de Materiais , Ítrio/química , Zircônio/química , Adesividade , Propriedades de Superfície , Suporte de Carga
14.
Braz Dent J ; 29(5): 483-491, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517448

RESUMO

It evaluated the effect of aging by Low Temperature Degradation (LTD), executed after post- processing surface treatments (polishing, heat treatment and glazing), on the surface characteristics (micromorphology and roughness) and on the structural stability (phase transformation and mechanical behavior-flexural strength and structural reliability) of a ground yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) ceramic. Discs of Y-TZP (VITA In-Ceram YZ) were manufactured (ISO:6872-2015; 15 mm in diameter and 1.2 ± 0.2 mm in thickness) and randomly assigned into 10 groups according two factors: "aging" in 2 levels (with or without) and "surface treatment" in 5 levels (Ctrl: as-sintered; Gr: grinding with coarse diamond bur; Gr + HT: grinding plus heat treatment; Gr + Pol: grinding plus polishing; Gr + Gl: grinding plus glazing). Roughness (n=30), biaxial flexural test (n=30), phase transformation (n=2), and surface topography (n=2) analyses were performed. Aging led to an intense increase in monoclinic (m) phase content for all the tested conditions, being the as-sintered samples (Ctrl= 65.6%) more susceptible to the t-m phase transformation. Despite of increasing the m-phase content, aging was not detrimental for characteristic strength (except to the grinding condition). There was no significant reduction in the Weibull modulus after surface treatments. Additionally, heat treatment and glazing after grinding led to a decrease in characteristic strength, while polishing presented the highest characteristic strength values. Thus, polishing is mandatory after grinding the Y-TZP ceramic, while performing glazing or heat-treatment alone after grinding lead to the worst mechanical performance.


Assuntos
Materiais Dentários/química , Polimento Dentário/métodos , Ítrio/química , Zircônio/química , Resistência à Flexão , Temperatura Alta , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Propriedades de Superfície , Difração de Raios X
15.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(5): 483-491, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-974179

RESUMO

Abstract It evaluated the effect of aging by Low Temperature Degradation (LTD), executed after post- processing surface treatments (polishing, heat treatment and glazing), on the surface characteristics (micromorphology and roughness) and on the structural stability (phase transformation and mechanical behavior-flexural strength and structural reliability) of a ground yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) ceramic. Discs of Y-TZP (VITA In-Ceram YZ) were manufactured (ISO:6872-2015; 15 mm in diameter and 1.2 ± 0.2 mm in thickness) and randomly assigned into 10 groups according two factors: "aging" in 2 levels (with or without) and "surface treatment" in 5 levels (Ctrl: as-sintered; Gr: grinding with coarse diamond bur; Gr + HT: grinding plus heat treatment; Gr + Pol: grinding plus polishing; Gr + Gl: grinding plus glazing). Roughness (n=30), biaxial flexural test (n=30), phase transformation (n=2), and surface topography (n=2) analyses were performed. Aging led to an intense increase in monoclinic (m) phase content for all the tested conditions, being the as-sintered samples (Ctrl= 65.6%) more susceptible to the t-m phase transformation. Despite of increasing the m-phase content, aging was not detrimental for characteristic strength (except to the grinding condition). There was no significant reduction in the Weibull modulus after surface treatments. Additionally, heat treatment and glazing after grinding led to a decrease in characteristic strength, while polishing presented the highest characteristic strength values. Thus, polishing is mandatory after grinding the Y-TZP ceramic, while performing glazing or heat-treatment alone after grinding lead to the worst mechanical performance.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito do envelhecimento através da degradação a baixas temperaturas (low temperaturare degradation - LTD) após a realização de tratamentos de superfície pós- sinterização (polimento, tratamento térmico e glaze) nas características superficiais (micromorfologia e rugosidade), e na estabilidade estrutural (transformação de fase e comportamento mecânico - resistência flexural e confiabilidade estrutural) de uma cerâmica de zircônia tetragonal policristalina estabilizada por ítria (Y-TZP) desgastada. Discos de cerâmica Y-TZP (VITA In-Ceram YZ) foram confeccionados (ISO:6872-2015; 15mm de diâmetro e 1,2 ± 0,2mm de espessura) e randomicamente divididos em 10 grupos de acordo com dois fatores: "envelhecimento" (com e sem) e "tratamento de superfície" (Ctrl - sem tratamento; Gr - desgaste com ponta diamantada grossa; Gr + HT - desgaste mais tratamento térmico; Gr + Pol - desgaste mais polimento; Gr + Gl - desgaste mais glazeamento). Foram realizadas as análises de rugosidade (n=30), flexão biaxial (n=30), transformação de fase (n=2) e topografia de superfície (n=2). O envelhecimento levou a um aumento intenso no conteúdo de fase monoclínica (m) em todas as condições testadas, sendo observada uma maior susceptibilidade de transformação de fase t-m nas amostras do grupo controle (Ctrl= 65.6%). Apesar de provocar elevada transformação de fase, o envelhecimento não apresentou efeitos negativos nos desfechos avaliados. Não houve redução significativa do módulo de Weibull após os tratamentos. Além disso, o tratamento térmico e o glaze após desgaste levaram a uma redução da resistência característica, enquanto que o grupo polimento apresentou o mais alto valor de resistência característica. O glaze e o tratamento térmico geraram o pior desempenho mecânico, portanto a realização do polimento após desgaste de uma cerâmica Y-TZP é obrigatória.


