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1.
Toxicon ; 205: 20-23, 2021 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785172

RESUMO

Bothrops species trigger an acute inflammatory response in victims, with activated leukocytes releasing several mediators that may contribute to local and systemic effects. The effects of BjcuL, a lectin isolated from B. jararacussu snake venom, on mast cells and vasopermeability were investigated in this study. BjcuL activates mast cells and increases vasopermeability through the involvement of histamine and platelet activating factor, which may play a role in the victims' acute inflammatory reaction.

2.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 185: 494-512, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197854

RESUMO

Snakebite envenoming is the cause of an ongoing health crisis in several regions of the world, particularly in tropical and neotropical countries. This scenario creates an urgent necessity for new practical solutions to address the limitations of current therapies. The current study investigated the isolation, phytochemical characterization, and myotoxicity inhibition mechanism of gallic acid (GA), a myotoxin inhibitor obtained from Anacardium humile. The identification and isolation of GA was achieved by employing analytical chromatographic separation, which exhibited a compound with retention time and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra compatible with GA's commercial standard and data from the literature. GA alone was able to inhibit the myotoxic activity induced by the crude venom of Bothrops jararacussu and its two main myotoxins, BthTX-I and BthTX-II. Circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence spectroscopy (FS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and interaction studies by molecular docking suggested that GA forms a complex with BthTX-I and II. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) kinetics assays showed that GA has a high affinity for BthTX-I with a KD of 9.146 × 10-7 M. Taken together, the two-state reaction mode of GA binding to BthTX-I, and CD, FS and DLS assays, suggest that GA is able to induce oligomerization and secondary structure changes for BthTX-I and -II. GA and other tannins have been shown to be effective inhibitors of snake venoms' toxic effects, and herein we demonstrated GA's ability to bind to and inhibit a snake venom PLA2, thus proposing a new mechanism of PLA2 inhibition, and presenting more evidence of GA's potential as an antivenom compound.


Assuntos
Anacardium/química , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Miotoxicidade/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Fosfolipase A2/farmacologia , Fosfolipases A2/metabolismo , Venenos de Serpentes/enzimologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácido Gálico/química , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Miotoxicidade/enzimologia , Miotoxicidade/etiologia , Inibidores de Fosfolipase A2/química , Fosfolipases A2/química , Caules de Planta/química , Proteínas de Répteis/química , Proteínas de Répteis/metabolismo , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície
3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 185: 240-250, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118288

RESUMO

Given the magnitude of the global snakebite crisis, strategies to ensure the quality of antivenom, as well as the availability and sustainability of its supply are under development by several research groups. Recombinant DNA technology has allowed the engineering of monoclonal antibodies and recombinant fragments as alternatives to conventional antivenoms. Besides having higher therapeutic efficacy, with broad neutralization capacity against local and systemic toxicity, novel antivenoms need to be safe and cost-effective. Due to the biological and physical chemical properties of camelid single-domain antibodies, with high volume of distribution to distal tissue, their modular format, and their versatility, their biotechnological application has grown considerably in recent decades. This article presents the most up-to-date developments concerning camelid single-domain-based antibodies against major toxins from snake venoms, the main venomous animals responsible for reported envenoming cases and related human deaths. A brief discussion on the composition, challenges, and perspectives of antivenoms is presented, as well as the road ahead for next-generation antivenoms based on single-domain antibodies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos de Domínio Único/farmacologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/tratamento farmacológico , Venenos de Serpentes/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Camelídeos Americanos , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Engenharia de Proteínas , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/química , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/genética , Mordeduras de Serpentes/imunologia , Distribuição Tecidual
4.
Toxicon ; 198: 171-175, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029603

RESUMO

Photobiomodulation using light-emitting diode (LED) treatment has analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects which can be an effective therapeutic associated with serum therapy for local treatment of snakebites. Here we explored the effects of LED treatment on isolated macrophage under Bothrops jararacussu venom. Results showed that LED induced IL-6 and TNF-α genes down-regulation and, TGF and ARG1 genes up-regulation which indicates a polarization of macrophages to an M2 phenotype contributing to both tissue repair and resolution of inflammation.


