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1.
Ultramicroscopy ; 207: 112837, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539866

RESUMO

Scanning Electron NanoDiffraction (SEND) is a powerful and versatile technique for lattice strain mapping in nano-devices and nano-materials. The measurement is based on Bragg diffraction from a local crystal volume. However, the resolution and precision of SEND are fundamentally limited by the uncertainty principle and scattering that govern electron diffraction. Here, we propose to measure lattice strain using a focused probe and circular Hough transform to locate the position of non-uniform diffraction disks. Methods for fitting a 2D lattice to the detected disks for strain calculation are described, including error analysis. We demonstrate our technique on a FinFET device for strain mapping at the spatial resolution of 1 nm and strain precision of ∼3×10-4. Using this and simulations, the experimental parameters involved in data acquisition and analysis are thoroughly investigated to construct an optimum strain mapping strategy using SEND.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434297

RESUMO

Municipal solid waste (MSW) is posing great challenge for most countries in the world, which can cause severe negative impacts to the environment and human health. Waste-to-energy has great potential in China because of its technological maturity and policy support at the national level. However, there are significant conflicts between the huge market demand and strong public opposition. It is imperative to examine the public perception of waste-to-energy, especially for developing countries where a large number of projects are under construction or have been approved. The public perception of waste-to-energy was carried out by a questionnaire survey in this research. A total of 650 questionnaires were distributed and 629 questionnaires were returned, with a response rate of 96.8%. The results show that the public showed general concern in regard to environmental issues. Respondents had an overall positive attitude towards waste-to-energy, but it varied according to the demographic details of residents, such as age, education, and income. Recognition level of the benefits was higher than the concern of associated risks. Multiple linear regression shows that awareness of environmental issues had no impact on public attitude towards waste-to-energy, while public awareness and perceived benefits had notable positive impacts. Perceived risks had a positive correlation with public attitude. In order to promote the development of MSW incinerators, the government should make more publicity efforts. Rural residents, people over 50 years old, and people with low education and low income are the major groups which should be focused on to enhance the public perception. The findings provide a theoretical and practical reference for enhancing the social acceptance of waste-to-energy development.

3.
Water Res ; 163: 114848, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352242

RESUMO

At times, certain areas of China suffering from water shortages. While China's government is spurring innovation and infrastructure to help head off such problems, it may be that some water conservation could help as well. It is well-known that water is embodied in traded goods-so called "virtual water trade" (VWT). In China, it seems that many water-poor areas are perversely engaged in VWT. Further, China is engaging in the global trend of fragmentation in production, even as an interregional phenomenon. Perhaps something could be learned about conserving or reducing VWT, if we knew where and how it is practiced. Given some proximate causes, perhaps viable policies could be formulated. To this end, we employ China's multiregional input-output tables straddling two periods to trace the trade of a given region's three types of goods: local final goods, local intermediate goods, and goods that shipped to other regions and countries. We find that goods traded interregionally in China in 2012 embodied 30.4% of all water used nationwide. Nationwide, water use increased substantially over 2007-2012 due to greater shipment volumes of water-intensive products. In fact, as suspected, the rise in value chain-related trade became a major contributing factor. Coastal areas tended to be net receivers of VWT from interior provinces, although reasons differed, e.g. Shanghai received more to fulfill final demand (67.8% of net inflow) and Zhejiang for value-chain related trade (40.2% of net inflow). In sum, the variety of our findings reveals an urgent need to consider trade types and water scarcity when developing water resource allocation and conservation policies.

