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1.
Congenit Heart Dis ; 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573144

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients are at risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). However, methods for risk stratification are not yet well-defined. The Tpeak -Tend (TpTe) interval, a measure of dispersion of ventricular repolarization, is a risk factor for SCD in non-ACHD patients. We aim to evaluate whether TpTe can be used in risk stratification for SCD in ACHD patients. DESIGN: From an international multicenter cohort of 25 790 ACHD patients, we identified all SCD cases. Cases were matched to controls by age, gender, congenital defect, and (surgical) intervention. OUTCOME MEASURES: TpTe was measured on a standard 12-lead ECG. The maximum TpTe of all ECG leads (TpTe-max), mean (TpTe-mean), and TpTe dispersion (maximum minus minimum) were obtained. Odds ratios (OR) for SCD cases vs controls were calculated using conditional logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: ECGs were available for 147 cases (median age at death 33.5 years (quartiles 26.2, 48.7), 66% male) and 267 controls. The mean TpTe-max was 97 ± 24 ms in cases vs 84 ± 17 ms in controls (P < .001); TpTe-mean was 70 ± 16 vs 63 ± 10 ms (P < .001); and dispersion was 51 ± 22 ms vs 41 ± 16 ms (P = .02), respectively. Assessing each ECG lead separately, TpTe in lead aVR predicted SCD most accurately. TpTe in lead aVR was 71 ± 23 ms in cases vs 61 ± 13 ms in controls (P < .001). After adjusting for impaired ventricular function, heart failure symptoms, and prolonged QRS duration, the OR of SCD of TpTe in lead aVR at an optimal cutoff of 80 ms was 5.8 (95% CI 2.7-12.4, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The TpTe interval is associated with SCD in ACHD patients. Particularly, TpTe in lead aVR can be used as an independent risk factor for SCD in ACHD patients and may, therefore, add precision to current risk prediction models.

2.
Lancet Neurol ; 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-intensity aerobic exercise might attenuate the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, but high-quality evidence is scarce. Moreover, long-term adherence remains challenging. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of aerobic exercise-gamified and delivered at home, to promote adherence-on relieving motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease with mild disease severity who were on common treatment regimes. METHODS: In this single-centre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial (Park-in-Shape), we recruited sedentary patients with Parkinson's disease from the outpatient clinic at Radboudumc, Nijmegen, Netherlands. Patients were made aware of the study either by their treating neurologist or via information in the waiting room. Patients could also contact the study team via social media. We included patients aged 30-75 years with a Hoehn and Yahr stage of 2 or lower, who were on stable dopaminergic medication. Patients were randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio) to either aerobic exercise done on a stationary home-trainer (aerobic intervention group) or stretching (active control group) by means of a web-based system with minimisation for sex and medication status (treated or untreated) and permuted blocks of varying sizes of more than two (unknown to study personnel). Patients were only aware of the content of their assigned programme. Assessors were unaware of group assignments. Both interventions were home based, requiring 30-45 min training three times per week for 6 months. Both groups received a motivational app and remote supervision. Home trainers were enhanced with virtual reality software and real-life videos providing a so-called exergaming experience (ie, exercise enhanced by gamified elements). The primary outcome was the between-group difference in the Movement Disorders Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) motor section at 6 months, tested during the off state (≥12 h after last dopaminergic medication). The analysis was done on an intention-to-treat basis in patients who completed the follow-up assessment, regardless of whether they completed the assigned intervention. Patients reported adverse events directly to their coach and also after the 6-month visit retrospectively. A between-group difference of 3·5 points or more was deemed a-priori clinically relevant. The study is concluded and registered with the Dutch Trial Registry, NTR4743. FINDINGS: Between Feb 2, 2015, and Oct 27, 2017, 139 patients were assessed for eligibility in person, of whom 130 were randomly assigned to either the aerobic intervention group (n=65) or the active control group (n=65). Data from 125 (96%) patients were available for the primary analysis; five patients were lost to follow-up (four in the intervention group; one in the control group). 20 patients (ten in each group) did not complete their assigned programme. The off-state MDS-UPDRS motor score revealed a between-group difference of 4·2 points (95% CI 1·6-6·9, p=0·0020) in favour of aerobic exercise (mean 1·3 points [SE 1·8] in the intervention group and 5·6 points [SE 1·9] for the control group). 11 patients had potentially related adverse events (seven [11%] in the intervention group, four [6%] in the control group) and seven had unrelated serious adverse events (three in the intervention group [vestibilar disorder, vasovagal collapse, knee injury during gardening that required surgery; 6%], four in the control group [supraventricular tachycardia, hip fracture, fall related injury, severe dyskinesias after suprathreshold dose levodopa in a patient with deep brain stimulation; 7%]). INTERPRETATION: Aerobic exercise can be done at home by patients with Parkinson's disease with mild disease severity and it attenuates off-state motor signs. Future studies should establish long-term effectiveness and possible disease-modifying effects. FUNDING: Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development.