Assuntos
Bothrops , Venenos de Crotalídeos , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Animais , Macrófagos , Camundongos , Fenótipo
5.
Chem Biol Interact ; 333: 109347, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259806

RESUMO

Several reports have suggested that photobiomodulation, owing to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and healing effects, may be an effective therapeutic option for local effects of snakebites when the availability and accessibility of conventional serum therapy are inefficient and far from medical care centers. Although there have been studies that demonstrate the application of photobiomodulation in the treatment of local adverse events due to snakebites from snakes of the genus Bothrops, its role in the activation of leukocytes, particularly macrophages, has not been evaluated. Here, we assessed the effect of light-emitting diode (LED) treatment on macrophage activation induced by B. jararacussu venom (BjV). LED treatment caused an increase in the viability of macrophages incubated with BjV. This treatment reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production by macrophages after incubation with BjV. However, LED treatment did not interfere with IL-1ß and IL-10 production by macrophages after incubation with BjV. In conclusion, this study showed that LED treatment has the potential to be used in combination with conventional serum therapy to prevent or minimize the progression of local to severe symptoms after Bothrops envenomation.


Assuntos
Bothrops , Venenos de Crotalídeos/toxicidade , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/instrumentação , Macrófagos/efeitos da radiação , Semicondutores , Mordeduras de Serpentes/imunologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/radioterapia , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Espaço Intracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Espaço Intracelular/efeitos da radiação , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Mordeduras de Serpentes/metabolismo , Mordeduras de Serpentes/patologia , Superóxidos/metabolismo
6.
Toxicon ; 187: 188-197, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956681

RESUMO

Polymorphonuclear neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in the blood and constitute key components of the innate immunity. Upon infection or tissue damage, neutrophils are recruited to tissues, where they exert a variety of effects, such as microbicidal activity, phagocytosis, degranulation, formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), release of inflammatory mediators, and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). In addition to microbial killing and removal of damaged tissue components, neutrophils play a role in the resolution of inflammation and, in some circumstances, they stimulate chronic inflammation and may contribute to tissue damage. The participation of neutrophils in snakebite envenoming has been explored in the clinical and experimental settings. Clinically, envenomings are associated with increases in the numbers of circulating neutrophils, with a left shift. Experimentally, neutrophils are the first inflammatory cells to reach tissue injected with venoms or tissue-damaging toxins. Venoms and toxins induce several effects on neutrophils in vitro, including chemotaxis, activation, degranulation, synthesis of inflammatory mediators, generation of ROS, and formation of NETs. The role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of venom-induced tissue damage has been explored, with variable results depending on the venom. In some cases, neutrophils play a key role in muscle regeneration following venom-induced myonecrosis. The processes involved in the recruitment and activation of neutrophils after injection of snake venoms and toxins, and the possible role of these leukocytes in envenomings, are discussed in this review.


Assuntos
Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Venenos de Serpentes/toxicidade , Animais , Armadilhas Extracelulares , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Inflamação , Fagocitose , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
7.
Toxicon X ; 7: 100049, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613196

RESUMO

A bioactive compound isolated from the stem extract of Aristolochia sprucei through High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was identified via Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) as the aristolochic acid (AA). This compound showed an inhibitory effect over the myotoxic activity of Bothrops jararacussu and Bothrops asper venoms, being also effective against the indirect hemolytic activity of B. asper venom. Besides, AA also inhibited the myotoxic activity of BthTX-I and MTX-II with an efficiency greater than 60% against both myotoxins. Docking predictions revealed an interesting mechanism, through which the AA displays an interaction profile consistent with its inhibiting abilities, binding to both active and putative sites of svPLA2. Overall, the present findings indicate that AA may bind to critical regions of myotoxic Asp 49 and Lys49-PLA2s from snake venoms, highlighting the relevance of domains comprising the active and putative sites to inhibit these toxins.

8.
Toxicon X ; 6: 100032, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32550587

RESUMO

Bothrops envenomation is associated with a cellular inflammatory response, characterized by pronounced neutrophil infiltration at the site of injury. Neutrophils act as the first line of defence, owing to their ability to migrate to the infected tissue, promoting an acute inflammatory response. At the site of inflammation, neutrophils perform defence functions such as phagocytosis, release of proteolytic enzymes, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and synthesis of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and lipid mediators. Neutrophils can also form neutrophil extracellular nets (NETs), webs composed of chromatin and granule proteins. This occurs after neutrophil activation and delivers high concentrations of anti-microbial molecules to the site of injury. This study evaluated the impact of BaTX-II, an Asp49 phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isolated from Bothrops atrox snake venom on human neutrophils in vitro. At non-toxic concentrations, BaTX-II induced hydrogen peroxide production by neutrophils, and this was reduced by wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor. BaTX-II stimulated IL-1ß, IL-8, LTB4, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and DNA content release, consistent with NET formation. This is the first study to show the triggering of relevant pro-inflammatory events by PLA2 Asp49 isolated from secretory venom.

