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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(40): 19880-19886, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527232

RESUMO

Advancements in designing complex models for atmospheric aerosol science and aerosol-cloud interactions rely vitally on accurately measuring the physicochemical properties of microscopic particles. Optical tweezers are a laboratory-based platform that can provide access to such measurements as they are able to isolate individual particles from an ensemble. The surprising ability of a focused beam of light to trap and hold a single particle can be conceptually understood in the ray optics regime using momentum transfer and Newton's second law. The same radiation pressure that results in stable trapping will also exert a deforming optical stress on the surface of the particle. For micron-sized aqueous droplets held in the air, the deformation will be on the order of a few nanometers or less, clearly not observable through optical microscopy. In this study, we utilize cavity-enhanced Raman scattering and a phenomenon known as thermal locking to measure small deformations in optically trapped droplets. With the aid of light-scattering calculations and a model that balances the hydrostatic pressure, surface tension, and optical pressure across the air-droplet interface, we can accurately determine surface tension from our measurements. Our approach is applied to 2 systems of atmospheric interest: aqueous organic and inorganic aerosol.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10613, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316110

RESUMO

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(24): 11658-11663, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142653

RESUMO

Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a key polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) often associated with soot particles coated by organic compounds, is a known carcinogen and mutagen. When mixed with organics, the kinetics and mechanisms of chemical transformations of BaP by ozone in indoor and outdoor environments are still not fully elucidated. Using direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART-MS), kinetics studies of the ozonolysis of BaP in thin films exhibited fast initial loss of BaP followed by a slower decay at long exposure times. Kinetic multilayer modeling demonstrates that the slow decay of BaP over long times can be simulated if there is slow diffusion of BaP from the film interior to the surface, resolving long-standing unresolved observations of incomplete PAH decay upon prolonged ozone exposure. Phase separation drives the slow diffusion time scales in multicomponent systems. Specifically, thermodynamic modeling predicts that BaP phase separates from secondary organic aerosol material so that the BaP-rich layer at the surface shields the inner BaP from ozone. Also, BaP is miscible with organic oils such as squalane, linoleic acid, and cooking oil, but its oxidation products are virtually immiscible, resulting in the formation of a viscous surface crust that hinders diffusion of BaP from the film interior to the surface. These findings imply that phase separation and slow diffusion significantly prolong the chemical lifetime of PAHs, affecting long-range transport of PAHs in the atmosphere and their fates in indoor environments.

4.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13844, 2018 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218089

RESUMO

Atmospheric aerosols in clean remote oceanic regions contribute significantly to the global albedo through the formation of haze and cloud layers; however, the relative importance of 'primary' wind-produced sea-spray over secondary (gas-to-particle conversion) sulphate in forming marine clouds remains unclear. Here we report on marine aerosols (PM1) over the Southern Ocean around Antarctica, in terms of their physical, chemical, and cloud droplet activation properties. Two predominant pristine air masses and aerosol populations were encountered: modified continental Antarctic (cAA) comprising predominantly sulphate with minimal sea-salt contribution and maritime Polar (mP) comprising sulphate plus sea-salt. We estimate that in cAA air, 75% of the CCN are activated into cloud droplets while in mP air, 37% are activated into droplets, for corresponding peak supersaturation ranges of 0.37-0.45% and 0.19-0.31%, respectively. When realistic marine boundary layer cloud supersaturations are considered (e.g. ~0.2-0.3%), sea-salt CCN contributed 2-13% of the activated nuclei in the cAA air and 8-51% for the marine air for surface-level wind speed < 16 m s-1. At higher wind speeds, primary marine aerosol can even contribute up to 100% of the activated CCN, for corresponding peak supersaturations as high as 0.32%.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/química , Oceanos e Mares , Estações do Ano , Aerossóis , Ar , Regiões Antárticas , Fenômenos Químicos , Vento
5.
Atmos Chem Phys ; 18(1): 357-370, 2018 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29963078