3.
J Neurooncol ; 144(3): 573-582, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410731

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with diffuse glioma often experience neurocognitive impairment already prior to surgery. Pertinent information on whether damage to a specific brain region due to tumor activity results in neurocognitive impairment or not, is relevant in clinical decision-making, and at the same time renders unique information on brain lesion location and functioning relationships. To examine the impact of tumor location on preoperative neurocognitive functioning (NCF), we performed MRI based lesion-symptom mapping. METHODS: Seventy-two patients (mean age 40 years) with a radiologically suspected glioma were recruited preoperatively. For each of the six cognitive domains tested, we used tumor localization maps and voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analyses to identify cortical and subcortical regions associated with NCF impairment. RESULTS: Compared to healthy controls, preoperative NCF was significantly impaired in all cognitive domains. Most frequently affected were attention (30% of patients) and working memory (20% of patients). Deficits in attention were significantly associated with regions in the left frontal and parietal cortex, including the precentral and parietal-opercular cortex, and in left-sided subcortical fiber tracts, including the arcuate fasciculus and corticospinal tract. Surprisingly, no regions could be related to working memory capacity. For the other neurocognitive domains, impairments were mainly associated with regions in the left hemisphere. CONCLUSIONS: Prior to treatment, patients with diffuse glioma in the left hemisphere run the highest risk to have NCF deficits. Identification of a left frontoparietal network involved in NCF not only may optimize surgical procedures but may also be integrated in counseling and cognitive rehabilitation for these patients.

4.
J Leukoc Biol ; 2019 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280495

RESUMO

The host immune response is characterized by a complex interplay of signal-specific cellular transcriptional responses. The magnitude of the immune response is dependent on the strength of the external stimulus. Knowledge on leukocyte transcriptional responses altered in response to different stimulus dosages in man is lacking. Here, we sought to identify leukocyte transcriptional signatures dependent on LPS dose in humans. Healthy human volunteers were administered 1 ng/kg (n = 7), 2 ng/kg (n = 6), or 4 ng/kg (n = 7) LPS intravenously. Blood was collected before (pre-LPS) and 4 h after LPS administration. Total RNA was analyzed by microarrays and generalized linear models. Pathway analysis was performed by using Ingenuity pathway analysis. Leukocyte transcriptomes altered per LPS dosage were predominantly shared, with 47% common signatures relative to pre-LPS. A univariate linear model identified a set of 3736 genes that exhibited a dependency on differing LPS dosages. Neutrophil, monocyte, and lymphocyte counts explained 38.9% of the variance in the LPS dose-dependent gene set. A multivariate linear model including leukocyte composition delineated a set of 295 genes with a dependency on LPS dose. Evaluation of the 295 gene signature in patients with sepsis due to abdominal infections showed significant correlations. Promoter regions of the LPS dose gene set were enriched for YY1, EGR1, ELK1, GABPA, KLF4, and REL transcription factor binding sites. Intravenous injection of 1, 2, or 4 ng/kg LPS was accompanied by both shared and distinct leukocyte transcriptional alterations. These data may assist in assessing the severity of the insult in patients with abdominal sepsis.

