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1.
Oncologist ; 2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35429394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Real-world (RW) evidence on nivolumab in pretreated patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by matching data from administrative health flows (AHFs) and clinical records (CRs) may close the gap between pivotal trials and clinical practice. METHODS: This multicenter RW study aims at investigating median time to treatment discontinuation (mTTD), overall survival (mOS) of nivolumab in pretreated patients with NSCLC both from AHF and CR; clinical-pathological features predictive of early treatment discontinuation (etd), budget impact (BI), and cost-effectiveness analysis were investigated; mOS in patients receiving nivolumab and docetaxel was assessed. RESULTS: Overall, 237 patients with NSCLC treated with nivolumab were identified from AHFs; mTTD and mOS were 4.2 and 9.8 months, respectively; 141 (59%) received at least 6 treatment cycles, 96 (41%) received < 6 (etd). Median overall survival in patients with and without etd were 3.3 and 19.6 months, respectively (P < .0001). Higher number, longer duration, and higher cost of hospitalizations were observed in etd cases. Clinical records were available for 162 patients treated with nivolumab (cohort 1) and 83 with docetaxel (cohort 2). Median time to treatment discontinuation was 4.8 and 2.6 months, respectively (P < .0001); risk of death was significantly higher in cohort 2 or cohort 1 with etd compared with cohort 1 without etd (P < .0001). Predictors of etd were body mass index <25, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status >1, neutrophile-to-lymphocyte ratio >2.91, and concomitant treatment with antibiotics and glucocorticoids. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of nivolumab was 3323.64 euros ($3757.37) in all patients and 2805.75 euros ($3171.47) for patients without etd. Finally, the BI gap (real-theoretical) was 857â188 euros ($969â050.18). CONCLUSION: We defined predictors and prognostic-economic impact of nivolumab in etd patients.

2.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(5)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Until now, no robust data supported the efficacy, safety and recommendation for influenza vaccination in patients with cancer receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). METHODS: The prospective multicenter observational INfluenza Vaccine Indication During therapy with Immune checkpoint inhibitors (INVIDIa-2) study investigated the clinical effectiveness of influenza vaccination in patients with advanced cancer receiving ICIs, enrolled in 82 Italian centers from October 2019 to January 2020. The primary endpoint was the time-adjusted incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) until April 30, 2020. Secondary endpoints regarded ILI severity and vaccine safety. RESULTS: The study enrolled 1279 patients; 1188 patients were evaluable for the primary endpoint analysis. Of them, 48.9% (581) received influenza vaccination. The overall ILI incidence was 8.2% (98 patients). Vaccinated patients were significantly more frequently elderly (p<0.0001), males (p=0.004), with poor European Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (p=0.009), affected by lung cancer (p=0.01), and by other non-cancer comorbidities (p<0.0001) when compared with unvaccinated. ILI incidence was not different basing on influenza vaccination: the time-to-ILI was similar in vaccinated and unvaccinated patients (p=0.62). ILI complications were significantly less frequent for patients receiving the vaccination (11.8% vs 38.3% in unvaccinated, p=0.002). ILI-related intravenous therapies were significantly less frequent in vaccinated patients than in unvaccinated (11.8% vs 29.8%, p=0.027). ILI lethality was, respectively, 0% in vaccinated and 4.3% in unvaccinated patients. Vaccine-related adverse events were rare and mild (1.5%, grades 1-2). CONCLUSION: The INVIDIa-2 study results support a positive recommendation for influenza vaccination in patients with advanced cancer receiving immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Incidência , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Eur J Cancer ; 147: 120-127, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647547

