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1.
Anal Chem ; 90(15): 8816-8823, 2018 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29961316

RESUMO

The accurate and precise mass spectrometric measurement of organic compounds in atmospheric aerosol particles is a challenging task that requires analytical developments and adaptations of existing techniques for the atmospheric application. Here we describe the development and characterization of an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization Orbitrap mass spectrometer (APCI-Orbitrap-MS) for the measurement of organic aerosol in real time. APCI is a well-known ionization technique, featuring minimal fragmentation and matrix dependencies, and allows rapid alternation between the positive and negative ionization mode. As a proof of principle, we report ambient organic aerosol composition in real-time, with alternating ionization, high mass resolution ( R = 140 000) and accuracy (<2 ppm). The instrument was calibrated in the negative ion mode using 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA) model aerosol. We obtain a detection limit of 1.3 ng/m3. Based on the performed calibration using MBTCA particles, the ambient concentration of MBTCA in the particle phase measured in an urban area in Mainz, Germany, ranged between 10 and 80 ng/m3. For the first time, we apply a nontarget screening approach on real-time data, showing molecular variability between ambient day- and nighttime aerosol composition. The detected compounds were grouped in the night- and daytime and analyzed by ultrahigh-resolution MS (UHRMS) visualization methods. Among several prevalent biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) markers, 24 organic mononitrates and one organic dinitrate were detected. We further estimate that, on average, organic nitrates contribute to 5% and 14% of the measured particulate organic aerosol at day and night, respectively.

2.
Faraday Discuss ; 200: 59-74, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28598469

RESUMO

Films of biogenic compounds exposed to the atmosphere are ubiquitously found on the surfaces of cloud droplets, aerosol particles, buildings, plants, soils and the ocean. These air/water interfaces host countless amphiphilic compounds concentrated there with respect to in bulk water, leading to a unique chemical environment. Here, photochemical processes at the air/water interface of biofilm-containing solutions were studied, demonstrating abiotic VOC production from authentic biogenic surfactants under ambient conditions. Using a combination of online-APCI-HRMS and PTR-ToF-MS, unsaturated and functionalized VOCs were identified and quantified, giving emission fluxes comparable to previous field and laboratory observations. Interestingly, VOC fluxes increased with the decay of microbial cells in the samples, indicating that cell lysis due to cell death was the main source for surfactants and VOC production. In particular, irradiation of samples containing solely biofilm cells without matrix components exhibited the strongest VOC production upon irradiation. In agreement with previous studies, LC-MS measurements of the liquid phase suggested the presence of fatty acids and known photosensitizers, possibly inducing the observed VOC production via peroxy radical chemistry. Up to now, such VOC emissions were directly accounted to high biological activity in surface waters. However, the results obtained suggest that abiotic photochemistry can lead to similar emissions into the atmosphere, especially in less biologically-active regions. Furthermore, chamber experiments suggest that oxidation (O3/OH radicals) of the photochemically-produced VOCs leads to aerosol formation and growth, possibly affecting atmospheric chemistry and climate-related processes, such as cloud formation or the Earth's radiation budget.


Assuntos
Tensoativos/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/síntese química , Aerossóis/síntese química , Aerossóis/química , Atmosfera/química , Processos Fotoquímicos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 50(20): 10823-10832, 2016 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27709898

RESUMO

Aerosol hygroscopic properties were linked to its chemical composition by using complementary online mass spectrometric techniques in a comprehensive chemical characterization study at a rural mountaintop station in central Germany in August 2012. In particular, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry ((-)APCI-MS) provided measurements of organic acids, organosulfates, and nitrooxy-organosulfates in the particle phase at 1 min time resolution. Offline analysis of filter samples enabled us to determine the molecular composition of signals appearing in the online (-)APCI-MS spectra. Aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) provided quantitative measurements of total submicrometer organics, nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium. Inorganic sulfate measurements were achieved by semionline ion chromatography and were compared to the AMS total sulfate mass. We found that up to 40% of the total sulfate mass fraction can be covalently bonded to organic molecules. This finding is supported by both on- and offline soft ionization techniques, which confirmed the presence of several organosulfates and nitrooxy-organosulfates in the particle phase. The chemical composition analysis was compared to hygroscopicity measurements derived from a cloud condensation nuclei counter. We observed that the hygroscopicity parameter (κ) that is derived from organic mass fractions determined by AMS measurements may overestimate the observed κ up to 0.2 if a high fraction of sulfate is bonded to organic molecules and little photochemical aging is exhibited.

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