5.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 39(9): 1859-1873, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315432

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Marfan syndrome (MFS) is caused by mutations in FBN1 (fibrillin-1), an extracellular matrix (ECM) component, which is modified post-translationally by glycosylation. This study aimed to characterize the glycoproteome of the aortic ECM from patients with MFS and relate it to aortopathy. Approach and Results: ECM extracts of aneurysmal ascending aortic tissue from patients with and without MFS were enriched for glycopeptides. Direct N-glycopeptide analysis by mass spectrometry identified 141 glycoforms from 47 glycosites within 35 glycoproteins in the human aortic ECM. Notably, MFAP4 (microfibril-associated glycoprotein 4) showed increased and more diverse N-glycosylation in patients with MFS compared with control patients. MFAP4 mRNA levels were markedly higher in MFS aortic tissue. MFAP4 protein levels were also increased at the predilection (convexity) site for ascending aorta aneurysm in bicuspid aortic valve patients, preceding aortic dilatation. In human aortic smooth muscle cells, MFAP4 mRNA expression was induced by TGF (transforming growth factor)-ß1 whereas siRNA knockdown of MFAP4 decreased FBN1 but increased elastin expression. These ECM changes were accompanied by differential gene expression and protein abundance of proteases from ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) family and their proteoglycan substrates, respectively. Finally, high plasma MFAP4 concentrations in patients with MFS were associated with a lower thoracic descending aorta distensibility and greater incidence of type B aortic dissection during 68 months follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Our glycoproteomics analysis revealed that MFAP4 glycosylation is enhanced, as well as its expression during the advanced, aneurysmal stages of MFS compared with control aneurysms from patients without MFS.

6.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Palliative systemic therapy can prolong life and reduce tumour related symptoms for patients with advanced oesophagogastric cancer. However, side effects of treatment could negatively impact health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Our aim was to review the literature and conduct a meta-analysis to examine the effect of palliative systemic therapy on HRQoL. METHODS: EMBASE, Medline and CENTRAL were searched for phase II/III randomized controlled trials (RCTs) till April 2018 investigating palliative systemic therapy and HRQoL. Meta-analysis was performed on baseline and follow-up summary values of Global Health Status (GHS) and other EORTC scales. A clinically relevant change and difference of 10 points (scale 0-100) was set to assess the course of HRQoL over time within treatment arms as well as between arms. RESULTS: We included 43 RCTs (N = 13,727 patients). In the first-line and beyond first-line treatment setting, pooled baseline GHS mean estimates were 54.6 (51.9-57.3) and 57.9 (55.7-60.1), respectively. Thirty-nine (81.3%) treatment arms showed a stable GHS over the course of time. Anthracycline-based triplets, fluoropyrimidine-based doublets without cisplatin, and the addition of trastuzumab to chemotherapy were found to have favourable HRQoL outcomes. HRQoL benefit was observed for taxane monotherapy and several targeted agents over best supportive care beyond first-line. CONCLUSIONS: Patients reported impaired GHS at baseline and generally remained stable over time. Anthracycline-based triplets and fluoropyrimidine-based doublets without cisplatin may be preferable first-line treatment options regarding HRQoL for HER2-negative disease. Taxanes and targeted agents could provide HRQoL benefit beyond first-line compared to best supportive care.

7.
J Neurooncol ; 144(2): 313-323, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236819

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Standards for surgical decisions are unavailable, hence treatment decisions can be personalized, but also introduce variation in treatment and outcome. National registrations seek to monitor healthcare quality. The goal of the study is to measure between-hospital variation in risk-standardized survival outcome after glioblastoma surgery and to explore the association between survival and hospital characteristics in conjunction with patient-related risk factors. METHODS: Data of 2,409 adults with first-time glioblastoma surgery at 14 hospitals were obtained from a comprehensive, prospective population-based Quality Registry Neuro Surgery in The Netherlands between 2011 and 2014. We compared the observed survival with patient-specific risk-standardized expected early (30-day) mortality and late (2-year) survival, based on age, performance, and treatment year. We analyzed funnel plots, logistic regression and proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Overall 30-day mortality was 5.2% and overall 2-year survival was 13.5%. Median survival varied between 4.8 and 14.9 months among hospitals, and biopsy percentages ranged between 16 and 73%. One hospital had lower than expected early mortality, and four hospitals had lower than expected late survival. Higher case volume was related with lower early mortality (P = 0.031). Patient-related risk factors (lower age; better performance; more recent years of treatment) were significantly associated with longer overall survival. Of the hospital characteristics, longer overall survival was associated with lower biopsy percentage (HR 2.09, 1.34-3.26, P = 0.001), and not with academic setting, nor with case volume. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitals vary more in late survival than early mortality after glioblastoma surgery. Widely varying biopsy percentages indicate treatment variation. Patient-related factors have a stronger association with overall survival than hospital-related factors.