RESUMO

Several models were used to describe the partitioning of ammonia, water, and organic compounds between the gas and particle phases for conditions in the southeastern US during summer 2013. Existing equilibrium models and frameworks were found to be sufficient, although additional improvements in terms of estimating pure-species vapor pressures are needed. Thermodynamic model predictions were consistent, to first order, with a molar ratio of ammonium to sulfate of approximately 1.6 to 1.8 (ratio of ammonium to 2× sulfate, RN/2S ≈ 0.8 to 0.9) with approximately 70% of total ammonia and ammonium (NH x ) in the particle. Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization Network (SEARCH) gas and aerosol and Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) Monitor for AeRosols and Gases in Ambient air (MARGA) aerosol measurements were consistent with these conditions. CMAQv5.2 regional chemical transport model predictions did not reflect these conditions due to a factor of 3 overestimate of the nonvolatile cations. In addition, gas-phase ammonia was overestimated in the CMAQ model leading to an even lower fraction of total ammonia in the particle. Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) and aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements indicated less ammonium per sulfate than SEARCH and MARGA measurements and were inconsistent with thermodynamic model predictions. Organic compounds were predicted to be present to some extent in the same phase as inorganic constituents, modifying their activity and resulting in a decrease in [H+]air (H+ in µgm-3 air), increase in ammonia partitioning to the gas phase, and increase in pH compared to complete organic vs. inorganic liquid-liquid phase separation. In addition, accounting for nonideal mixing modified the pH such that a fully interactive inorganic-organic system had a pH roughly 0.7 units higher than predicted using traditional methods (pH = 1.5 vs. 0.7). Particle-phase interactions of organic and inorganic compounds were found to increase partitioning towards the particle phase (vs. gas phase) for highly oxygenated (O : C≥0.6) compounds including several isoprene-derived tracers as well as levoglu-cosan but decrease particle-phase partitioning for low O: C, monoterpene-derived species.

6.
Nature ; 546(7660): 637-641, 2017 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28636594

RESUMO

The spontaneous growth of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) into cloud droplets under supersaturated water vapour conditions is described by classic Köhler theory. This spontaneous activation of CCN depends on the interplay between the Raoult effect, whereby activation potential increases with decreasing water activity or increasing solute concentration, and the Kelvin effect, whereby activation potential decreases with decreasing droplet size or increases with decreasing surface tension, which is sensitive to surfactants. Surface tension lowering caused by organic surfactants, which diminishes the Kelvin effect, is expected to be negated by a concomitant reduction in the Raoult effect, driven by the displacement of surfactant molecules from the droplet bulk to the droplet-vapour interface. Here we present observational and theoretical evidence illustrating that, in ambient air, surface tension lowering can prevail over the reduction in the Raoult effect, leading to substantial increases in cloud droplet concentrations. We suggest that consideration of liquid-liquid phase separation, leading to complete or partial engulfing of a hygroscopic particle core by a hydrophobic organic-rich phase, can explain the lack of concomitant reduction of the Raoult effect, while maintaining substantial lowering of surface tension, even for partial surface coverage. Apart from the importance of particle size and composition in droplet activation, we show by observation and modelling that incorporation of phase-separation effects into activation thermodynamics can lead to a CCN number concentration that is up to ten times what is predicted by climate models, changing the properties of clouds. An adequate representation of the CCN activation process is essential to the prediction of clouds in climate models, and given the effect of clouds on the Earth's energy balance, improved prediction of aerosol-cloud-climate interactions is likely to result in improved assessments of future climate change.

7.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 52(59): 9220-3, 2016 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27356885

RESUMO

The origins of the size dependent morphology of organic aerosol are explored by probing the morphology of poly(ethylene glycol)-400/ammonium sulfate mixtures using cryogenic-transmission electron microscopy. Surprisingly, we observe a size dependence at some compositions, but not at others. Our results suggest that size dependence occurs due to an activated process.