Assuntos
Ítrio/química , Zircônio/química , Materiais Dentários/química , Polimento Dentário/métodos , Propriedades de Superfície , Difração de Raios X , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Resistência à Flexão , Temperatura Alta
16.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 75: 512-520, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28843883

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate and compare the effect of different surface post-processing treatments (polishing, heat treatment, glazing, polishing + heat treatment and polishing + glazing) on the superficial characteristics (micromorphology and roughness), phase transformation and fatigue strength of a Y-TZP ceramic ground with diamond bur. Discs of Y-TZP ceramic were manufactured (ISO:6872-2015; final dimensions of 15mm in diameter and 1.2 ± 0.2mm in thickness) and randomly allocated according to the surface condition: Ctrl - as-sintered; Gr - ground with coarse diamond bur; Gr+HT - ground and subjected to the heat treatment; Gr+Pol - ground and polished; Gr+Pol+HT - ground, polished and heat treated; Gr+Gl - ground and glazed; Gr+Pol+Gl - ground, polished and glazed. The following analyses were performed: roughness (n = 25), surface topography (n = 2), phase transformation (n = 2) and fatigue strength by staircase method (n = 20). All treatments influenced to some extent the surface characteristics of Y-TZP, being that polishing reduced the surface roughness, the m-phase content and improved the fatigue strength; glazing led to the lowest roughness values (Ra and Rz), although it showed the worst fatigue strength; heat treatment showed limited effect on surface roughness, led to complete reversion of the existing m-phase content to t-phase, without enhancing fatigue performance. Thus, a polishing protocol after clinic adjustment (grinding) of monolithic restorations based on polycrystalline zirconia material is mandatory for surface characteristics and fatigue performance improvements.


Assuntos
Polimento Dentário , Teste de Materiais , Ítrio/análise , Zircônio/análise , Porcelana Dentária , Diamante , Temperatura Alta , Propriedades de Superfície
17.
Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac ; 15(3): 7-14, Jul.-Set. 2015. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-792387

RESUMO

A lavagem das mãos reduz as bactérias da pele, diminuindo as taxas de infecções. Há várias técnicas de higienização das mãos, devendo o profissional escolher a mais adequada. OBJETIVOS: este trabalho avaliou a eficácia da lavagem cirúrgica das mãos e antebraços com escova impregnada com clorexidina a 2%, comparando com o método de fricção das mãos e antebraço com sabonete líquido contendo clorexidina a 2%. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: foram analisadas amostras das pontas dos dedos polegar e indicador, palma da mão e antebraço, de 40 alunos do curso de Odontologia da UNIFRA. A primeira degermação realizada foi com a escova impregnada com clorexidina a 2%, e, sete dias após, os mesmos participantes degermaram as mãos com sabonete contendo clorexidina a 2%. As amostras foram coletadas em placas contendo meio Ágar Base Sangue, identificadas e levadas ao laboratório de microbiologia. RESULTADOS:os mostraram que o método de fricção com sabonete contendo clorexidina a 2% apresentou melhores resultados. CONCLUSÃO: a higienização das mãos pelo método de fricção com sabonete contendo clorexidina a 2% foi mais eficaz quando comparada à realizada com escova impregnada com clorexidina a 2%, sugerindo um método de preparo pré-cirúrgico das mãos mais rápido, eficaz e menos oneroso.


ABSTRACT Hand washing reduces the amount of skin bacteria, thus contributing to reducing infection rates. There are several techniques for hand washing and the health professional should choose the most appropriate one. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effectiveness of surgical hands and forearms washing made with brush impregnated with 2% chlorhexidine, compared with the friction method of hands and forearms with liquid soap containing 2% chlorhexidine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed tip of the thumb and index finger, palm and forearm from 40 students of Dentistry from UNIFRA. The first protocol antisepsis was performed with a brush impregnated with 2% chlorhexidine, and seven days later, the same participants washed their hands with soap containing 2% chlorhexidine. The samples were collected in plates containing Blood Agar Base, identified and taken to the microbiology laboratory. RESULTS:The method of rubbing the soap containing 2% chlorhexidine performed better. CONCLUSION: Hand hygiene by friction method with soap containing 2% chlorhexidine is more effective than the one performed with brush impregnated with 2% chlorhexidine, suggesting a faster, effective and less costly presurgical hand preparation.

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