8.
Nutr Diabetes ; 9(1): 15, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) varies significantly across ethnic groups. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the variation in different ethnic groups may help to elucidate the pathophysiology of T2DM. The present work aims to generate a hypothesis regarding "why do subjects with African background have excess burden of T2DM?". METHODS: In the current study, we performed metabolite profiling of plasma samples derived from 773 subjects of three ethnic groups (Dutch with European, Ghanaian and African Surinamese background). We performed Bayesian lognormal regression analyses to assess associations between HbA1c and circulating metabolites. RESULTS: Here we show that subjects with African Surinamese and Ghanaian background had similar associations of HbA1c with circulating amino acids and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as subjects with European background. In contrast, subjects with Ghanaian and African Surinamese background had different associations of HbA1c with acetoacetate, small LDL particle and small HDL particle concentrations, compared to the subjects with European background. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of the observations, we hypothesize that the excess burden of T2DM in subjects with African background may be due to impaired cholesterol efflux capacity or abnormal cholesterol uptake.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2176, 2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092817

RESUMO

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common nasopharyngeal colonizer, but can also cause life-threatening invasive diseases such as empyema, bacteremia and meningitis. Genetic variation of host and pathogen is known to play a role in invasive pneumococcal disease, though to what extent is unknown. In a genome-wide association study of human and pathogen we show that human variation explains almost half of variation in susceptibility to pneumococcal meningitis and one-third of variation in severity, identifying variants in CCDC33 associated with susceptibility. Pneumococcal genetic variation explains a large amount of invasive potential (70%), but has no effect on severity. Serotype alone is insufficient to explain invasiveness, suggesting other pneumococcal factors are involved in progression to invasive disease. We identify pneumococcal genes involved in invasiveness including pspC and zmpD, and perform a human-bacteria interaction analysis. These genes are potential candidates for the development of more broadly-acting pneumococcal vaccines.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Meningite Pneumocócica/genética , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Meningite Pneumocócica/microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas/genética , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação
10.
Nat Genet ; 51(6): 933-940, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086352

RESUMO

The genetic architecture of psychiatric disorders is characterized by a large number of small-effect variants1 located primarily in non-coding regions, suggesting that the underlying causal effects may influence disease risk by modulating gene expression2-4. We provide comprehensive analyses using transcriptome data from an unprecedented collection of tissues to gain pathophysiological insights into the role of the brain, neuroendocrine factors (adrenal gland) and gastrointestinal systems (colon) in psychiatric disorders. In each tissue, we perform PrediXcan analysis and identify trait-associated genes for schizophrenia (n associations = 499; n unique genes = 275), bipolar disorder (n associations = 17; n unique genes = 13), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n associations = 19; n unique genes = 12) and broad depression (n associations = 41; n unique genes = 31). Importantly, both PrediXcan and summary-data-based Mendelian randomization/heterogeneity in dependent instruments analyses suggest potentially causal genes in non-brain tissues, showing the utility of these tissues for mapping psychiatric disease genetic predisposition. Our analyses further highlight the importance of joint tissue approaches as 76% of the genes were detected only in difficult-to-acquire tissues.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transcriptoma , Algoritmos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Especificidade de Órgãos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
11.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(8): 965-973, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087601