Assuntos
Sulfato de Amônio/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Aerossóis/química , Tamanho da Partícula
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 110(29): 11746-50, 2013 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23818634

RESUMO

Organic aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and play a central role in climate, air quality, and public health. The aerosol size distribution is key in determining its optical properties and cloud condensation nucleus activity. The dominant portion of organic aerosol is formed through gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds, so-called secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Typical experimental measurements of SOA formation include total SOA mass and atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio. These measurements, alone, are generally insufficient to reveal the extent to which condensed-phase reactions occur in conjunction with the multigeneration gas-phase photooxidation. Combining laboratory chamber experiments and kinetic gas-particle modeling for the dodecane SOA system, here we show that the presence of particle-phase chemistry is reflected in the evolution of the SOA size distribution as well as its mass concentration. Particle-phase reactions are predicted to occur mainly at the particle surface, and the reaction products contribute more than half of the SOA mass. Chamber photooxidation with a midexperiment aldehyde injection confirms that heterogeneous reaction of aldehydes with organic hydroperoxides forming peroxyhemiacetals can lead to a large increase in SOA mass. Although experiments need to be conducted with other SOA precursor hydrocarbons, current results demonstrate coupling between particle-phase chemistry and size distribution dynamics in the formation of SOAs, thereby opening up an avenue for analysis of the SOA formation process.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Atmosfera/análise , Modelos Químicos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Aldeídos/química , Alcanos/química , Carbono/análise , Cinética , Oxirredução , Oxigênio/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Fotoquímica
10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 47(12): 6173-80, 2013 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23725344

RESUMO

The physical state and chemical composition of an organic aerosol affect its degree of mixing and its interactions with condensing species. We present here a laboratory chamber procedure for studying the effect of the mixing of organic aerosol components on particle evaporation. The procedure is applied to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from α-pinene and toluene photooxidation. SOA evaporation is induced by heating the chamber aerosol from room temperature (25 °C) to 42 °C over 7 h and detected by a shift in the peak diameter of the SOA size distribution. With this protocol, α-pinene SOA is found to be more volatile than toluene SOA. When SOA is formed from the two precursors sequentially, the evaporation behavior of the SOA most closely resembles that of SOA from the second parent hydrocarbon, suggesting that the structure of the mixed SOA resembles a core of SOA from the initial precursor coated by a layer of SOA from the second precursor. Such a core-and-shell configuration of the organic aerosol phases implies limited mixing of the SOA from the two precursors on the time scale of the experiments, consistent with a high viscosity of at least one of the phases.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise
11.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 15(27): 11441-53, 2013 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23748935

RESUMO

Atmospheric aerosols, comprising organic compounds and inorganic salts, play a key role in air quality and climate. Mounting evidence exists that these particles frequently exhibit phase separation into predominantly organic and aqueous electrolyte-rich phases. As well, the presence of amorphous semi-solid or glassy particle phases has been established. Using the canonical system of ammonium sulfate mixed with organics from the ozone oxidation of α-pinene, we illustrate theoretically the interplay of physical state, non-ideality, and particle morphology affecting aerosol mass concentration and the characteristic timescale of gas-particle mass transfer. Phase separation can significantly affect overall particle mass and chemical composition. Semi-solid or glassy phases can kinetically inhibit the partitioning of semivolatile components and hygroscopic growth, in contrast to the traditional assumption that organic compounds exist in quasi-instantaneous gas-particle equilibrium. These effects have significant implications for the interpretation of laboratory data and the development of improved atmospheric air quality and climate models.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Atmosfera/química , Gases/química , Estrutura Molecular
12.
J Phys Chem A ; 116(40): 9954-68, 2012 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22974307