4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(25): 25432-25444, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309421

RESUMO

With the rapid development of construction industry, consumption of concrete block has increased rapidly in China. As a kind of green building material and resource comprehensive utilization product, autoclaved aerated fly ash and concrete block have better performance in terms of heat preservation, sound insulation, and fire resistance. However, some typical issues are associated with autoclaved aerated fly ash and concrete block production process such as energy and material consumption as well as pollutant emissions. To examine the environmental and economic impacts of its production process is imperative. Choosing 1 m3 of autoclaved aerated fly ash and concrete block product as functional unit and "cradle to gate" as system boundary, a life cycle inventory is developed. The key processes and key materials with significant environmental impact are identified. Results show that the top four environmental impact categories are marine ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, freshwater eutrophication, and human toxicity. Key processes are fly ash slurry production, lime grinding, and steam curing processes. These processes account for 46.58%, 26.00%, and 19.62% of the total environmental load respectively. The key materials are cement, lime, and natural gas, which account for 44.91%, 22.79%, and 20.61% respectively of overall environmental impact. Sensitivity analysis shows that the fly ash slurry production should be optimized preferentially, followed by lime grinding and steam curing processes. These findings are helpful to facilitate the sustainable production of autoclaved aerated fly ash and concrete block.

5.
Nano Lett ; 19(7): 4712-4720, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251071

RESUMO

An emergent theme in mono- and multivalent ion batteries is to utilize nanoparticles (NPs) as electrode materials based on the phenomenological observations that their short ion diffusion length and large electrode-electrolyte interface can lead to improved ion insertion kinetics compared to their bulk counterparts. However, the understanding of how the NP size fundamentally relates to their electrochemical behaviors (e.g., charge storage mechanism, phase transition associated with ion insertion) is still primitive. Here, we employ spinel λ-MnO2 particles as a model cathode material, which have effective Mg2+ ion intercalation but with their size effect poorly understood to investigate their operating mechanism via a suite of electrochemical and structural characterizations. We prepare two differently sized samples, the small nanoscopic λ-MnO2 particles (81 ± 25 nm) and big micron-sized ones (814 ± 207 nm) via postsynthesis size-selection. Analysis of the charge storage mechanisms shows that the stored charge from Mg2+ ion intercalation dominates in both systems and is ∼10 times higher in small particles than that in the big ones. From both X-ray diffraction and atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging, we reveal a fundamental difference in phase transition of the differently sized particles during Mg2+ ion intercalation: the small NPs undergo a solid-solution-like phase transition which minimizes lattice mismatch and energy penalty for accommodating new phases, whereas the big particles follow conventional multiphase transformation. We show that this pathway difference is related to the improved electrochemical performance (e.g., rate capability, cycling performance) of small particles over the big ones which provides important insights in encoding within the particle dimension, that is, the single-phase transition pathway in high-performance electrode materials for multivalent ion batteries.

6.
ACS Nano ; 13(8): 8784-8792, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244033

RESUMO

ß-Ga2O3, with a bandgap of ∼4.6-4.9 eV and readily available bulk substrates, has attracted tremendous interest in the wide bandgap semiconductor community. Producing high aspect ratio ß-Ga2O3 3D nanostructures without surface damage is crucial for next-generation power electronics. However, most wet etching methods can only achieve very limited aspect ratios, while dry etch usually damages the surface due to high energy ions. In this work, we demonstrate the formation of ß-Ga2O3 fin arrays on a (010) ß-Ga2O3 substrate by metal-assisted chemical etching (MacEtch) with high aspect ratio and sidewall surfaces with excellent quality. The etching was found to be strongly crystal orientation dependent, and three kinds of vertical structures were formed after MacEtch. The Schottky barrier height (SBH) between Pt and various MacEtch-produced ß-Ga2O3 surfaces and sidewalls was found to decrease as the aspect ratio of the ß-Ga2O3 vertical structure increased. This could be attributed to the different amount of oxygen lost at the surface after etching, as indicated by the XPS and TEM examination. Very little hysteresis was observed in the capacitance-voltage characteristics for the 3D Pt/Al2O3/ß-Ga2O3 MOS capacitor structures, and the extracted interface trap density was as small as 2.73 × 1011 cm-2 eV-1, comparable to or lower than that for unetched planar ß-Ga2O3 surfaces.