RESUMO

AIMS: Inflammation is a central process in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF), but trials targeting tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α were largely unsuccessful. Interleukin (IL)-6 is an important inflammatory mediator and might constitute a potential pharmacologic target in HF. However, little is known regarding the association between IL-6 and clinical characteristics, outcomes and other inflammatory biomarkers in HF. We thus aimed to identify and characterize these associations. METHODS AND RESULTS: Interleukin-6 was measured in 2329 patients [89.4% with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 40%] of the BIOSTAT-CHF cohort. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and HF hospitalization during 2 years, with all-cause, cardiovascular (CV), and non-CV death as secondary outcomes. Approximately half (56%) of all included patients had plasma IL-6 values greater than the previously determined 95th percentile of normal values at baseline. Elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, procalcitonin and hepcidin, younger age, TNF-α/IL-1-related biomarkers, or having iron deficiency, atrial fibrillation and LVEF > 40% independently predicted elevated IL-6 levels. IL-6 independently predicted the primary outcome [HR (95% confidence interval) per doubling: 1.16 (1.11-1.21), P < 0.001], all-cause mortality [1.22 (1.16-1.29), P < 0.001] and CV as well as non-CV mortality [1.16 (1.09-1.24), P < 0.001; 1.31 (1.18-1.45), P < 0.001], but did not improve discrimination in previously published risk models. CONCLUSIONS: In a large, heterogeneous cohort of HF patients, elevated IL-6 levels were found in more than 50% of patients and were associated with iron deficiency, reduced LVEF, atrial fibrillation and poorer clinical outcomes. These findings warrant further investigation of IL-6 as a potential therapeutic target in specific HF subpopulations.

12.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 390, 2019 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Upfront cytoreductive surgery with HIPEC (CRS-HIPEC) is the standard treatment for isolated resectable colorectal peritoneal metastases (PM) in the Netherlands. This study investigates whether addition of perioperative systemic therapy to CRS-HIPEC improves oncological outcomes. METHODS: This open-label, parallel-group, phase II-III, randomised, superiority study is performed in nine Dutch tertiary referral centres. Eligible patients are adults who have a good performance status, histologically or cytologically proven resectable PM of a colorectal adenocarcinoma, no systemic colorectal metastases, no systemic therapy for colorectal cancer within six months prior to enrolment, and no previous CRS-HIPEC. Eligible patients are randomised (1:1) to perioperative systemic therapy and CRS-HIPEC (experimental arm) or upfront CRS-HIPEC alone (control arm) by using central randomisation software with minimisation stratified by a peritoneal cancer index of 0-10 or 11-20, metachronous or synchronous PM, previous systemic therapy for colorectal cancer, and HIPEC with oxaliplatin or mitomycin C. At the treating physician's discretion, perioperative systemic therapy consists of either four 3-weekly neoadjuvant and adjuvant cycles of capecitabine with oxaliplatin (CAPOX), six 2-weekly neoadjuvant and adjuvant cycles of 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin with oxaliplatin (FOLFOX), or six 2-weekly neoadjuvant cycles of 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin with irinotecan (FOLFIRI) followed by four 3-weekly (capecitabine) or six 2-weekly (5-fluorouracil/leucovorin) adjuvant cycles of fluoropyrimidine monotherapy. Bevacizumab is added to the first three (CAPOX) or four (FOLFOX/FOLFIRI) neoadjuvant cycles. The first 80 patients are enrolled in a phase II study to explore the feasibility of accrual and the feasibility, safety, and tolerance of perioperative systemic therapy. If predefined criteria of feasibility and safety are met, the study continues as a phase III study with 3-year overall survival as primary endpoint. A total of 358 patients is needed to detect the hypothesised 15% increase in 3-year overall survival (control arm 50%; experimental arm 65%). Secondary endpoints are surgical characteristics, major postoperative morbidity, progression-free survival, disease-free survival, health-related quality of life, costs, major systemic therapy related toxicity, and objective radiological and histopathological response rates. DISCUSSION: This is the first randomised study that prospectively compares oncological outcomes of perioperative systemic therapy and CRS-HIPEC with upfront CRS-HIPEC alone for isolated resectable colorectal PM. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov/ NCT02758951 , NTR/ NTR6301 , ISRCTN/ ISRCTN15977568 , EudraCT/ 2016-001865-99 .