RESUMO

Atmospheric aerosol particles can exhibit liquid solution concentrations supersaturated with respect to the dissolved organic and inorganic species and supercooled with respect to ice. In this study, thermodynamic and optical properties of sub- and supersaturated aqueous solutions of atmospheric interest are presented. The density, refractive index, water activity, ice melting temperatures, and homogeneous ice freezing temperatures of binary aqueous solutions containing L(+)-tartaric acid, tannic acid, and levoglucosan and ternary aqueous solutions containing levoglucosan and one of the salts NH(4)HSO(4), (NH(4))(2)SO(4), and NH(4)NO(3) have been measured in the supersaturated concentration range for the first time. In addition, the density and refractive index of binary aqueous citric acid and raffinose solutions and the glass transition temperatures of binary aqueous L(+)-tartaric acid and levoglucosan solutions have been measured. The data presented here are derived from experiments on single levitated microdroplets and bulk solutions and should find application in thermodynamic and atmospheric aerosol models as well as in food science applications.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/química , Termodinâmica , Aerossóis/química , Sulfato de Amônio/química , Glucose/análogos & derivados , Glucose/química , Nitratos/química , Fenômenos Ópticos , Material Particulado , Taninos/química , Tartaratos/química , Água/química
13.
J Chem Phys ; 136(7): 074515, 2012 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22360256

RESUMO

Glass transition temperatures T(g) are investigated in aqueous binary and multi-component solutions consisting of citric acid, calcium nitrate (Ca(NO(3))(2)), malonic acid, raffinose, and ammonium bisulfate (NH(4)HSO(4)) using a differential scanning calorimeter. Based on measured glass transition temperatures of binary aqueous mixtures and fitted binary coefficients, the T(g) of multi-component systems can be predicted using mixing rules. However, the experimentally observed T(g) in multi-component solutions show considerable deviations from two theoretical approaches considered. The deviations from these predictions are explained in terms of the molar excess mixing entropy difference between the supercooled liquid and glassy state at T(g). The multi-component mixtures involve contributions to these excess mixing entropies that the mixing rules do not take into account.

14.
J Phys Chem A ; 114(35): 9486-95, 2010 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20712361

RESUMO

Using optical microscopy, we investigated the efflorescence of ammonium sulfate (AS) in aqueous AS and in aqueous 1:1 and 8:1 (by dry weight) poly(ethylene glycol)-400 (PEG-400)/AS particles deposited on a hydrophobically coated slide. Aqueous PEG-400/AS particles exposed to decreasing relative humidity (RH) exhibit a liquid-liquid phase separation below approximately 90% RH with the PEG-400-rich phase surrounding the aqueous AS inner phase. Pure aqueous AS particles effloresced in the RH range from 36.3% to 43.7%, in agreement with literature data (31-48% RH). In contrast, aqueous 1:1 (by dry weight) PEG-400/AS particles with diameters of the AS phase from 7.2 to 19.2 mum effloresced between 26.8% and 33.9% RH and aqueous 8:1 (by dry weight) PEG-400/AS particles with diameters of the AS phase from 1.8 to 7.3 mum between 24.3% and 29.3% RH. Such low efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) values have never been reached before for AS particles of this size range. We show that these unprecedented low ERHs of AS in PEG-400/AS particles could not possibly be explained by the presence of low amounts of PEG-400 in the aqueous AS phase, by a potential inhibition of water evaporation via anomalously slow diffusion through the PEG coating, or by different time scales between various experimental techniques. High-speed photography of the efflorescence process allowed the development of the AS crystallization fronts within the particles to be monitored with millisecond time resolution. The nucleation sites were inferred from the initial crystal growth sites. Analysis of the probability distribution of initial sites of 31 and 19 efflorescence events for pure AS and 1:1 (by dry weight) PEG-400/AS particles, respectively, showed that the particle volume can be excluded as the preferred nucleation site in the case of pure AS particles. For aqueous 1:1 (by dry weight) PEG-400/AS particles preferential AS nucleation in the PEG phase and at the PEG/AS/substrate contact line can be excluded. On the basis of this probability analysis of efflorescence events together with the AS ERH values of pure aqueous AS and aqueous PEG-400/AS particles aforementioned, we suggest that in pure aqueous AS particles nucleation starts at the surface of the particles and attribute the lower ERH values observed for aqueous PEG-400/AS particles to the suppression of the surface-induced nucleation process. Our results suggest that surface-induced nucleation is likely to also occur during the efflorescence of atmospheric AS aerosol particles, possibly constituting the dominating nucleation pathway.


Assuntos
Sulfato de Amônio/química , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Umidade , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície , Água/química
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