7.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 123(5): 579-592, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152165

RESUMO

Marker segregation distortion is a natural phenomenon. Severely distorted markers are usually excluded in the construction of linkage maps. We investigated the effect of marker segregation distortion on linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. A total of 519 recombinant inbred lines of soybean from orthogonal and reciprocal crosses between LSZZH and NN493-1 were genotyped by specific length amplified fragment markers and seed linoleic acid content was measured in three environments. As a result, twenty linkage groups were constructed with 11,846 markers, including 1513 (12.77%) significantly distorted markers, on 20 chromosomes, and the map length was 2475.86 cM with an average marker-interval of 0.21 cM. The inclusion of distorted markers in the analysis was shown to not only improve the grouping of the markers from the same chromosomes, and the consistency of linkage maps with genome, but also increase genome coverage by markers. Combining genotypic data from both orthogonal and reciprocal crosses decreased the proportion of distorted markers and then improved the quality of linkage maps. Validation of the linkage maps was confirmed by the high collinearity between positions of markers in the soybean reference genome and in linkage maps and by the high consistency of 24 QTL regions in this study compared with the previously reported QTLs and lipid metabolism related genes. Additionally, linkage maps that include distorted markers could add more information to the outputs from QTL mapping. These results provide important information for linkage mapping, gene cloning and marker-assisted selection in soybean.

8.
Orthod Craniofac Res ; 22 Suppl 1: 101-106, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074148

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are 30-150 nm in diameter vesicles released by cells that serve important intercellular regulatory functions. EVs include exosomes and microvesicles. Exosomes form in multivesicular bodies and are released extracellularly as the multivesicular bodies fuse with the plasma membrane. Microvesicles bud directly from the plasma membrane. Here, we examine methods that are available or emerging to detect and study EVs during orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). EV's involvement in regulating bone remodelling associated with OTM may be demonstrated by adding isolated EVs to an animal model to change the rate of tooth movement. Exosomes in multivesicular bodies might be detected by immunogold labelling of markers in sections from the tooth and jaw and detection by electron microscopy. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is enriched in EVs. Detection and characterization of EVs released by osteoclasts during resorption have been described, and this information could be used to analyse EVs in OTM models. Regulatory EVs may be enriched in the GCF from teeth that are being moved or are undergoing root resorption. Emerging approaches, including nanoparticle tracking, ExoView and micro- and nanofluidics, show promise for studying EVs in the GCF. Techniques that amplify signal, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), provide the sensitivity necessary to utilize EVs from GCF as biomarkers. Studies of the role of EVs in OTM will provide fresh insight that may identify means for enhancing OTM procedures. EVs in GCF may include biomarkers for bone remodelling during OTM, orthodontic-associated root resorption, and other dental pathologies.

9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6874, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053797

RESUMO

Cochlear outer hair cells (OHC) express the motor protein, prestin, which is required for sensitivity and frequency selectivity. Because our previous work showed that a calmodulin binding site (CBS) was located in prestin's C-terminal, specifically within the intrinsically disordered region, we sought to delete the IDR to study the functional significance of calcium-dependent, calmodulin binding on OHC function. Although the construct lacking the IDR (∆IDR prestin) demonstrated wildtype-like nonlinear capacitance (NLC) in HEK293T cells, the phenotype in ∆IDR prestin knockins (KI) was similar to that in prestin knockouts: thresholds were elevated, NLC was absent and OHCs were missing from basal regions of the cochlea. Although ∆IDR prestin mRNA was measured, no prestin protein was detected. At the mRNA level, both of prestin's exons 17 and 18 were entirely removed, rather than the smaller region encoding the IDR. Our hybrid exon that contained the targeted deletion (17-18 ∆IDR) failed to splice in vitro and prestin protein lacking exons 17 and 18 aggregated and failed to target the cell membrane. Hence, the absence of prestin protein in ∆IDR KI OHCs may be due to the unexpected splicing of the hybrid 17-18 ∆IDR exon followed by rapid degradation of nonfunctional prestin protein.

