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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361060

RESUMO

Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) is a serine-threonine kinase that phosphorylates various transcriptional and chromatin regulators, thus modulating numerous important cellular processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis, DNA damage response, and oxidative stress. The role of HIPK2 in the pathogenesis of cancer and fibrosis is well established, and evidence of its involvement in the homeostasis of multiple organs has been recently emerging. We have previously demonstrated that Hipk2-null (Hipk2-KO) mice present cerebellar alterations associated with psychomotor abnormalities and that the double ablation of HIPK2 and its interactor HMGA1 causes perinatal death due to respiratory failure. To identify other alterations caused by the loss of HIPK2, we performed a systematic morphological analysis of Hipk2-KO mice. Post-mortem examinations and histological analysis revealed that Hipk2 ablation causes neuronal loss, neuronal morphological alterations, and satellitosis throughout the whole central nervous system (CNS); a myopathic phenotype characterized by variable fiber size, mitochondrial proliferation, sarcoplasmic inclusions, morphological alterations at neuromuscular junctions; and a cardiac phenotype characterized by fibrosis and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. These data demonstrate the importance of HIPK2 in the physiology of skeletal and cardiac muscles and of different parts of the CNS, thus suggesting its potential relevance for different new aspects of human pathology.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Fibrose/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/fisiologia , Animais , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibrose/metabolismo , Proteínas HMGA/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Fosforilação
2.
Poult Sci ; 100(7): 101150, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049215

RESUMO

White striping (WS) is an emerging myopathy of broiler chickens characterized by white striation of muscle. Despite the recent advances, the pathomechanism underlying the WS remains elusive. The aim of this study was to characterize morphological and molecular features of WS in broiler chickens. 50 pectoralis muscles were collected from 55 days old ROSS 308 broiler chickens with a mean weight of 3.5 kg. Samples were snap frozen and analyzed by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Real-time-PCR was used to evaluate the expression of different cytokines. Histological lesions were observed in all examined animals, both with and without macroscopic evidence of WS. WS muscles showed endomysial and perivascular inflammatory infiltrates of macrophages and cluster of differentiation (CD)8-positive T lymphocytes with severe myofiber atrophy, necrosis, fibrosis and replacement by adipose tissue. There was diffuse sarcoplasmic and sarcolemmal overexpression of the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I). The severity of the histologic lesions was positively correlated with the macroscopic degree of white striations. IL-6, IL-17 and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF) were overexpressed in severe lesions of WS. The presence of the CD8/MHC I complexes, together with the higher expression of IL-6, IL-17 and LITAF in severe degree of WS, suggest that the immune response may be involved in the progression of this myopathy and can be consistent with a hypoxia-induced inflammatory myopathy. These results help to understand the pathomechanism of WS contributing to the reduction of economic losses and improving poultry welfare.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculares , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas , Carne/análise , Doenças Musculares/veterinária , Músculos Peitorais
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7404, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795775

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence suggests that modifications of gut function and microbiota composition might play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of several cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure (HF). In this study we systematically analysed gut microbiota composition, intestinal barrier integrity, intestinal and serum cytokines and serum endotoxin levels in C57BL/6 mice undergoing pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) for 1 and 4 weeks. Compared to sham-operated animals, TAC induced prompt and strong weakening of intestinal barrier integrity, long-lasting decrease of colon anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, significant increases of serum levels of bacterial lipopolysaccharide and proinflammatory cytokines. TAC also exerted effects on microbiota composition, inducing significant differences in bacterial genera inside Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and TM7 phyla as shown by 16S rDNA sequencing of fecal samples from TAC or sham mice. These results suggest that gut modifications represent an important element to be considered in the development and progression of cardiac dysfunction in response to TAC and support this animal model as a valuable tool to establish the role and mechanisms of gut-heart crosstalk in HF. Evidence arising in this field might identify new treatment options targeting gut integrity and microbiota components to face adverse cardiac events.

4.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(4)2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921043

RESUMO

Perosomus elumbis (PE) is a rare congenital condition characterized by agenesis of the lumbar, sacral and coccygeal vertebrae. Perosomus elumbis has rarely been reported in literature as morphological description of singles or few cases. Here we report the first extensive description of eight cases of PE detected in two consecutive litters from the same parents of Casertana pig breed. In August 2018, eight piglets were investigated for multiple malformations. All malformed animals, but one, died in the first day of life. The survivor piglet died at 23 days of age. Pathological, radiological and cytogenetic examination was performed. Furthermore, a farm epidemiological investigation was carried out to investigate the percentage of piglets born dead or with malformations in 2018. The radiological and pathological exams showed skeletal abnormalities at the spinal cord level and visceral malformations. Cytogenetic investigations showed a normal chromosome arrangement. Finally, epidemiological investigation revealed a low prevalence of malformations in newborn pigs, equal to 0.5% of the total birth rate of the farm. Our findings report the first extensive description of PE cases in pigs and suggest an underestimation of this malformation in veterinary medicine. Our findings also suggest a specific genetic etiological basis as cause of PE in pigs and exclude chromosomal abnormalities. Further studies will be performed to confirm this hypothesis.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808510