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic started in Italy with clusters identified in Northern Italy. The Veneto Oncology Network (Rete Oncologica Veneta) licenced dedicated guidelines to ensure proper care minimising the risk of infection in patients with cancer. Rete Oncologica Veneta covID19 (ROVID) is a regional registry aimed at describing epidemiology and clinical course of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in patients with cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with cancer diagnosis and documented SARS-CoV-2 infection are eligible. Data on cancer diagnosis, comorbidities, anticancer treatments, as well as details on SARS-CoV-2 infection (hospitalisation, treatments, fate of the infection), have been recorded. Logistic regression analysis was applied to calculate the association between clinical/laboratory variables and death from any cause. RESULTS: One hundred seventy patients have been enrolled. The median age at time of the SARS-CoV infection was 70 years (25-92). The most common cancer type was breast cancer (n = 40). The majority of the patients had stage IV disease. Half of the patients had two or more comorbidities. The majority of the patients (78%) presented with COVID-19 symptoms. More than 77% of the patients were hospitalized and 6% were admitted to intensive care units. Overall, 104 patients have documented resolution of the infection. Fifty-seven patients (33%) have died. In 29 cases (17%), the cause of death was directly correlated to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Factors significantly correlated with the risk of death were the following: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS), age, presence of two or more comorbidities, presence of dyspnoea, COVID-19 phenotype ≥ 3, hospitalisation, intensive care unit admission, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and thrombocytopenia. CONCLUSIONS: The mortality rate reported in this confirms the frailty of this population. These data reinforce the need to protect patients with cancer from SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/patologia , Redes Comunitárias , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/patologia , Pandemias , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
4.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 12: 1758835920968463, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33224275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This prospective, multicentre, observational INVIDIa-2 study is investigating the clinical efficacy of influenza vaccination in advanced-cancer patients receiving immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), enrolled in 82 Italian centres, from October 2019 to January 2020. The primary endpoint was the incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) until 30 April 2020. All the ILI episodes, laboratory tests, complications, hospitalizations and pneumonitis were recorded. Therefore, the study prospectively recorded all the COVID-19 ILI events. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were included in this non-prespecified COVID-19 analysis, if alive on 31 January 2020, when the Italian government declared the national emergency. The prevalence of confirmed COVID-19 cases was detected as ILI episode with laboratory confirmation of SARS-CoV-2. Cases with clinical-radiological diagnosis of COVID-19 (COVID-like ILIs), were also reported. RESULTS: Out of 1257 enrolled patients, 955 matched the inclusion criteria for this unplanned analysis. From 31 January to 30 April 2020, 66 patients had ILI: 9 of 955 cases were confirmed COVID-19 ILIs, with prevalence of 0.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.3-2.4], a hospitalization rate of 100% and a mortality rate of 77.8%. Including 5 COVID-like ILIs, the overall COVID-19 prevalence was 1.5% (95% CI: 0.5-3.1), with 100% hospitalization and 64% mortality. The presence of elderly, males and comorbidities was significantly higher among patients vaccinated against influenza versus unvaccinated (p = 0.009, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001). Overall COVID-19 prevalence was 1.2% for vaccinated (six of 482 cases, all confirmed) and 1.7% for unvaccinated (8 of 473, 3 confirmed COVID-19 and 5 COVID-like), p = 0.52. The difference remained non-significant, considering confirmed COVID-19 only (p = 0.33). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 has a meaningful clinical impact on the cancer-patient population receiving ICIs, with high prevalence, hospitalization and an alarming mortality rate among symptomatic cases. Influenza vaccination does not protect from SARS-CoV-2 infection.

6.
Target Oncol ; 15(4): 495-501, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis has been recognized as the most important factor for tumor invasion, proliferation, and progression in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). However, few clinical data are available regarding the efficacy of cabozantinib following immunotherapy. OBJECTIVE: To describe the outcome of cabozantinib in patients previously treated with immunotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with mRCC who received cabozantinib immediately after nivolumab were included. The primary endpoint was to assess the outcome in terms of efficacy and activity. RESULTS: Eighty-four mRCC patients met the criteria to be included in the final analysis. After a median follow-up of 9.4 months, median overall survival was 17.3 months. According to the IMDC criteria, the rates of patients alive at 12 months in the good, intermediate, and poor prognostic groups were 100%, 74%, and 33%, respectively (p < 0.001). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 11.5 months (95% CI 8.3-14.7); no difference was found based on duration of previous first-line therapy or nivolumab PFS. The overall response rate was 52%, stable disease was found as the best response in 25.3% and progressive disease in 22.7% of patients. Among the 35 patients with progressive disease on nivolumab, 26 (74.3%) patients showed complete/partial response or stable disease with cabozantinib as best response after nivolumab. The major limitations of this study are the retrospective nature and the short follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Cabozantinib was shown to be effective and active in patients previously receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors. Therefore, cabozantinib can be considered a valid therapeutic option for previously treated mRCC patients, irrespective of the type and duration of prior therapies.