10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(3): 415-421, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989902

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) is a non-specific and chronic recurrent autoimmune disease that involves the gastrointestinal tract. Clinical symptoms of intestinal bleeding, diarrhea, and weight loss threat to human health and induce colorectal cancer. The pathogenesis included living environment, genetic factors, immune cell infiltration and immune stress, weakened mucosal barrier defense and intestinal flora imbalance. At present, clinical treatment drugs mainly include aminosalicylic acid, corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, biological agents, etc., in view of the disadvantages of poor therapeutic effect and expensive price. The active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) in the treatment IBD have various biological activities and multiple targets such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-tumor and immune regulation. This article summarized the application and the research progress in protecting intestinal epithelial barrier, maintaining intestinal microbial homeostasis, inhibiting causative factors, and regulating Th1/Th17/Treg balance about TCM in the treatment of IBD. The review provided new ideas for further development of the new drugs on the mechanism based on active ingredients of TCM in IBD treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiopatologia
11.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 216: 328-334, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909089

RESUMO

Considering the excellent photochemical properties of ruthenium(II) complexes, two new ruthenium(II) complexes, RuL1-DNBS and RuL2-DNBS, have been developed as phosphorescence probes for detection of biothiols in 100:1 (v/v) Hepes buffer (20 mM, pH = 7.2)/CH3CN solution. The response rate was highly improved of these two probes toward biothiols because the steric interactions between 1H-imidazo [4, 5-f] [1,10] phenanthroline group and ortho-2, 4-dinitrobenzensulfonate resulted in a relatively rapid thiol-induced SNAr substitution reaction. RuL1-DNBS and RuL2-DNBS were weakly phosphorescent owing to the effectual photoinduced electron transfer from ruthenium(II) luminophore to the sensing group, 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonyl. After reacting with biothiols, the 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonyl group of RuL1-DNBS and RuL2-DNBS were cleavaged and the RuL1 and RuL2 were obtained. Meanwhile, the phosphorescence were "turn-on". Both of these two probes can detect biothiols sensitively and selectively under physiological conditions with submicromolar detection limits. Furthermore, application of RuL2-DNBS for detecting of intracellular biothiols has been successfully performed in living Glioma cells.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/química , Dinitrobenzenos/química , Substâncias Luminescentes/química , Rutênio/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/análise , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glioma/química , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Fenantrolinas/química
12.
Org Lett ; 21(6): 1904-1907, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835483

RESUMO

Urceoloids A (1) and B (2), two C19 steroids with a rearranged new carbon skeleton by featuring a very unique spiro[4.4]nona-3,6,8-triene system, and a biosynthetically related known steroid (3) were isolated from Urceola quintaretii. Their structures were completely established by a combined method. A plausible biosynthetic pathway for the new carbon skeleton represented by compounds 1 and 2 was proposed. Compounds 2 and 3 showed immunosuppressive activities.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/química , Carbono/química , Esteroides/química , Vias Biossintéticas , Estrutura Molecular
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 282: 353-360, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878887

RESUMO

Anaerobic digestion could treat organic wastes and recovery energy. Dry anaerobic digestion had advantages of low heating energy, small digester and less digestate, but its methane production was poor. In this study, an enhanced dry anaerobic digestion of swine manure (thermal treatment + dry anaerobic digestion) was proposed, and its feasibility was investigated via semi-continuous experiment. Results showed that methane production rates were 314.6, 416.0, 298.0 and 69.9 mL CH4/g VS at solid retention time (SRT) of 41 d, 35 d, 29 d and 23 d. Volatile solids (VS) removal rate and methane production rate could reached 71.4% and 416.0 mL CH4/g VS respectively at SRT of 35 d. Methane production rate of the enhanced dry anaerobic digestion was 390% higher than that of dry anaerobic digestion. Microbial study indicated that hydrogenotrophic methanogens predominated with the abundance of 90.2%, while acetoclastic methanogens were not detected. This process was feasible, and was of great practical importance.