10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 2492315, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214612

RESUMO

Skin secretions of frogs have a high chemical complexity. They have diverse types of biomolecules, such as proteins, peptides, biogenic amines, and alkaloids. These compounds protect amphibians' skin against growth of bacteria, fungi, and protozoa and participate in defense system against attack from predators. Therewith, this work performed biochemical and biological profile of macroglands parotoid secretion from cane toad. For poison analysis, we performed molecular exclusion and reverse phase chromatography, electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial, antiplasmodial, leishmanicidal, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and inflammatory activity of crude and/or fractions of R. marina secretion were also evaluated. Fractionation prior to filtration from poison showed separation of low mass content (steroids and alkaloids) and high molecular mass (protein). Material below 10 kDa two steroids, marinobufagin and desacetylcinobufagin, was detected. Crude extract and fractions were active against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania guyanensis, and Leishmania braziliensis. Crude extract was also active against cancer cells although it was not cytotoxic for normal cells. This extract did not show significant DNA damage but it showed an important inflammatory effect in vivo. The information obtained in this work contributes to the understanding of the constituents of R. marina secretion as well as the bioactive potential of these molecules.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Bufanolídeos , Glândula Parótida/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pele/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bufanolídeos/química , Bufanolídeos/metabolismo , Bufanolídeos/farmacologia , Bufo marinus
11.
Molecules ; 24(8)2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991684

RESUMO

Inflammation is a complex reaction involving cellular and molecular components and an unspecific response to a specific aggression. The use of scientific and technological innovations as a research tool combining multidisciplinary knowledge in informatics, biotechnology, chemistry and biology are essential for optimizing time and reducing costs in the drug design. Thus, the integration of these in silico techniques makes it possible to search for new anti-inflammatory drugs with better pharmacokinetic and toxicological profiles compared to commercially used drugs. This in silico study evaluated the anti-inflammatory potential of two benzoylpropionic acid derivatives (MBPA and DHBPA) using molecular docking and their thermodynamic profiles by molecular dynamics, in addition to predicting oral bioavailability, bioactivity and toxicity. In accordance to our predictions the derivatives proposed here had the potential capacity for COX-2 inhibition in the human and mice enzyme, due to containing similar interactions with the control compound (ibuprofen). Ibuprofen showed toxic predictions of hepatotoxicity (in human, mouse and rat; toxicophoric group 2-arylacetic or 3-arylpropionic acid) and irritation of the gastrointestinal tract (in human, mouse and rat; toxicophoric group alpha-substituted propionic acid or ester) confirming the literature data, as well as the efficiency of the DEREK 10.0.2 program. Moreover, the proposed compounds are predicted to have a good oral bioavailability profile and low toxicity (LD50 < 700 mg/kg) and safety when compared to the commercial compound. Therefore, future studies are necessary to confirm the anti-inflammatory potential of these compounds.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Benzoatos/química , Simulação por Computador , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/química , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/química , Ibuprofeno/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Propionatos/química , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Ratos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30181737

RESUMO

Background: Cnidarians produce toxins, which are composed of different polypeptides that induce pharmacological effects of biotechnological interest, such as antitumor, antiophidic and anti-clotting activities. This study aimed to evaluate toxicological activities and potential as antitumor and antiophidic agents contained in total extracts from five cnidarians: Millepora alcicornis, Stichodactyla helianthus, Plexaura homomalla, Bartholomea annulata and Condylactis gigantea (total and body wall). Methods: The cnidarian extracts were evaluated by electrophoresis and for their phospholipase, proteolytic, hemorrhagic, coagulant, fibrinogenolytic, neuromuscular blocking, muscle-damaging, edema-inducing and cytotoxic activities. Results: All cnidarian extracts showed indirect hemolytic activity, but only S. helianthus induced direct hemolysis and neurotoxic effect. However, the hydrolysis of NBD-PC, a PLA2 substrate, was presented only by the C. gigantea (body wall) and S. helianthus. The extracts from P. homomalla and S. helianthus induced edema, while only C. gigantea and S. helianthus showed intensified myotoxic activity. The proteolytic activity upon casein and fibrinogen was presented mainly by B. annulata extract and all were unable to induce hemorrhage or fibrinogen coagulation. Cnidarian extracts were able to neutralize clotting induced by Bothrops jararacussu snake venom, except M. alcicornis. All cnidarian extracts were able to inhibit hemorrhagic activity induced by Bothrops moojeni venom. Only the C. gigantea (body wall) inhibited thrombin-induced coagulation. All cnidarian extracts showed antitumor effect against Jurkat cells, of which C. gigantea (body wall) and S. helianthus were the most active; however, only C. gigantea (body wall) and M. alcicornis were active against B16F10 cells. Conclusion: The cnidarian extracts analyzed showed relevant in vitro inhibitory potential over the activities induced by Bothrops venoms; these results may contribute to elucidate the possible mechanisms of interaction between cnidarian extracts and snake venoms.