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/tratamento farmacológico , Peritônio/cirurgia , Adulto , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Terapia Combinada , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Oxaliplatina/administração & dosagem , Oxaliplatina/efeitos adversos , Período Perioperatório , Neoplasias Peritoneais/patologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário , Neoplasias Peritoneais/cirurgia , Peritônio/efeitos dos fármacos , Peritônio/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Qualidade de Vida
13.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213175, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Changes in the microcirculation may be used as a surrogate outcome in studies on cardiovascular disease. We assessed the reliability characteristics of the sublingual microcirculation parameters Vascular Density (VD), Red Blood Cell Filling (RBCF), and Perfused Boundary Region (PBR) as obtained by sidestream darkfield imaging. METHODS: For each of the three parameters, the variance components of measurement, the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC), the Standard Error of Measurement, and the limits of agreement were estimated for the intra-rater setting (N = 50) and the inter-rater setting (N = 48). Subsequently, as a proof of concept, the reliability measures were used for a power analysis to design studies to evaluate the effect of acute stimuli-i.e. having a meal (N = 50) and cigarette smoking (N = 21) on the three parameters. RESULTS: Reproducibility was poor for all three parameters. The intra-rater ICC for 2 measurements was 0.28 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.53) for the VD, 0.51 (95% CI: 0.27, 0.69) for the RBCF, and 0.33 (95% CI: 0.08-0.56) for the PBR. The standard errors of measurement and the limits of agreement for all three parameters were larger than most statistically significant intra-individual or inter-individual differences reported in previous studies. The proofs of concept showed that sample sizes in excess of 600 subjects are necessary to reach statistical significance for the observed effects of having a meal or smoking on VD and PBR. CONCLUSIONS: The reliability of the three sublingual microcirculation parameters in their current form appears to be low and a large sample size is advisable for their use in conditions similar to those we describe.

14.
Circulation ; 139(23): 2628-2638, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with end-stage renal disease who are undergoing dialysis are reported to be at high risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD), and to date, no therapy has been shown to be effective in reducing this risk. The feasibility and value of prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation to prevent SCD is uncertain. METHODS: We conducted the ICD2 trial (Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator in Dialysis Patients), a prospective, randomized, controlled study investigating the value and safety of ICD implantation to prevent SCD in 200 patients on dialysis with a left ventricular ejection fraction ≥35%, after adequate screening and optimization of other treatments. The primary end point was SCD. Secondary end points were all-cause mortality and ICD-related complications. RESULTS: The trial was stopped as per the recommendation of the data and safety monitoring board for futility reasons after inclusion of 188 patients, 97 in the ICD group and 91 in the control group. The median duration of follow-up was 6.8 years (interquartile range, 3.8-8.8 years). SCD occurred in 19 of 188 cases (10.1%), 11 of 97 in the ICD group and 8 of 91 in the control group. The cumulative SCD incidence at 5 years was 9.7% (95% CI, 3.3%-16.2%) in the ICD group and 7.9% (95% CI, 1.7-14.0%) in the control group, resulting in a hazard ratio of 1.32 (95% CI, 0.53-3.29; P=0.55). Overall, 99 of 188 patients died (52.7%), 52 in the ICD group and 47 in the control group. Five-year survival probability was 50.6% (95% CI, 39.8%-61.5%) in the ICD group and 54.5% (95% CI, 43.0-66.0%) in the control group, resulting in a hazard ratio of 1.02 (95% CI, 0.69-1.52; P=0.92). Among 80 patients who received an ICD, 25 adverse events related to ICD implantation occurred. CONCLUSIONS: In a well-screened and well-treated population undergoing dialysis, prophylactic ICD therapy did not reduce the rate of SCD or all-cause mortality, which remained high. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com . Unique identifier: ISRCTN20479861.

15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(5)2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30841577

