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1.
Nanoscale ; 10(3): 1508-1516, 2018 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29303206

RESUMO

Dipeptide derivative molecules can self-assemble into space-filling nanofiber networks at low volume fractions (<1%), allowing the formation of molecular gels with tunable mechanical properties. The self-assembly of dipeptide-based molecules is reminiscent of pathological amyloid fibril formation by naturally occurring polypeptides. Fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF) is the most widely studied such molecule, but the thermodynamic and kinetic phenomena giving rise to Fmoc-FF gel formation remain poorly understood. We have previously presented evidence that the gelation process is a first order phase transition characterized by low energy barriers to nucleation, short induction times, and rapid quasi-one-dimensional crystal growth, stemming from solvent-solute interactions and highly specific molecular packing. Here, we discuss the phase behavior of Fmoc-FF in different solvents. We find that Fmoc-FF gel formation can be induced in apolar solvents, in addition to previously established pathways in aqueous systems. We further show that in certain solvent systems anisotropic crystals (nanofibers) are an initial metastable state, after which macroscopic crystal aggregates with no preferred axis of growth are formed. The molecular conformation is sensitive to solvent composition during assembly, indicating that Fmoc-FF may be a simple model system to study complex thermodynamic and kinetic phenomena involved in peptide self-assembly.

2.
Soft Matter ; 12(36): 7655-62, 2016 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27530863

RESUMO

The onset of nonlinear responses in near hard sphere suspensions is characterized as a function of oscillatory frequency and strain amplitude. At low frequencies where the viscous behavior dominates, the onset of nonlinearities is driven by increases in rate of strain. At high deformation frequency, where suspension mechanics is dominated by an elastic response, the nonlinear responses occur when deformation exceeds a characteristic strain. This strain is associated with the transient confinement of particles by nearest neighbors and its volume fraction dependence is through cage parameters derived from the high frequency elastic modulus. The onset of nonlinear responses takes on a universal behavior when deformation frequency is normalized by the characteristic time governing the shift from viscous to elastic behavior indicating that this transition is associated with transient particle localization and is expected to be observed for all volume fractions where pair interactions are important.

3.
Soft Matter ; 11(38): 7663-73, 2015 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26295906

RESUMO

We explore the gel transition of the aromatic dipeptide derivative molecule fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF). The addition of water to a solution of Fmoc-FF in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) results in increased attractions leading to self-assembly of Fmoc-FF molecules into a space-filling fibrous network. We provide evidence that gel formation is associated with a first order phase transition resulting in nucleation and growth of strongly anisotropic crystals with high aspect ratios. The strength of attraction between Fmoc-FF molecules as a function of water concentration is estimated from long-time self-diffusion measurements using (1)H NMR diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY). The resulting phase behavior follows that observed for a wide range of other crystallizing nanoparticles and small molecules - a result consistent with the short-range nature of the intermolecular attractions. Furthermore, we use NMR to measure the rate of increase in the fraction of bound Fmoc-FF molecules after water is suddenly mixed into the system. We observe a lag time in the formation of the new phase indicative of the existence of a free energy barrier to the formation of a crystal nucleus of critical size. The application of classical nucleation theory for a cylindrical nucleus indicates that one-dimensional crystal growth is driven by an imbalance of the surface energies of the ends and sides of the fiber.


Assuntos
Fluorenos/química , Géis/química , Transição de Fase , Fenilalanina/análogos & derivados , Cristalização , Dimetil Sulfóxido/química , Dipeptídeos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Fenilalanina/química , Água/química
4.
Soft Matter ; 11(8): 1634-45, 2015 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25600762

RESUMO

We report microstructural and rheological consequences of altering silica particle surface chemistry when the particles are suspended in unentangled polyethylene glycol with a molecular weight of 400. The particle surfaces are altered by reacting them with isobutyltrimethyoxysilane. Levels of silanization are chosen so that the particles remain dispersed in the polymer at all volume fractions studied. Our studies indicate that at the levels studied, silanization does not alter the hydrodynamic thickness of the absorbed polymer layer thickness. Rheological properties are not sensitive to levels of silanization up to particle volume fractions where the average particle separation h ∼ 6Rg (4.8 nm). At these volume fractions, composite microstructure undergoes changes associated with jamming of soft particles (decorrelations in the first peak of the particle structure factor and the onset of a non-diffusive mechanism that dominates particle density fluctuations at short times.) In the region of volume fractions where h/Rg < 6, the zero-shear rate viscosity of the composites is extremely sensitive to level of silanization with a decrease in the zero-shear rate viscosity by four orders of magnitude observed for the highest levels of silanization studied in comparison to the bare particles.