Assuntos
Anilidas/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Anilidas/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Masculino , Piridinas/farmacologia , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/farmacologia
7.
Eur J Cancer ; 118: 121-130, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the well-known negative prognostic value of the V600EBRAF mutation in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), its outcome is quite heterogeneous, and the basis for this prognostic heterogeneity should be better defined. METHODS: Two large retrospective series of V600EBRAF-mutated mCRC from 22 institutions served as an exploratory and validation set to develop a prognostic score. The model was internally and externally validated. RESULTS: A total of 395 V600EBRAF-mutated mCRCs were included in the exploratory set. Performance status, CA19.9, lactate dehydrogenase, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, grading and liver, lung and nodal involvement emerged as independent prognostic factors for overall survival (OS). Two different scoring systems were built: a 'complete' score (0-16) including all significant covariates and a 'simplified' score (0-9), based only on clinicopathological covariates, and excluding laboratory values. Adopting the complete score, proportions of patients with a low (0-4), intermediate (5-8) and high (9-16) score were 44.7%, 42.6% and 12.6%, respectively. The median OS was 29.6, 15.5 (hazard ratio [HR] for intermediate vs low risk: 2.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.44-3.22, p < .001) and 6.6 months (HR for high vs low risk: 4.72, 95% CI: 2.72-8.20, p < .001). Similar results were observed also after adjusting for the type of first-line treatment and adopting the simplified score. The simplified prognostic score derived from the exploratory set was then applied to the validation set for external confirmation. CONCLUSIONS: These scoring systems are based on easy-to-collect data and defined specific subgroups with relevant differences in their life expectancy. These tools could be useful in clinical practice, would allow better stratification of patients in clinical trials and may be adopted for proper adjustments in exploratory translational analyses.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Oncologist ; 24(11): 1424-1431, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ROXANE Italian prospective study evaluated the impact of the 21-gene Recurrence Score (RS) results on adjuvant treatment decision for patients with early breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine centers participated. Physicians used the RS test whenever unsure about adjuvant treatment recommendation for patients with estrogen receptor-positive/human epidermal growth receptor 2-negative, T1-T3, N0-N1 early breast cancer. Pre-RS and post-RS treatment recommendations were collected. RESULTS: A total of 251 patients were included. N0 patients (61%) showed higher grade (p < .001) and higher Ki67 (p = .001) and were more frequently progesterone receptor negative (p = .012) as compared with N1 patients. RS results were as follows: <11, n = 63 (25.1%); 11-25, n = 143 (57%); and ≥26, n = 45 (17.9%). Higher RS was found in N0 vs. N1 patients (p = .001) and in cases of G3 (p < .001) and higher Ki67 (p < .001). The rate of change in treatment decision was 30% (n = 75), mostly from chemotherapy (CT) plus hormone therapy (CT + HT) to hormone therapy (HT; 76%, n = 57/75). The proportion of patients recommended to CT + HT was significantly reduced from pre-RS to post-RS (52% to 36%, p < .0001). CT use reduction was more evident for N1 patients (55% to 27%) than for N0 patients (50% to 42%) and was observed only in cases of RS ≤17. CONCLUSION: Physicians predominantly used the 21-gene assay in N0 patients with a more aggressive biology or in N1 patients showing more indolent biology. In this selected patient population, the use of RS testing led to a 30% rate of change in treatment decision. In the N1 patient subgroup, the use of RS testing contributed to reduce CT use by more than half. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This study shows that, even in a context in which physicians recommend a high proportion of patients to endocrine treatment alone before knowing the results of the Recurrence Score (RS) assay, the use of the RS test, whenever uncertainty regarding adjuvant treatment recommendation is present, significantly contributes in further reducing the use of chemotherapy, especially for N1 patients.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bioensaio , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/genética , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Lobular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Lobular/genética , Carcinoma Lobular/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Itália , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Oncologist ; 24(6): e318-e326, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846513