RESUMO

Marfan syndrome (MFS) patients are at risk for cardiovascular disease. In particular, for aortic aneurysm formation, which ultimately can result in a life-threatening aortic dissection or rupture. Over the years, research into a sufficient pharmacological treatment option against aortopathy has expanded, mostly due to the development of rodent disease models for aneurysm formation and dissections. Unfortunately, no optimal treatment strategy has yet been identified for MFS. The biologically-potent polyphenol resveratrol (RES), that occurs in nuts, plants, and the skin of grapes, was shown to have a positive effect on aortic repair in various rodent aneurysm models. RES demonstrated to affect aortic integrity and aortic dilatation. The beneficial processes relevant for MFS included the improvement of endothelial dysfunction, extracellular matrix degradation, and smooth muscle cell death. For the wide range of beneficial effects on these mechanisms, evidence was found for the following involved pathways; alleviating oxidative stress (change in eNOS/iNOS balance and decrease in NOX4), reducing protease activity to preserve the extracellular matrix (decrease in MMP2), and improving smooth muscle cell survival affecting aortic aging (changing the miR21/miR29 balance). Besides aortic features, MFS patients may also suffer from manifestations concerning the heart, such as mitral valve prolapse and left ventricular impairment, where evidence from rodent models shows that RES may aid in promoting cardiomyocyte survival directly (SIRT1 activation) or by reducing oxidative stress (increasing superoxide dismutase) and increasing autophagy (AMPK activation). This overview discusses recent RES studies in animal models of aortic aneurysm formation and heart failure, where different advantageous effects have been reported that may collectively improve the aortic and cardiac pathology in patients with MFS. Therefore, a clinical study with RES in MFS patients seems justified, to validate RES effectiveness, and to judge its suitability as potential new treatment strategy.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Marfan/tratamento farmacológico , Resveratrol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Resveratrol/farmacologia
16.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213097, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Damage to endothelial glycocalyx is thought to be an early marker of atherosclerosis and measuring reduced glycocalyx size clinically via the Perfused Boundary Region (PBR) may allow early detection of cardiovascular disease. However, the true value of the glycocalyx in estimating cardiovascular risk or detecting cardiovascular disease is uncertain. We therefore investigated whether small glycocalyx size is associated with cardiovascular risk or disease in a large multi-ethnic cohort. METHODS: In a multi-ethnic community-based sample (N = 6169, 42.4% male, mean age 43.6 ±13) we applied multiple imputation for missing data and used logistic regression and odds ratios to cross-sectionally investigate the relationship of small glycocalyx size as estimated by highest quartile of PBR with, on the one hand, classical risk factors for atherosclerosis including age, sex, diastolic and systolic blood pressure, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, BMI, diabetes, smoking status, and antihypertensive and lipid-lowering medication; on the other hand, prevalent cardiovascular disease. Analyses were additionally adjusted for ethnicity. RESULTS: With PBR divided in quartiles, the highest PBR quartile (smallest glycocalyx size) as dependent variable was independently associated with female sex (OR for male versus female: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.53, 0.70) and diabetes (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.03-1.59) in a model adjusted for all classical risk factors of atherosclerosis and for ethnicity. With regard to cardiovascular disease, no association was found between the smallest glycocalyx size as independent variable and overall cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease and revascularization procedures, or stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Small glycocalyx size as estimated by highest PBR is associated with female sex and diabetes, which do not completely reflect a high cardiovascular risk profile. At the same time, glycocalyx size is not associated with prevalent cardiovascular disease.

17.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother ; 5(4): 216-225, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903133

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess medication use in adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients compared to the age- and sex-matched general population, identify patterns of pharmacotherapy, and analyse associations between pharmacotherapy and adverse outcomes in ACHD. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data of 14 138 ACHD patients from the CONCOR registry [35 (24-48) years, 49% male] and age- and sex-matched referents (1:10 ratio) were extracted from the Dutch Dispensed Drug Register for the years 2006-14. Adult congenital heart disease patients had more cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular drugs than referents (median 3 vs. 1, P < 0.001). Polypharmacy, defined as ≥5 dispensed drug types yearly, was present in 30% of ACHD and 15% of referents {odds ratio [OR] = 2.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.39-2.54]}. Polypharmacy was independently associated with female sex [OR = 1.92 (95% CI 1.88-1.96)], older age [for men: OR = 2.3/10 years (95% CI 2.2-2.4) and for women: OR = 1.6/10 years (95% CI 1.5-1.6); Pinteraction < 0.001], and ACHD severity [mild: OR = 2.51 (95% CI 2.40-2.61), moderate: OR = 3.22 (95% CI 3.06-3.40), severe: OR = 4.87 (95% CI 4.41-5.38)]. Cluster analysis identified three subgroups with distinct medication patterns; a low medication use group (8-year cumulative survival: 98%), and a cardiovascular and comorbidity group with lower survival (92% and 95%, respectively). Cox regression revealed a strong association between polypharmacy and mortality [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.94 (95% CI 3.22-4.81)], corrected for age, sex, and defect severity. Polypharmacy also increased the risk of hospitalization for adverse drug events [HR = 4.58 (95% CI 2.04-10.29)]. CONCLUSION: Both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular medication use is high in ACHD with twice as much polypharmacy compared with the matched general population. Patients with polypharmacy had a four-fold increased risk of mortality and adverse drug events. Recognition of distinct medication patterns can help identify patients at highest risk. Drug regimens need repeating evaluation to assess the appropriateness of all prescriptions. More high-quality studies are needed to improve ACHD care with more evidence-based pharmacotherapy.