13.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 19(4): 308-335, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29929461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research involving snake venom has gradually surpassed the simple discovery of new molecules using purification and structural characterization processes, and extended to the identification of their molecular targets and the evaluation of their therapeutic potential. Nevertheless, this only became possible due to constant progress in experimental biology and protein purification approaches. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to discuss the main components of snake venoms that have been investigated for biotechnological purposes, and to discover how these promising biomolecules were obtained with the satisfactory degree of purity that have enabled such studies. Advances in purification technologies of various snake venom molecules have allowed for important discoveries of proteins and peptides with different biomedical and biotechnological applications. RESULT AND CONCLUSION: It is believed that significant experimental and computational advances will arise in similar proportions in the coming years that will allow researchers to map the molecular regions responsible for their pharmacological actions, their respective mechanisms of action and their cell targets.


Assuntos
Venenos de Serpentes/química , Venenos de Serpentes/farmacologia , Serpentes/fisiologia , Animais , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Proteínas/química , Venenos de Serpentes/genética , Venenos de Serpentes/uso terapêutico
14.
Toxins (Basel) ; 10(4)2018 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29596324

RESUMO

Toxic effects triggered by crotalic envenoming are mainly related to crotoxin (CTX), composed of a phospholipase A2 (CB) and a subunit with no toxic activity (CA). Camelids produce immunoglobulins G devoid of light chains, in which the antigen recognition domain is called VHH. Given their unique characteristics, VHHs were selected using Phage Display against CTX from Crotalus durissus terrificus. After three rounds of biopanning, four sequence profiles for CB (KF498602, KF498603, KF498604, and KF498605) and one for CA (KF498606) were revealed. All clones presented the VHH hallmark in FR2 and a long CDR3, with the exception of KF498606. After expressing pET22b-VHHs in E. coli, approximately 2 to 6 mg of protein per liter of culture were obtained. When tested for cross-reactivity, VHHs presented specificity for the Crotalus genus and were capable of recognizing CB through Western blot. KF498602 and KF498604 showed thermostability, and displayed affinity constants for CTX in the micro or nanomolar range. They inhibited in vitro CTX PLA2 activity, and CB cytotoxicity. Furthermore, KF498604 inhibited the CTX-induced myotoxicity in mice by 78.8%. Molecular docking revealed that KF498604 interacts with the CA–CB interface of CTX, seeming to block substrate access. Selected VHHs may be alternatives for the crotalic envenoming treatment.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos/imunologia , Crotoxina/imunologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/imunologia , Animais , Crotoxina/toxicidade , Escherichia coli/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Doenças Musculares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Musculares/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/genética , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/uso terapêutico , Mordeduras de Serpentes/diagnóstico , Mordeduras de Serpentes/terapia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29467796

RESUMO

Background: Wasp venoms constitute a molecular reservoir of new pharmacological substances such as peptides and proteins, biological property holders, many of which are yet to be identified. Exploring these sources may lead to the discovery of molecules hitherto unknown. This study describes, for the first time in hymenopteran venoms, the identification of an enzymatically inactive phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from the venom of the social wasp Polybia occidentalis. Methods: P. occidentalis venom was fractioned by molecular exclusion and reverse phase chromatography. For the biochemical characterization of the protein, 1D and 2D SDS-PAGE were performed, along with phospholipase activity assays on synthetic substrates, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and sequencing by Edman degradation. Results: The protein, called PocTX, was isolated using two chromatographic steps. Based on the phospholipase activity assay, electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, the protein presented a high degree of purity, with a mass of 13,896.47 Da and a basic pI. After sequencing by the Edman degradation method, it was found that the protein showed a high identity with snake venom PLA2 homologues. Conclusion: This is the first report of an enzymatically inactive PLA2 isolated from wasp venom, similar to snake PLA2 homologues.