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib represent the approved first-line options for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Because pivotal trials frequently lack external validity, real-world data may help to depict the diagnostic-therapeutic pathway and treatment outcome in clinical practice. METHODS: MOST is a multicenter observational study promoted by the Veneto Oncology Network, aiming at monitoring the diagnostic-therapeutic pathway of patients with nonsquamous EGFR-mutant NSCLC. We reported treatment outcome in terms of median time to treatment failure (mTTF) and assessed the impact of each agent on the expense of the regional health system, comparing it with a prediction based on the pivotal trials. RESULTS: An EGFR mutation test was performed in 447 enrolled patients, of whom 124 had EGFR mutation and who received gefitinib (n = 69, 55%), erlotinib (n = 33, 27%), or afatinib (n = 22, 18%) as first-line treatment. Because erlotinib was administered within a clinical trial to 15 patients, final analysis was limited to 109 patients. mTTF was 15.3 months, regardless of the type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) used. In the MOST study, the budget impact analysis showed a total expense of €3,238,602.17, whereas the cost estimation according to median progression-free survival from pivotal phase III trials was €1,813,557.88. CONCLUSION: Good regional adherence and compliance to the diagnostic-therapeutic pathway defined for patients with nonsquamous NSCLC was shown. mTTF did not significantly differ among the three targeted TKIs. Our budget impact analysis suggests the potential application of real-world data in the process of drug price negotiation. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The MOST study is a real-world data collection reporting a multicenter adherence and compliance to diagnostic-therapeutic pathways defined for patients with epidermal growth factor receptor-mutant non-small cell lung cancer. This represents an essential element of evidence-based medicine, providing information on patients and situations that may be challenging to assess using only data from randomized controlled trials, e.g., turn-around time of diagnostic tests, treatment compliance and persistence, guideline adherence, challenging-to-treat populations, drug safety, comparative effectiveness, and cost effectiveness. This study may be of interest to various stakeholders (patients, clinicians, and payers), providing a meaningful picture of the value of a given therapy in routine clinical practice.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Procedimentos Clínicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Afatinib/economia , Afatinib/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/economia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Análise Custo-Benefício , Procedimentos Clínicos/normas , Análise Mutacional de DNA/normas , Análise Mutacional de DNA/estatística & dados numéricos , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/genética , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/economia , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Gefitinibe/economia , Gefitinibe/uso terapêutico , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/economia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/economia , Fatores de Tempo , Falha de Tratamento
10.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 17(1): e187-e194, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radium 223 was introduced for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer based on the results of a randomized controlled trial showing risk reduction for death and skeletal events. Our aim was to evaluate the outcome of patients receiving radium 223 in a real-world setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective analysis in the Triveneto region of Italy. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-eight patients received radium 223 in our region. After a median follow-up of 9.5 months, 75 patients died. The median overall survival (OS) was 14.2 months, and the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 6.2 months. Seventy-one (45%) patients achieved progression as best response. Thirty-seven (23%) patients stopped the treatment early because of progression. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was prognostic for OS (18.4 vs. 12.3 vs. 7.5 months; 0 vs. 1, P = .0062; 0 vs. 2, P = .0002), whereas previous prostatectomy or docetaxel exposure were not. A neutrophil to lymphocytes ratio ≥ 3 significantly impacted OS (18.1 vs. 9.7 months; P < .001) and slightly impacted PFS (6.6 vs. 5.6 months; P = .05). Patients with a baseline alkaline phosphatase (ALP) value ≥ 220 U/L had worse OS and PFS (24.1 vs. 10.5 months; 7.2 vs. 5.5 months; P < .001). Patients with changes in ALP value achieved better OS (P = .029) and PFS (P = .002). There was no difference according to the line of therapy (0 vs. ≥ 1; P = .490). The main grade 3/4 toxicities were anemia, asthenia, and thrombocytopenia. CONCLUSION: This large real-world report confirms comparable OS and PFS data when compared with the pivotal study, as well as the predictive role of ALP and neutrophil to lymphocytes ratio. The definition of the optimal position of radium 223 in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer has still to be defined.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/radioterapia , Rádio (Elemento)/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Seguimentos , Humanos , Itália , Linfócitos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 16(4): e945-e951, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29753637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The randomized phase 3 METEOR study confirmed a survival benefit of cabozantinib over everolimus in patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma (mRCC) with disease that progressed after treatment with at least one previous antiangiogenic inhibitor. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the safety and activity of cabozantinib in an unselected population. METHODS: Data were collected across 24 Italian centers. Cabozantinib therapy was initiated at physician request between September and December 2016. Patients with mRCC with disease that progressed after one or more prior systemic treatment were evaluated. Cabozantinib 60 mg was administered orally once daily. Doses were reduced to 40 mg or 20 mg in patients experiencing grade 3 or intolerable grade 2 adverse events (AEs). RESULTS: Data from 96 patients were evaluated. Cabozantinib was administered as second-line therapy in 28 patients (29%) and as third-line therapy in 18 patients (19%), while the remaining 50 patients (52%) received cabozantinib in further treatment lines. Sixty-six patients began therapy with the full dose of 60 mg. Because of poor performance status, 29 patients began therapy with a reduced dose of 40 mg and 1 patient with 20 mg. At the time of our analysis, grade 3/4 AEs were observed in 35 patients (36%). Only 5 patients discontinued treatment as a result of AEs. Partial response was observed in 35 patients (36%), whereas 33 (34%) had stable disease and 28 (30%) progressive disease. Median progression-free survival was 8.0 months. CONCLUSION: Cabozantinib showed acceptable tolerability and activity in a large unselected population treated according to everyday clinical practice.