Assuntos
Nanocompostos/química , Polímeros/química , Peso Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Reologia , Dióxido de Silício/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Viscosidade
5.
J Chem Phys ; 141(16): 164905, 2014 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25362339

RESUMO

Solutions of the aromatic dipeptide derivative molecule fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF) in dimethyl sulfoxide produce fibrous gels when mixed with water. We study the evolution of density fluctuations of this three-component system using X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) and compare these results to the macroscopic rheology of the gels and optical observations of the microstructure evolution. At the investigated scattering angles, the intensity autocorrelation functions do not follow behavior expected for simple diffusion of individual Fmoc-FF molecules localized within cages of nearest neighbors. Instead, the dynamics are associated with density fluctuations on length scales of ~10-100 nm arising from disaggregation and reformation of fibers, leading to an increasingly uniform network. This process is correlated with the growth of the elastic modulus, which saturates at long times. Autocorrelation functions and relaxation times acquired from XPCS measurements are consistent with relaxation rates of structures at dynamic equilibrium. This study provides further support to the concept of exploring peptide-based gelators as valence-limited patchy particles capable of forming equilibrium gels.


Assuntos
Fenilalanina/análogos & derivados , Dimetil Sulfóxido/química , Dipeptídeos , Fluorenos/química , Géis , Fenilalanina/química , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Reologia
6.
Soft Matter ; 10(39): 7849-56, 2014 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25155031

RESUMO

We explore the formation and structure of gels produced from solutions of the aromatic dipeptide derivative molecule fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Mixing these solutions with water results in the self-assembly of Fmoc-FF molecules into space-filling fibrous networks, exhibiting mechanical properties characteristic of gels. Using confocal fluorescence microscopy, we observe the gel transition in situ and find that, upon the addition of water, the solution undergoes a rapid transition to a non-equilibrium state forming ∼ 2 µm spheres, followed by the formation of fibers 5-10 nm in diameter, nucleating at a sphere surface and expanding into the solution as the remaining spheres dissolve, extending the network. The gel aging process is associated with the network becoming increasingly uniform through apparent redissolution/reaggregation of the Fmoc-FF molecules, corresponding to the observed increase in the elastic modulus to a plateau value. We demonstrate that this increase in uniformity and elastic modulus can be expedited by controlling the temperature of the system, as well as that these gels are thermally reversible, further indicating that the system is in equilibrium in its fibrous network state. X-ray scattering information suggests that the packing of the molecules within a fiber is based on π-π stacking of ß-sheets, consistent with models proposed in the literature for similar systems, implying that each particle (molecule) possesses a limited number of interaction sites. These observations provide experimental evidence that these low molecular weight gelator molecules can be considered valence-limited "patchy" particles, which associate at low enough temperature to form equilibrium gels.

7.
Langmuir ; 30(25): 7540-6, 2014 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24902001

RESUMO

Adamantane is a type of diamondoid molecules that has a cage or globular shape with a diameter of 6.34 ± 0.04 Å.8 Anisotropic interactions between these truly nanoscopic particles can be induced through the derivatization of the diamondoid cage. Here we explore the gelation of paired systems of adamantane where attractions are introduced through van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding. Gels are produced through the mixing of 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid (A1C) and 1-adamantylamine (A1N). Upon mixing dimethyl sulfoxide solutions of these molecules at vanishing concentrations, these diamondoid molecules rapidly precipitate. A space-filling gel of the resulting aggregates is observed at approximately 3% by weight. These resulting gels have elastic moduli of 10(2)-10(4) Pa in the 3-7 wt % concentration range. At a 1:1 mol ratio of 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid (A1C) and 1-adamantylamine (A1N), the gel's elastic modulus and yield stress increase as volume fractions ϕ(x) and ϕ(y) with x ≈ 4.2 and y ≈ 3.5. The dependencies of moduli and yield stress on the volume fraction display characteristics of colloidal gels. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images indicate that the gels are formed from a network of interwoven and branched fibers which are composed of ∼30 nm crystallites that have undergone oriented aggregation to form fibers.