16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 107(Pt A): 1014-1022, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28951306

RESUMO

Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are important enzymes present in snake venoms and are related to a wide spectrum of pharmacological effects, however the toxic potential and therapeutic effects of acidic isoforms have not been fully explored and understood. Due to this, the present study describes the isolation and biochemical characterization of two new acidic Asp49-PLA2s from Bothrops brazili snake venom, named Braziliase-I and Braziliase-II. The venom was fractionated in three chromatographic steps: ion exchange, hydrophobic interaction and reversed phase. The isoelectric point (pI) of the isolated PLA2s was determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and 5.2 and 5.3 pIs for Braziliase-I and II were observed, respectively. The molecular mass was determined with values ​​of 13,894 and 13,869Da for Braziliase-I and II, respectively. Amino acid sequence by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry completed 87% and 74% of the sequences, respectively for Braziliase-I and II. Molecular modeling of isolated PLA2s using acid PLA2BthA-I-PLA2 from B. jararacussu template showed high quality. Both acidic PLA2s showed no significant myotoxic activity, however they induced significant oedematogenic activity. Braziliase-I and II (100µg/mL) showed 31.5% and 33.2% of cytotoxicity on Trypanosoma cruzi and 26.2% and 19.2% on Leishmania infantum, respectively. Braziliase-I and II (10µg) inhibited 96.98% and 87.98% of platelet aggregation induced by ADP and 66.94% and 49% induced by collagen, respectively. The acidic PLA2s biochemical and structural characterization can lead to a better understanding of its pharmacological effects and functional roles in snakebites pathophysiology, as well as its possible biotechnological applications as research probes and drug leads.


Assuntos
Fosfolipases A2/química , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/química , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Venenos de Serpentes/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Bothrops/genética , Leishmania infantum/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania infantum/patogenicidade , Modelos Moleculares , Fosfolipases A2/genética , Fosfolipases A2/isolamento & purificação , Fosfolipases A2/farmacologia , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/farmacologia , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Trypanosoma cruzi/patogenicidade
17.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol ; 122(4): 413-423, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29067765

RESUMO

Snake venom phospholipases A2 (PLA2 s) are responsible for numerous pathophysiological effects in snakebites; however, their biochemical properties favour antimicrobial actions against different pathogens, thus constituting a true source of potential microbicidal agents. This study describes the isolation of a Lys49 PLA2 homologue from Lachesis muta muta venom using two chromatographic steps: size exclusion and reverse phase. The protein showed a molecular mass of 13,889 Da and was devoid of phospholipase activity on an artificial substrate. The primary structure made it possible to identify an unpublished protein from L. m. muta venom, named LmutTX, that presented high identity with other Lys49 PLA2 s from bothropic venoms. Synthetic peptides designed from LmutTX were evaluated for their cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities. LmutTX was cytotoxic against C2C12 myotubes at concentrations of at least 200 µg/mL, whereas the peptides showed a low cytolytic effect. LmutTX showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; however, S. aureusATCC 29213 and MRSA strains were more sensitive to the toxin's action. Synthetic peptides were tested on S. aureus, MRSA and P. aeruginosaATCC 27853 strains, showing promising results. This study describes for the first time the isolation of a Lys49 PLA2 from Lachesis snake venom and shows that peptides from specific regions of the sequence may constitute new sources of molecules with biotechnological potential.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Venenos de Crotalídeos/enzimologia , Fosfolipases A2/química , Viperidae , Animais , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Cromatografia em Gel/métodos , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa/métodos , Venenos de Crotalídeos/química , Desenho de Fármacos , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Peptídeos/síntese química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Fosfolipases A2/isolamento & purificação , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Curr Med Chem ; 25(21): 2520-2530, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29119915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: LAAOs (EC 1.4.3.2) are found in concentrations that vary according to each species of snakes; Viperidae, Crotalidae and Elapidae contain 1-9% of this enzyme in their venoms. METHODS: This review focuses on an update on molecular mechanisms, platelet activities, antimicrobial, antiprotozoal, induction of apoptosis and inflammatory potential underlying the actions of SVLAAOs. RESULTS: Snake venom LAAOs (SV-LAAOs) have become an interesting subject for pharmacological, structural and molecular studies. CONCLUSION: Although the mechanisms of action of these enzymes are not well understood they are a subject of a variety of studies, because LAAOs are multifunctional enzymes exhibiting a wide range of pharmacological effects, including the inhibition or induction of platelet aggregation, hemolysis and hemorrhage, in addition to the stimulation of apoptosis, the activation of leukocytes and the formation of edema. Moreover, SV-LAAOs play an important role in bactericidal, cytotoxic, anti-parasitic, anti-tumor, and antiviral activities.