18.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 108(7): 797-805, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) on sub-optimal doses of beta-blockers, it is conceivable that changes in heart rate following treatment intensification might be important regardless of underlying heart rhythm. We aimed to compare the prognostic significance of both achieved heart rate and change in heart rate following beta-blocker uptitration in patients with HFrEF either in sinus rhythm (SR) or atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis of the BIOSTAT-CHF study. We evaluated 1548 patients with HFrEF (mean age 67 years, 35% AF). Median follow-up was 21 months. Patients were evaluated at baseline and at 9 months. The combined primary outcome was all-cause mortality and heart failure hospitalisation stratified by heart rhythm and heart rate at baseline. RESULTS: Despite similar changes in heart rate and beta-blocker dose, a decrease in heart rate at 9 months was associated with reduced incidence of the primary outcome in both SR and AF patients [HR per 10 bpm decrease-SR: 0.83 (0.75-0.91), p < 0.001; AF: 0.89 (0.81-0.98), p = 0.018], whereas the relationship was less strong for achieved heart rate in AF [HR per 10 bpm higher-SR: 1.26 (1.10-1.46), p = 0.001; AF: 1.08 (0.94-1.23), p = 0.18]. Achieved heart rate at 9 months was only prognostically significant in AF patients with high baseline heart rates (p for interaction 0.017 vs. low). CONCLUSIONS: Following beta-blocker uptitration, both achieved and change in heart rate were prognostically significant regardless of starting heart rate in SR, however, they were only significant in AF patients with high baseline heart rate.

19.
Rhinology ; 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30506068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Airway epithelial cells have a well-accepted role in the regulation of local inflammatory processes in allergic and innate defence responses. However, their role the pathophysiology of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is unclear. The objective was to investigate whether potential differences in the mRNA expression profile of nasal epithelia from healthy individuals and from CRSwNP patients would shed new light on disease mechanisms. METHODS: Primary epithelial cells from nasal polyps of 24 affected individuals and from middle turbinates of 9 healthy controls were obtained using magnetic beat assisted isolation and were used for expression profiling using the Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Genechip Array. RESULTS: Multiple gene probes corresponding to 27 genes showed an aberrant expression profile in polyp epithelial cells compared to healthy controls. Most of these genes are linked to pathogenic mechanisms seen in neoplasm formation, including changes in cell-cell adhesion, metabolic processes, cell cycle control, and differentiation. Remarkably, our data additionally suggest a role for maternally expressed genes in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP and reveal two distinct states of polyp epithelium that could not be linked to the presence or absence of atopy in patients or to the level of eosinophilia or neutrophilia of the polyp. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest new roles for nasal epithelium in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP.

20.
Biom J ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30506971

RESUMO

Redundancy Analysis (RDA) is a well-known method used to describe the directional relationship between related data sets. Recently, we proposed sparse Redundancy Analysis (sRDA) for high-dimensional genomic data analysis to find explanatory variables that explain the most variance of the response variables. As more and more biomolecular data become available from different biological levels, such as genotypic and phenotypic data from different omics domains, a natural research direction is to apply an integrated analysis approach in order to explore the underlying biological mechanism of certain phenotypes of the given organism. We show that the multiset sparse Redundancy Analysis (multi-sRDA) framework is a prominent candidate for high-dimensional omics data analysis since it accounts for the directional information transfer between omics sets, and, through its sparse solutions, the interpretability of the result is improved. In this paper, we also describe a software implementation for multi-sRDA, based on the Partial Least Squares Path Modeling algorithm. We test our method through simulation and real omics data analysis with data sets of 364,134 methylation markers, 18,424 gene expression markers, and 47 cytokine markers measured on 37 patients with Marfan syndrome.

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