8.
Langmuir ; 30(15): 4493-500, 2014 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24684510

RESUMO

We explore the phase diagram and mechanical properties of molecular gels produced from mixing water with a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution of the aromatic dipeptide derivative fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF). Highly soluble in DMSO, Fmoc-FF assembles into fibrous networks that form gels upon addition of water. At high water concentrations, rigid gels can be formed at Fmoc-FF concentrations as low as 0.01 wt %. The conditions are established defining the Fmoc-FF and water concentrations at which gels are formed. Below the gel boundary, the solutions are clear and colorless and have long-term stability. Above the gel boundary, gels are formed with increasing rapidity with increasing water or Fmoc-FF concentrations. A systematic characterization of the effect of Fmoc-FF and water concentrations on the mechanical properties of the gels is presented, demonstrating that the elastic behavior of the gels follows a specific, robust scaling with Fmoc-FF volume fraction. Furthermore, we characterize the kinetics of gelation and demonstrate that these gels are reversible in the sense that they can be disrupted mechanically and rebuild strength over time.


Assuntos
Géis/química , Fenilalanina/análogos & derivados , Dimetil Sulfóxido/química , Dipeptídeos , Fluorenos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Fenilalanina/química
9.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 24(37): 375109, 2012 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22913885

RESUMO

Here we investigate the flow properties of suspensions of dicolloidal particles composed of interpenetrating spheres where one sphere is rich in polystyrene and the second is rich in poly 2-vinyl pyridine. The synthesis method is designed to create both anisotropic shape and anisotropic interaction potentials that should lead to head to tail clustering. These particles are referred to as copolymer dicolloids (CDCs). The viscoelastic properties of stable and gelled suspensions of CDC particles are compared with analogs composed of homopolymer dicolloids (HDCs), having the same shape but not displaying the anisotropic attractions. After coating the particles with a nonionic surfactant to minimize van der Waals attractions, the flow properties of glassy and gelled suspensions of CDCs and HDCs are studied as a function of volume fraction, ionic strength and pH. Suspensions of HDC particles display a high kinetic arrest volume fraction (φ(g) > 0.5) over a wide range of pH and ionic strength up to [I]=0.5 M, demonstrating that the particles experience repulsive or weakly attractive pair potentials. Suspensions of CDC particles behave in a similar manner at high or low pH when [I]=0.001 M, but gel at a volume fraction of φ(g) < 0.3 and display anomalously large elastic moduli at and above the gel transition point for intermediate pH or for pH=9 when [I]=0.5 M. The gelation processes for the CDC particles are reversible by adjusting the solution pH. Interaction potential anisotropy is evident in the processes, during which the CDC particles yield on increasing oscillatory strain.


Assuntos
Poliestirenos/química , Polivinil/química , Reologia , Anisotropia , Coloides , Elasticidade , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Concentração Osmolar , Suspensões , Viscosidade
10.
Langmuir ; 28(17): 6760-8, 2012 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22462482

RESUMO

Seeded emulsion polymerization is used to produce large quantities of shape anisotropic, amphoteric particles in a size range of about 1 µm. Copolymer dicolloids (CDCs) containing pyridine groups are synthesized by swelling spherical, lightly cross-linked polystyrene seeds with a mixture of styrene and pH-responsive monomer 2-vinyl pyridine followed by secondary polymerization to contrast with their analogue homopolymer dicolloids (HDCs) where the swelling step is carried out with styrene alone. After the particles are coated with a nonionic surfactant to minimize van der Waals attractions, surface potentials and aggregation properties of dilute suspensions are studied as functions of pH and ionic strength. Compared to HDCs, which remain stable at all pH values studied (3 < pH < 9) up to an ionic strength of 5 M, the CDC particles show amphoteric behavior with strong attractions under conditions where dipolar interactions are expected to dominate.

11.
J Chem Phys ; 136(5): 054901, 2012 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22320758

RESUMO

Experimental and theoretical results have established that the range of the attraction plays a critical role in determining whether a particle system exhibits a stable liquid phase. Changes to the range of the repulsions can similarly affect the existence of a stable liquid phase; however, these effects have not been clearly elucidated. We demonstrate that an increase in the range of repulsions can either enhance or decrease the stability of the liquid phase, depending on the form of the interaction potential. For either case, the critical variable that controls the stability of the liquid phase is the ratio of the representative energies of the liquid and solid phases.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 107(22): 225504, 2011 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22182034

RESUMO

We establish the existence and size of adsorbed polymer layers in miscible dense nanocomposites and their consequences on microstructure and the bulk modulus. Using contrast-matching small-angle neutron scattering to characterize all partial collective structure factors of polymers, particles, and their interface, we demonstrate qualitative failure of the random phase approximation, accuracy of the polymer reference site interaction model theory, ability to deduce the adsorbed polymer layer thickness, and high sensitivity of the nanocomposite bulk modulus to interfacial cohesion.