Assuntos
L-Aminoácido Oxidase/metabolismo , Venenos de Serpentes/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , L-Aminoácido Oxidase/química , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Venenos de Serpentes/química , Venenos de Serpentes/metabolismo , Serpentes
19.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 24: 22, 2018. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-954854

RESUMO

Cnidarians produce toxins, which are composed of different polypeptides that induce pharmacological effects of biotechnological interest, such as antitumor, antiophidic and anti-clotting activities. This study aimed to evaluate toxicological activities and potential as antitumor and antiophidic agents contained in total extracts from five cnidarians: Millepora alcicornis, Stichodactyla helianthus, Plexaura homomalla, Bartholomea annulata and Condylactis gigantea (total and body wall). Methods: The cnidarian extracts were evaluated by electrophoresis and for their phospholipase, proteolytic, hemorrhagic, coagulant, fibrinogenolytic, neuromuscular blocking, muscle-damaging, edema-inducing and cytotoxic activities. Results: All cnidarian extracts showed indirect hemolytic activity, but only S. helianthus induced direct hemolysis and neurotoxic effect. However, the hydrolysis of NBD-PC, a PLA2 substrate, was presented only by the C gigantea (body wall) and S. helianthus. The extracts from P. homomalla and S. helianthus induced edema, while only C gigantea and S. helianthus showed intensified myotoxic activity. The proteolytic activity upon casein and fibrinogen was presented mainly by B. annulata extract and all were unable to induce hemorrhage or fibrinogen coagulation. Cnidarian extracts were able to neutralize clotting induced by Bothrops jararacussu snake venom, except M. alcicornis. All cnidarian extracts were able to inhibit hemorrhagic activity induced by Bothrops moojeni venom. Only the C. gigantea (body wall) inhibited thrombin-induced coagulation. All cnidarian extracts showed antitumor effect against Jurkat cells, of which C. gigantea (body wall) and S. helianthus were the most active; however, only C. gigantea (body wall) and M. alcicornis were active against B16F10 cells. Conclusion: The cnidarian extracts analyzed showed relevant in vitro inhibitory potential over the activities induced by Bothrops venoms; these results may contribute to elucidate the possible mechanisms of interaction between cnidarian extracts and snake venoms.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Antivenenos/toxicidade , Venenos de Cnidários/farmacologia , Venenos de Crotalídeos/imunologia , Bothrops , Neoplasias/imunologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-894164

RESUMO

Wasp venoms constitute a molecular reservoir of new pharmacological substances such as peptides and proteins, biological property holders, many of which are yet to be identified. Exploring these sources may lead to the discovery of molecules hitherto unknown. This study describes, for the first time in hymenopteran venoms, the identification of an enzymatically inactive phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from the venom of the social wasp Polybia occidentalis. Methods: P. occidentalis venom was fractioned by molecular exclusion and reverse phase chromatography. For the biochemical characterization of the protein, 1D and 2D SDS-PAGE were performed, along with phospholipase activity assays on synthetic substrates, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and sequencing by Edman degradation. Results: The protein, called PocTX, was isolated using two chromatographic steps. Based on the phospholipase activity assay, electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, the protein presented a high degree of purity, with a mass of 13,896. 47 Da and a basic pI. After sequencing by the Edman degradation method, it was found that the protein showed a high identity with snake venom PLA2 homologues. Conclusion: This is the first report of an enzymatically inactive PLA2 isolated from wasp venom, similar to snake PLA2 homologues.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Vespas , Receptores da Fosfolipase A2/isolamento & purificação , Receptores da Fosfolipase A2/química , Envenenamento , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Receptores da Fosfolipase A2/química , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa/métodos
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