Assuntos
Anilidas/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anilidas/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(1)2017 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29283383

RESUMO

The skeleton is the target tissue for many types of tumors, and, recently, the survival of patients with prostate cancer metastasis has been increased using α-emitting drugs known as targeted α therapies. The use of α-radiopharmaceuticals in medicine was hypothesized at the beginning of the nineteenth century after the observation that α-radionuclides were associated with high cell-killing energy and low tissue penetration in healthy tissues. In the prostate cancer (PC) scenario, current research suggests that this class of radiopharmaceuticals has limited toxicity, and that the mechanism of action does not overlap with pre-existing drugs, allowing us to extend therapeutic armaments and address medical oncology towards personalized and precision medicine. Ongoing studies may extend these benefits also to bone metastases deriving from other neoplasms. The aim of this review is to summarize the current research on targeted α therapies and try to identify the right patient to be treated in the right time in order to integrate in these medications in the every-day clinical practice.


Assuntos
Partículas alfa/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/radioterapia , Braquiterapia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Rádio (Elemento)/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Humanos , Masculino , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Radioisótopos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
13.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 15(4): e609-e614, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28108284

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pazopanib is a standard first-line treatment for metastatic clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Very few data on its activity in non-clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (nccRCC) are currently available. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze efficacy and toxicity of pazopanib in nccRCC patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Records from advanced nccRCC patients (consecutive sample) treated with first-line pazopanib between 2010 and 2015 at 17 Italian centers were reviewed. Response rate, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. Univariate and descriptive analyses were performed. RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients with nccRCC were treated with first-line pazopanib; 51% had papillary histology, 24% chromophobe, 22% unclassified, and 3% had Xp11.2 translocation. Dose reductions/temporary interruptions for toxicity were required in 46% of cases. Grade (G) 3/4 toxicity was seen in 32%, G1/2 in 89% of cases; 81% achieved disease control, with 10 partial responses (27%) and 20 cases of stable disease (54%); 16% of patients had disease progression as best response. Median PFS and OS were 15.9 and 17.3 months, respectively. In univariate analysis, nephrectomy (P = .020), Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) score (P < .001), basal neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR; P = .009) and performance status (PS) (P = .001) were associated with PFS; MSKCC score (P < .001), International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium score (P = .003), PS (P < .0001), nephrectomy (P = .002), histology (P = .035), dose reductions/interruptions (P = .039), best response to treatment (P < .001), and NLR (P = .008) were associated with OS. CONCLUSION: In nccRCC patients, treatment with pazopanib was effective and feasible; dose reductions required for toxicity were similar as expected in ccRCC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Indazóis , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; 16(11): 1199-1211, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27666299

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bone metastases affect the majority of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. This review describes the current therapies available for the management of CRPC patients with bone metastases. Areas covered: Studies on the use of currently available therapeutic approaches for palliating pain, delaying skeletal-related events (SREs) and prolonging survival in CRPC patients with bone metastases have been examined. PubMed database was searched in May 2016 starting with the following keywords: ('castration-resistant prostate cancer' OR 'CRPC') AND 'bone metastases', and approximately 270 results were retrieved. More specific searches were then performed on the epidemiology and molecular pathogenesis (in particular, 'vicious cycle' was used as a keyword), the management of pain, SREs and survival. The following keywords were also used individually: abiraterone, cabazitaxel, denosumab, docetaxel, enzalutamide, radium-223, sipuleucel-T, samarium-153, strontium-89, zoledronate. Randomized-controlled trials, observational studies, reviews, systematic reviews and meta-analyses were selected and articles were excluded if not in English. Expert commentary: Currently, clear recommendations on the optimal use of the agents available to treat mCRPC are lacking. Therefore, to ensure patients the best treatment, both their clinical characteristics and the features of each product have to be considered.