13.
Lab Chip ; 11(22): 3829-37, 2011 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21956673

RESUMO

We describe a microfluidic platform comprised of 48 wells to screen for pharmaceutical salts. Solutions of pharmaceutical parent compounds (PCs) and salt formers (SFs) are mixed on-chip in a combinatorial fashion in arrays of 87.5-nanolitre wells, which constitutes a drastic reduction of the volume of PC solution needed per condition screened compared to typical high throughput pharmaceutical screening approaches. Nucleation and growth of salt crystals is induced by diffusive and/or convective mixing of solutions containing, respectively, PCs and SFs in a variety of solvents. To enable long term experiments, solvent loss was minimized by reducing the thickness of the absorptive polymeric material, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and by using solvent impermeable top and bottom layers. Additionally, well isolation was enhanced via the incorporation of pneumatic valves that are closed at rest. Brightfield and polarized light microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used for on-chip analysis and crystal identification. Using a gold-coated glass substrate and minimizing the thickness of the PDMS control layer drastically improved the signal-to-noise ratio for Raman spectra. Two drugs, naproxen (acid) and ephedrine (base), were used for validation of the platform's ability to screen for salts. Each PC was mixed combinatorially with potential SFs in a variety of solvents. Crystals were visualized using brightfield polarized light microscopy. Subsequent on-chip analyses of the crystals with Raman spectroscopy identified four different naproxen salts and five different ephedrine salts.


Assuntos
Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/instrumentação , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Sais/química , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Efedrina/química , Desenho de Equipamento , Naproxeno/química , Fenômenos Ópticos , Solventes/química , Análise Espectral Raman
14.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 83(5 Pt 1): 051504, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21728537

RESUMO

The glass transition temperature of a broad class of molecules is shown to depend on molecular size. This dependency results from the size dependence of the pair potential. A generalized equation of state is used to estimate how the volume fraction at the glass transition depends on the size of the molecule, for rigid molecule glass-formers. The model shows that at a given pressure and temperature there is a size-induced glass transition: For molecules larger than a critical size, the volume fraction required to support the effective pressure due to particle attractions is above that which characterizes the glassy state. This observation establishes the boundary between nanoparticles, which exist in liquid form only as dispersions in low molecular weight solvents and large molecules which form liquids that have viscosities below those characterized by the glassy state.


Assuntos
Vidro/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Transição de Fase , Coloides , Pressão , Temperatura
15.
Langmuir ; 27(17): 10455-63, 2011 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21766806

RESUMO

The microstructure of particles suspended in concentrated polymer solutions is examined with small-angle X-ray scattering and small-angle neutron scattering. Of interest are changes to long wavelength particle density fluctuations in ternary mixtures of silica nanoparticles suspended in concentrated solutions of poly(ethylene glycol). The results are understood in terms of application of the pseudo-two-component polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) theory modified to account for solvent addition via effective contact strength of interfacial attraction, ε(pc), in an implicit manner. The combined experimental-theoretical study emphasizes the complex interactions between solvent, polymer, and particle surface that control particle miscibility but also demonstrate that these factors can all be understood in terms of variations of ε(pc).


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Soluções , Propriedades de Superfície
16.
Langmuir ; 27(9): 5211-21, 2011 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21466169

RESUMO

We study the effects of increasing the concentration of a low molecular weight polyethylene glycol on the stability of 44 nm diameter silica nanoparticles suspended in ethanol. Polymer concentration, c(p), is increased from zero to that characterizing the polymer melt. Particle stability is accessed through measurement of the particle second-virial coefficient, B(2), performed by light scattering and ultrasmall angle X-ray scattering (USAXS). The results show that at low polymer concentration, c(p) < 3 wt %, B(2) values are positive, indicating repulsive interactions between particles. B(2) decreases at intermediate concentrations (3 wt % < c(p) < 50 wt %), and particles aggregates are formed. At high concentrations (50 wt % < c(p)) B(2) increases and stabilizes at a value expected for hard spheres with a diameter near 44 nm, indicating the particles are thermodynamically stable. At intermediate polymer concentrations, rates of aggregation are determined by measuring time-dependent changes in the suspension turbidity, revealing that aggregation is slowed by the necessity of the particles diffusing over a repulsive barrier in the pair potential. The magnitude of the barrier passes through a minimum at c(p) ≈ 12 wt % where it has a value of ∼12 kT. These results are understood in terms of a reduction of electrostatic repulsion and van der Waals attractions with increasing c(p). Depletion attractions are found to play a minor role in particle stability. A model is presented suggesting displacement of weakly adsorbed polymer leads to slow aggregation at intermediate concentration, and we conclude that a general model of depletion restabilization may involve increased strength of polymer adsorption with increasing polymer concentration.