Assuntos
Esterco , Microbiota , Anaerobiose , Animais , Esterco/microbiologia , Metano/biossíntese , Suínos
14.
Neurosci Lett ; 701: 175-179, 2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822439

RESUMO

The use of light as a tool to manipulate cellular processes or optogenetics has developed rapidly in various biological fields over the past decade. Through the addition of photosensitive proteins, light can be used to control intracellular mechanisms, map neuronal pathways, and alter variables that would be difficult to control using other mechanisms. Photons of a specific wavelength affect these light sensitive targets for in vitro or in vivo experiments. Optogenetics is beneficial because it gives the investigator spatial and temporal control over experimental variables. Precise control is achieved by sequential activation of different ion channels and the ability to non-invasively control membrane potential. In this review, we will discuss the recent use of optogenetics in biological fields to understand the role of different cell types in hearing and creating a new cochlear implant, as well as future uses such as light controlled drug delivery and gene expression.


Assuntos
Audição/genética , Optogenética , Animais , Implantes Cocleares , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Expressão Gênica , Células Ciliadas Auditivas/patologia , Células Ciliadas Auditivas/fisiologia , Células Ciliadas Auditivas/efeitos da radiação , Perda Auditiva/genética , Perda Auditiva/patologia , Perda Auditiva/terapia , Humanos , Raios Infravermelhos , Nanopartículas , Opsinas/genética , Opsinas/metabolismo
15.
Cardiovasc Toxicol ; 19(4): 372-381, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30805771

RESUMO

SSeCKS/Gravin/AKAP12 is a protein kinase C (PKC) substrate that inhibits the activity of PKC through binding with it. SSeCKS is expressed in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). The atypical PKC isoform ζ (PKCζ) is a pathologic mediator of endothelial dysfunction. However, the functional significance of SSeCKS/PKCζ dimerization in the vascular endothelium remains poorly understood. Given this background, we investigated the effects of SSeCKS on endothelial dysfunction and elucidated the possible mechanism involved. Vascular endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory changes were induced by treatment with bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a vascular endothelial toxicity inducer). LPS can increase the level of SSeCKS. However, we also found that depletion of SSeCKS aggravated the LPS-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction, upregulated pro-inflammatory proteins and phosphorylation level of PKCζ, increased ROS formation, decreased extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) transcriptional activity, and reduced eNOS expression. Further examination revealed that depletion of SSeCKS increased PKCζ/ERK5 dimerization. These findings provide preliminary evidence that the expression of SSeCKS induced by LPS, as a negative feedback mechanism, has the potential to improve endothelium-dependent relaxation in vascular disease conditions by inhibiting PKCζ-mediated reduction of ERK5 transactivation.

16.
J Med Ultrason (2001) ; 46(2): 273-275, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30637595

RESUMO

Persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA) is a relatively uncommon congenital heart disease, accounting for approximately 0.7-1.4% of all congenital cardiac abnormalities worldwide. PTA is usually accompanied by a single semilunar valve, with leaflets ranging from one to six in number. However, absent semilunar valve (ASV) is rarely seen in PTA. Here, we report a case of prenatally diagnosed PTA accompanied by ASV (PTA-ASV) confirmed by postmortem autopsy.


Assuntos
Doenças Fetais/diagnóstico por imagem , Valvas Cardíacas/anormalidades , Persistência do Tronco Arterial/diagnóstico por imagem , Aborto Induzido , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Adulto Jovem
17.
Biomolecules ; 9(1)2019 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30634501

RESUMO

Osteoclasts are cells of the hematopoietic lineage that are specialized to resorb bone. In osteoclasts, the actin cytoskeleton engages in at least two unusual activities that are required for resorption. First, microfilaments form a dynamic and structurally elaborate actin ring. Second, microfilaments bind vacuolar H⁺-ATPase (V-ATPase) and are involved in forming the V-ATPase-rich ruffled plasma membrane. The current review examines these two specialized functions with emphasis on the identification of new therapeutic opportunities. The actin ring is composed of substructures called podosomes that are interwoven to form a cohesive superstructure. Studies examining the regulation of the formation of actin rings and its constituent proteins are reviewed. Areas where there are gaps in the knowledge are highlighted. Microfilaments directly interact with the V-ATPase through an actin binding site in the B2-subunit of V-ATPase. This binding interaction is required for ruffled membrane formation. Recent studies show that an inhibitor of the interaction blocks bone resorption in pre-clinical animal models, including a model of post-menopausal osteoporosis. Because the unusual actin-based resorption complex is unique to osteoclasts and essential for bone resorption, it is likely that deeper understanding of its underlying mechanisms will lead to new approaches to treat bone disease.


