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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477475


Lead (Pb) is a metal toxicant of great public health concern. The present study investigated the applicability of the rat incisor in Pb exposure screening. The levels of lead in teeth (Pb-T) in the crown and root of incisors in laboratory Pb-exposed Sprague Dawley rats were quantified using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The crown accumulated much Pb-T than the root of the Sprague Dawley rat incisor. The levels of lead in blood (Pb-B) were positively correlated with the Pb-T in the crown and root incisors of the Sprague Dawley rats. As an application of the Pb-T crown results in experimental rats, we subsequently analyzed the Pb-T in the crown incisors of Pb-exposed wild rats (Rattus rattus) sampled from residential sites within varying distances from an abandoned lead-zinc mine. The Pb-T accumulation in the crown of incisors of R. rattus rats decreased with increased distance away from the Pb-Zn mine. Furthermore, the Pb-T was strongly correlated (r = 0.85) with the Pb levels in the blood. Laser ablation ICP-MS Pb-T mappings revealed a homogenous distribution of Pb in the incisor with an increased intensity of Pb-T localized in the tip of the incisor crown bearing an enamel surface in both Sprague Dawley and R. rattus rats. These findings suggest that Pb-T in the crown incisor may be reflective of the rat's environmental habitat, thus a possible indicator of Pb exposure.

Chemosphere ; 262: 127788, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182082


Lead (Pb) interferes with various bodily functions. Although high blood Pb (Pb-B) levels in residents from Kabwe, Zambia have been reported, the accumulation pattern of other metals remains unknown. The study was designed to determine the Pb-B, blood cadmium (Cd-B), and zinc (Zn-B) values of 504 representative samples from Kabwe, as well as the potential associated adverse health effects. The Pb-B level ranged from 0.79 to 154.75 µg/dL and generally increased in areas near the mine. A significant elevation of Cd-B was observed in two areas (0.37 ± 0.26 and 0.32 ± 0.30 µg/L) where the two highest mean Pb-B levels were recorded. By contrast, the Zn-B values did not differ greatly with respect to area. Some blood biochemical parameters relating to hepatic and renal functions were out of the normal range in approximately 20-50% of studied adult participants. The δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity was significantly inhibited in the two areas contaminated by Pb and Cd. A significant negative relationship was observed between metal levels and clinical parameters, e.g., between Pb-B and δ-ALAD for all the age categories and between Cd-B and the estimated glomerular filtration rate for all the age categories except 0-4 years. The elevated Cd-B in areas near the mine relative to the other areas suggested the potential adverse health effects of Cd and/or the interaction of Pb and Cd. A significant association of metal levels with clinical parameters also indicated the effects of metal exposure on hematopoietic, hepatic, and renal systems.

Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Metais/análise , Adulto , Cádmio/análise , Coleta de Dados , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Fígado/química , Registros , Valores de Referência , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia , Zinco
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(22): 14474-14481, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490671


We investigated the potential effects of different land use and other environmental factors on animals living in a contaminated environment. The study site in Kabwe, Zambia, is currently undergoing urban expansion, while lead contamination from former mining activities is still prevalent. We focused on a habitat generalist lizards (Trachylepis wahlbergii). The livers, lungs, blood, and stomach contents of 224 lizards were analyzed for their lead, zinc, cadmium, copper, nickel, and arsenic concentrations. Habitat types were categorized based on vegetation data obtained from satellite images. Multiple regression analysis revealed that land use categories of habitats and three other factors significantly affected lead concentrations in the lizards. Further investigation suggested that the lead concentrations in lizards living in bare fields were higher than expected based on the distance from the contaminant source, while those in lizards living in green fields were lower than expected. In addition, the lead concentration of lungs was higher than that of the liver in 19% of the lizards, implying direct exposure to lead via dust inhalation besides digestive exposure. Since vegetation reduces the production of dust from surface soil, it is plausible that dust from the mine is one of the contamination sources and that vegetation can reduce exposure to this.

Chemosphere ; 243: 125412, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995873


Childhood lead (Pb) poisoning has devastating effects on neurodevelopment and causes overt clinical signs including convulsions and coma. Health effects including hypertension and various reproductive problems have been reported in adults. Historical Pb mining in Zambia's Kabwe town left a legacy of environmental pollution and childhood Pb poisoning. The current study aimed at establishing the extent of Pb poisoning and exposure differences among family members in Kabwe as well as determining populations at risk and identify children eligible for chelation therapy. Blood samples were collected in July and August 2017 from 1190 household members and Pb was measured using a portable LeadCare-II analyser. Participants included 291 younger children (3-months to 3-years-old), 271 older children (4-9-years-old), 412 mothers and 216 fathers from 13 townships with diverse levels of Pb contamination. The Blood Lead Levels (BLL) ranged from 1.65 to 162  µg/dL, with residents from Kasanda (mean 45.7  µg/dL) recording the highest BLL while Hamududu residents recorded the lowest (mean 3.3  µg/dL). Of the total number of children sampled (n = 562), 23% exceeded the 45  µg/dL, the threshold required for chelation therapy. A few children (5) exceeded the 100  µg/dL whereas none of the parents exceeded the 100  µg/dL value. Children had higher BLL than parents, with peak BLL-recorded at the age of 2-years-old. Lead exposure differences in Kabwe were attributed to distance and direction from the mine, with younger children at highest risk. Exposure levels in parents were equally alarming. For prompt diagnosis and treatment, a portable point-of-care devise such as a LeadCare-II would be preferable in Kabwe.

Exposição Ambiental/análise , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/toxicidade , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mineração , Mães , Registros , Reprodução , Manejo de Espécimes , Zâmbia/epidemiologia