17.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 23(3): 035102, 2011 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21406857

RESUMO

The effect of weak particle anisotropy on the onset of fluidity in dense suspensions of glasses of repulsive, weakly attractive and strongly attractive spherical and dumbbell shaped particles is explored. Yield stresses are found to scale with volume fraction showing a divergence at random close packing for all systems. However the onsets of yielding in suspensions of spherical and dumbbell shaped particles are shown to display qualitatively different behaviors. Suspensions of hard spheres exhibit a single yield stress (strain) while suspensions of spheres experiencing short range attractions in dense gels display two yielding events. Double yielding occurs when attractions between particles are only a few kT and the suspensions are sufficiently dense. For dumbbell suspensions, single yielding is observed for hard dumbbell glasses in a region where the glasses are expected to be plastic while double yielding is observed when the particles are expected to have localized centers of mass and localized orientations. Double yielding is also observed for dense dumbbell suspensions that experience attractions while only single yielding events are observed in strongly attractive gels for both dumbbells and spheres. These results are discussed in the light of recent theories and simulations of mechanisms of localization in suspensions of spherical and weakly anisotropic particles.

18.
J Phys Chem B ; 115(14): 3981-91, 2011 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21417311

RESUMO

Colloidal systems exhibit a dramatic slowdown in particle dynamics at high concentrations. The study of the concentration-induced glass transition in these systems has been greatly simplified by treating the colloidal phase as an effective single component in a viscous continuum. We seek to apply an effective single-component approach to molecular systems by investigating a material that also exhibits a dramatic slowdown as the relative concentration of two components change. Our system is a binary mixture of ethanol and citric acid, in which the size ratio of the particles is 0.7. We measure the temperature and concentration dependence of the self-diffusivity of both components using pulse-gradient NMR. We model our data with an elementary free volume model and show that the self-diffusivity of both components depends on the properties of an effective single component. The particle size of the effective single component is the number-averaged size of the two components. Our results demonstrate that mixtures can be used to study the effect of particle size on glassy dynamics and are therefore useful for understanding systems that are intermediate between molecular and colloidal.

19.
J Chem Phys ; 134(1): 014503, 2011 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21219003

RESUMO

We have designed and studied a new experimental colloidal system to probe how the weak shape anisotropy of uniaxial particles and variable repulsive (Coulombic) and attractive (van der Waals) forces influence slow dynamics, shear elasticity, and kinetic vitrification in dense suspensions. The introduction of shape anisotropy dramatically delays kinetic vitrification and reduces the shear elastic modulus of colloidal diatomics relative to their chemically identical spherical analogs. Tuning the interparticle interaction from repulsive, to nearly hard, to attractive by increasing suspension ionic strength reveals a nonmonotonic re-entrant dynamical phase behavior (glass-fluid-gel) and a rich variation of the shear modulus. The experimental results are quantitatively confronted with recent predictions of ideal mode coupling and activated barrier hopping theories of kinetic arrest and elasticity, and good agreement is generally found with a couple of exceptions. The systems created may have interesting materials science applications such as flowable ultrahigh volume fraction suspensions, or responsive fluids that can be reversibly switched between a flowing liquid and a solid nonequilibrium state based on in situ modification of suspension ionic strength.


Assuntos
Coloides/química , Suspensões/química , Elasticidade , Cinética
20.
Cryst Growth Des ; 10(6): 2515-2521, 2010 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20953348

RESUMO

The measured induction times in droplet-based microfluidic systems are stochastic and are not described by the deterministic population balances or moment equations commonly used to model the crystallization of amino acids, proteins, and active pharmaceutical ingredients. A stochastic model in the form of a Master equation is formulated for crystal nucleation in droplet-based microfluidic systems for any form of nucleation rate expression under conditions of time-varying supersaturation. An analytical solution is provided to describe the (1) time evolution of the probability of crystal nucleation, (2) the average number of crystals that will form at time t for a large number of droplets, (3) the induction time distribution, and (4) the mean, most likely, and median induction times. These expressions are used to develop methods for determining the nucleation kinetics. Nucleation kinetics are determined from induction times measured for paracetamol and lysozyme at high supersaturation in an evaporation-based high-throughput crystallization platform, which give low prediction errors when the nucleation kinetics were used to predict induction times for other experimental conditions. The proposed stochastic model is relevant to homogeneous and heterogeneous crystal nucleation in a wide range of droplet-based and microfluidic crystallization platforms.

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