Assuntos
Actinas/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Complexo 2-3 de Proteínas Relacionadas à Actina/metabolismo , Actinas/química , Remodelação Óssea , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea/patologia , Humanos , Osteoclastos/citologia , Ligação Proteica , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/química , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/metabolismo
18.
Fitoterapia ; 133: 96-101, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605781

RESUMO

A phytochemical investigation on the twigs and leaves of Flueggea virosa (Euphorbiaceae) led to the isolation of flueggenoids A - E (1-5), five new 13-methyl-ent-podocarpanes, together with eleven known compounds (6-16). Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated on the basis of extensive MS and NMR data analysis, and/or single-crystal X-ray diffraction, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT)-based electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations, and chemical transformation. All isolates were evaluated for anti-HCV activity, the results showed that terpenoids of F. virosa had nonnegligible contribution for the anti-HCV activity.


Assuntos
Malpighiales/química , Terpenos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , China , Hepacivirus , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação
19.
J Environ Manage ; 235: 169-177, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682669

RESUMO

Compared to traditional anaerobic digestion (AD), high solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD) had the advantages of small digester, low heating energy and less digestate. However, the methane production was poor. In our previous study, thermal treatment (70 ±â€¯1 °C, 3 days) without any dilution could satisfactorily enhance the methane production rate of HSAD by up to 39.5%. However, effects of solid content on HSAD after thermal treatment were not yet studied. In this study, HSAD was conducted at 11.7-17.6% solid content, and the control experiment was conducted at low solid content (4.4% solid content). Results showed that HSAD's methane production rate was the highest at 11.7% solid content (158 mL CH4/g VS), and could reach up to 89.2% of that at 4.4% solid content. The utilization of organics was revealed by kinetics analysis that the readily biodegradable organics could be utilized at increasing solid content with decreasing hydrolysis rate. Furthermore, it was notable that methylotrophic methanogens predominated in HSAD with the abundance of 82.6%. This was quite unique from the general belief that AD system was usually dominated by acetoclastic or hydrogenotrophic methanogenic pathways. In this study, the microbial community structure of HSAD after thermal treatment was firstly studied, its unique specific methanogenic pathways was firstly revealed.


Assuntos
Esterco , Microbiota , Anaerobiose , Animais , Reatores Biológicos , Cinética , Metano , Suínos
20.
Life Sci ; 218: 205-212, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a cellular stress protein, serves a vital metabolic function as the rate-limiting enzyme in the degradation of heme to generate carbon monoxide (CO), iron, and biliverdin (BR). HO-1 may function as one of the most momentous factors of cell adaptation to oxidase stress, as well as a regulator of inflammatory signaling programs through the generation of its biologically active end products. Intensive investigation is now focusing on the potential function of HO-1 in inflammatory disorders, among which rheumatic diseases are one of the principal issues. METHODS: "Heme oxygenase-1", "rheumatic diseases"; "lupus", "rheumatic arthritis", "osteoarthritis" and "oxidative stress" were used as key words for searching in Pubmed and Google scholar database. RESULTS: Collected information from the related articles revealed the important role of pathogenesis and therapeutic potential of HO-1 in rheumatic diseases. Conclusions and discussions HO-1 has potential as a target for the treatment of rheumatic diseases due to its characteristic anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative role. However, it is essential to monitor the HO-1 expression during particular stage of the disorders, and levels of HO-1 in different tissues and organs should be further confirmed in order to correlate it with clinical symptoms and other hallmarks of rheumatic diseases.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Heme Oxigenase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Humanos , Doenças Reumáticas/metabolismo
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