RESUMO

Sarcopenia is defined as the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality, and strength. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying sarcopenia are still not completely understood. The aim of this work was to evaluate, for the first time, the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome in bovine skeletal muscle in order to investigate the hypothesis that inflammasome activation may trigger and sustain a pro-inflammatory environment leading to sarcopenia. Samples of skeletal muscle were collected from 60 cattle belonging to three age-based groups. Morphologic, immunohistochemical and molecular analysis were performed to assess the presence of age-related pathologic changes and chronic inflammation, the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome and to determine the levels of interleukin-1ß, interleukin-18 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in muscle tissue. Our results revealed the presence of morphologic sarcopenia hallmark, chronic lymphocytic inflammation and a type II fibers-selective NLRP3 expression associated to a significant decreased number of immunolabeled-fibers in aged animals. Moreover, we found a statistically significant age-related increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1ß and interleukin-18 suggesting the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. Taken together, our data suggest that NLRP3 inflammasome components may be normally expressed in skeletal muscle, but its priming and activation during aging may contribute to enhance a pro-inflammatory environment altering normal muscular anabolism and metabolism.


Assuntos
Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Sarcopenia/metabolismo , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Envelhecimento/patologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Bovinos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-18/análise , Interleucina-1beta/análise , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise
6.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 591961, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33665215

RESUMO

RNA is considered as an indicator of the dynamic genetic expression changes in a cell. RNAScope is a commercially available in situ hybridization assay for the detection of RNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. In this work, we describe the use of RNAScope as a sensitive and specific method for the evaluation of c-KIT messenger RNA (mRNA) in canine mast cell tumor. We investigated the expression of c-KIT mRNA with RNAscope in 60 canine mast cell tumors (MCTs), comparing it with the histological grade and KIT immunohistochemical expression patterns. Our results showed an overall good expression of c-KIT mRNA in neoplastic cells if compared with control probes. We also observed a statistically significant correlation between histological grade and c-KIT mRNA expression. No correlations were found between KIT protein immunohistochemical distribution pattern and c-KIT mRNA expression or histological grade. Our results provide a reference basis to better understand c-KIT mRNA expression in canine MCTs and strongly encourage further studies that may provide useful information about its potential and significant role as a prognostic and predictive biological marker for canine MCTs clinical outcome.

7.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(2)2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669870

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between infection by Dicrocoelium dendriticum (class Trematoda) and the animal host response in terms of macroscopic lesions, the immunopathological response, and histological changes in the livers of naturally infected sheep. Twenty-four sheep were selected on the basis of positive D. dendriticum fecal egg counts (FECs). Gross and histological injuries were scored. A positive significant association was observed between the number of adult worms recovered from the liver, FEC, macroscopic lesions, fibrosis, and bile duct hyperplasia. A significant negative association was observed among these variables and the degree of leukocyte infiltration. In addition, immunophenotyping of the inflammatory cells was carried out using primary antibodies against T cell epitopes (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+), B cell epitopes (CD79α), and the ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (IBA-1) antigen. Independently of the severity of the D. dendriticum infection, the predominant cell population was CD3-positive and associated with lesser numbers of CD79α- and Iba-I-positive cells. An increase in Iba-1-positive cells was observed in the livers of animals with a high worm burden. Our results provide a reference basis to better understand the local immune response in sheep naturally infected by D. dendriticum in relation to the FEC and parasitic burden.

8.
Front Vet Sci ; 6: 404, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799284

RESUMO

The detection of diatoms into the organs is considered an important "biological marker" for the diagnosis of drowning in human pathology, but it still has a high possibility for false positive results. The aims of this study were: (1) to evaluate the contribution of pathological examination in drowning cases and (2) to investigate the differences in the number and location of diatoms between animals who died in drowning and non-drowning conditions. For these purposes, 30 dead adult dogs were selected for the study and subdivided into five groups. The group A comprised six cadavers dead for drowning; the group B comprised six control animals; the groups C, D, and E comprised six animals dead for causes other than drowning and subsequently immersed in water for 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. On each animal, a complete macroscopic and histological examination and diatom test were performed. Diatoms test and quantification were also performed on drowning mediums. Pathological findings of the animals in the group A showed pulmonary congestion, oedema, and hemorrages in the lung. However, similar injuries were also observed in control and experimentally submerged cadavers. In contrast, we observed a statistically differences between drowning animals and all experimentally submerged groups and control animals regarding diatom numbers recovered from organ tissue samples (p < 0.05). Therefore, these findings suggest that the number of diatoms may be used as a valid tool to differentiate animals who died in drowning and non-drowning conditions, even if the latter were found in an aquatic environment.

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