15.
Future Oncol ; 12(7): 909-19, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26883094

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: AIM, PATIENTS & METHODS: To evaluate the real-world setting use of sunitinib, we reviewed data of our patients from January 2007 to December 2014. RESULTS: In 114 patients, sunitinib was used as first-line TKI. Out of 110 evaluable patients, 5 complete responses, 37 partial responses, 42 stabilizations were reported. Median progression-free survival and overall survival (OS) were 14.3 and 28.4 months. Patients who received ≥ 4 full-dose cycles had a better OS (p = 0.02). A neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio <3 was associated both with OS and progression-free survival (50.4 vs 8.4 and 20.0 vs 3.3 months). CONCLUSION: Sunitinib is active and feasible. Patients receiving <4 full-dose cycles or having increased neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio achieved worse outcomes: therefore, these are present potential predictive factors.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Indóis/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Pirróis/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Indóis/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Pirróis/efeitos adversos , Sunitinibe , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 14(2): e161-9, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26775721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The administration of carboplatin AUC 7 has become a standard adjuvant option for patients undergoing orchiectomy for stage I seminoma, in alternative to radiotherapy on retroperitoneal lymphnodes or surveillance. The toxicity of AUC 7 carboplatin appeared manageable in the pivotal trial of Oliver et al, but dose ranges were not reported. Fear of toxicity may induce arbitrary dose reductions, which may potentially compromise patients' outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed adjuvant carboplatin administration in 115 stage I seminoma patients followed in 11 Italian medical oncology centers since 2005. Clinical and pathological data, modality of carboplatin dose calculation, dose reductions, toxicities, and relapses were recorded. RESULTS: Median age was 35 years (range, 18-65 years), adverse prognostic factors were either T ≥ 4 cm (17.4%) or rete testis invasion (28.7%), both of them (35.7%), none or unspecified (18.3%). GFR was estimated mainly by Cockroft-Gault formula (55.7%) or Jeliffe formula (26.1%), with a median of 105 mL/min (range, 75-209 mL/min). The median dose of carboplatin was 900 mg (range, 690-1535 mg). A dose reduction > 10% was applied to 14 patients. Toxicities were mild fatigue, moderate nausea/vomiting, 5.2% of grade 3 to 4 thrombocytopenia. After a median follow-up of 22.1 months, 5.2% of patients have relapsed in the retroperitoneal lymph nodes. None of the patients that relapsed were treated with reduced dose. All but one achieved complete remission with salvage chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant AUC 7 carboplatin reduce relapses of stage I seminoma patients to 5.2%, with manageable toxicities. Dose reductions should be proscribed.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Seminoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Testiculares/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carboplatina/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Seminoma/patologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Urol Oncol ; 33(6): 265.e15-21, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25907622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognosis of younger patients with prostate cancer is unclear, and the very few studies assessing those with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) have mainly involved patients treated with older therapies. The aim of this observational study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of a contemporary series of docetaxel-treated patients with mCRPC who were 60 years and younger. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified 134 patients who were 60 years and younger who were treated with docetaxel in 25 Italian hospitals and recorded their predocetaxel history of prostate cancer, their characteristics at the start of chemotherapy, and their postdocetaxel treatment history and outcomes. RESULTS: Most of the 134 consecutive patients with mCRPC received the standard 3-week docetaxel schedule; median progression-free survival (PFS) was 7 months, and 90 patients underwent further therapies after progression. The median overall survival (OS) from the start of docetaxel treatment was 21 months, but OS was significantly prolonged by the postprogression treatments, particularly those based on the new agents such as cabazitaxel, abiraterone acetate, or enzalutamide. OS was significantly shorter in the patients with a shorter interval between the diagnosis of prostate cancer and the start of docetaxel treatment; those who received hormonal treatment for a shorter period; those with shorter prostate-specific antigen doubling times; and those with lower hemoglobin levels, a worse performance status, and higher lactate dehydrogenase levels before starting treatment with docetaxel. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this first study of clinical outcomes in a contemporary series of younger patients with mCRPC showed that their survival is similar to that expected in unselected patients with mCRPC who were of any age.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Taxoides/uso terapêutico , Docetaxel , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxoides/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Future Oncol ; 11(6): 965-73, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25760977

RESUMO

AIMS: The intermittent administration of chemotherapy is a means of preserving patients' quality of life (QL). The aim of this study was to verify whether the intermittent administration of docetaxel (DOC) improves the patients' QL. PATIENTS & METHODS: All patients received DOC 70 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks for eight cycles. The patients were randomized to receive DOC continuously or with a fixed 3-month interval after the first four DOC courses. RESULTS: The study involved 148 patients. There was no difference in QL between the groups receiving intermittent or continuous treatment. Intermittence had no detrimental effects on disease control. CONCLUSION: Although feasible and not detrimental, our results showed that true intermittent chemotherapy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients failed to improve the patients' QL.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Taxoides/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Docetaxel , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/mortalidade , Qualidade de Vida , Taxoides/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Eur Urol ; 68(1): 147-53, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25457020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The availability of new agents (NAs) active in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) progressing after docetaxel treatment (abiraterone acetate, cabazitaxel, and enzalutamide) has led to the possibility of using them sequentially to obtain a cumulative survival benefit. OBJECTIVE: To provide clinical outcome data relating to a large cohort of mCRPC patients who received a third-line NA after the failure of docetaxel and another NA. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of patients who had received at least two successive NAs after the failure of docetaxel. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The independent prognostic value of a series of pretreatment covariates on the primary outcome measure of overall survival was assessed using Cox regression analysis. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: We assessed 260 patients who received one third-line NA between January 2012 and December 2013, including 38 who received a further NA as fourth-line therapy. The median progression-free and overall survival from the start of third-line therapy was, respectively, 4 mo and 11 mo, with no significant differences between the NAs. Performance status, and haemoglobin and alkaline phosphatase levels were the only independent prognostic factors. The limitations of the study are mainly due its retrospective nature and the small number of patients treated with some of the sequences. CONCLUSIONS: We were unable to demonstrate a difference in the clinical outcomes of third-line NAs regardless of previous NA therapy. PATIENT SUMMARY: It is debated which sequence of treatments to adopt after docetaxel. Our data do not support the superiority of any of the three new agents in third-line treatment, regardless of the previously administered new agent.


Assuntos
Acetato de Abiraterona/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Taxoides/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Benzamidas , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Docetaxel , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Nitrilas , Feniltioidantoína/uso terapêutico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 38(5): 514-9, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24064758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Temozolomide (TMZ) administered daily with radiation therapy (RT) for 6 weeks, followed by adjuvant TMZ for 6 cycles, is the standard therapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) patients. Although TMZ is considered to be a safe drug, it has been demonstrated to cause severe myelotoxicity; in particular, some case reports and small series studies have reported severe myelotoxicity developing during TMZ and concomitant RT. We performed a prospective study to analyze the incidence of early severe myelotoxicity and its possible clinical and genetic factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From November 2010 to July 2012, newly diagnosed GBM patients were enrolled. They were eligible for the study if they met the following criteria: pathologically proven GBM, age 18 years and older, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 to 2, adequate renal and hepatic function, and adequate blood cell counts before starting TMZ plus RT. Grading of hematologic toxicity developing during radiation and TMZ was based on the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Clinical factors from all patients were recorded. The methylation status and polymorphic variants of O-methylguanine-DNAmethyl-transferase gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and polymorphic genetic variants of genes involved in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of TMZ, were analyzed. For genetic analyses, patients with toxicity were matched (1:2) for age, performance status, anticonvulsants, and proton pump inhibitors with patients without myelotoxicity. RESULTS: We enrolled 87 consecutive GBM patients: 32 women and 55 men; the average age was 60 years. During TMZ and RT, 4 patients (5%) showed grade 3-4 myelotoxicity, and its median duration was 255 days. Predictor factors of severe myelotoxicity were female sex, pretreatment platelet count of ≤3,00,000/mm, methylated O-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoter in the hematopoietic cell system, and specific polymorphic variants of the cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase and methionine adenosyltransferase 1A genes. CONCLUSIONS: Although we studied a small population, we suggest that both clinical and genetic factors might simultaneously be associated with severe myelosuppression developed during TMZ plus RT. However, our results deserve validation in larger prospective studies and, if the factors associated with severe myelotoxicity are validated, dose adjustments of TMZ for those patients may reduce the risk of severe myelotoxicity during the concomitant treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Dacarbazina/análogos & derivados , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/radioterapia , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Dacarbazina/efeitos adversos , Dacarbazina/farmacocinética , Dacarbazina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Glioblastoma/genética , Doenças Hematológicas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Hematológicas/genética , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Temozolomida
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