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Cell Oncol (Dordr) ; 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761561


PURPOSE: Although doxorubicin is widely used to treat cancer, severe side effects limit its clinical use. Combination of standard chemotherapy with natural products can increase the efficacy and attenuate the side effects of current therapies. Here we studied the anticancer effects of a combined regimen comprising doxorubicin and [10]-gingerol against triple-negative breast cancer, which does not respond to hormonal or targeted therapies. METHODS: Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay, cell cycle progression and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry and signaling pathways were analyzed by Western blotting in human and murine triple negative breast cancer cell systems. The anticancer/antimetastatic and toxic effects of the combined regimen was evaluated using syngeneic and xenograft orthotopic models. RESULTS: The combination of doxorubicin and [10]-gingerol significantly increased the number of apoptotic cells, compared to each compound alone. In 4T1Br4 cells, the combined regimen was the only condition able to increase the levels of active caspase 3 and γH2AX and to decrease the level of Cdk-6 cyclin. In vivo, doxorubicin (3 mg/Kg, D3) and [10]-gingerol (10 mg/Kg, G10) resulted in a significant reduction in the volume of primary tumors and a decrease in the number of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Interestingly, only the combined regimen led to decreased tumor burdens to distant organs (i.e., metastasis) and reduced chemotherapy-induced weight loss and hepatotoxicity in tumor-bearing animals. Likewise, in a xenograft model, only the combined regimen was effective in significantly reducing the primary tumor volume and the prevalence of CTCs. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that [10]-gingerol has potential to be used as a neoadjuvant or in combined therapy with doxorubicin, to improve its anticancer activity.

Sci Rep ; 8(1): 12154, 2018 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30108263


Acute kidney injury (AKI) and metabolic dysfunction are critical complications in sepsis syndrome; however, their pathophysiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Therefore, we evaluated whether the pharmacological properties of 6-gingerol (6G) and 10-gingerol (10G) could modulate AKI and metabolic disruption in a rat model of sepsis (faecal peritonitis). Animals from the sham and AKI groups were intraperitoneally injected with 6G or 10G (25 mg/kg). Septic AKI decreased creatinine clearance and renal antioxidant activity, but enhanced oxidative stress and the renal mRNA levels of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1ß, and transforming growth factor-ß. Both phenol compounds repaired kidney function through antioxidant activity related to decreased oxidative/nitrosative stress and proinflammatory cytokines. Metabolomics analysis indicated different metabolic profiles for the sham surgery group, caecal ligation and puncture model alone group, and sepsis groups treated with gingerols. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analysis detected important increases in urinary creatine, allantoin, and dimethylglycine levels in septic rats. However, dimethylamine and methylsulfonylmethane metabolites were more frequently detected in septic animals treated with 6G or 10G, and were associated with increased survival of septic animals. Gingerols attenuated septic AKI by decreasing renal disturbances, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response through a mechanism possibly correlated with increased production of dimethylamine and methylsulfonylmethane.

Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Catecóis/administração & dosagem , Álcoois Graxos/administração & dosagem , Peritonite/complicações , Sepse/complicações , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Animais , Dimetil Sulfóxido/metabolismo , Dimetilaminas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Masculino , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolômica , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peritonite/metabolismo , Peritonite/microbiologia , Peritonite/mortalidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sepse/metabolismo , Sepse/microbiologia , Sepse/mortalidade , Sulfonas/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
Oncotarget ; 8(42): 72260-72271, 2017 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29069785


There is increasing interest in the use of non-toxic natural products for the treatment of various pathologies, including cancer. In particular, biologically active constituents of the ginger oleoresin (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) have been shown to mediate anti-tumour activity and to contribute to the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiemetic properties of ginger. Here we report on the inhibitory properties of [10]-gingerol against metastatic triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) in vitro and in vivo. We show that [10]-gingerol concentration-dependently induces apoptotic death in mouse and human TNBC cell lines in vitro. In addition, [10]-gingerol is well tolerated in vivo, induces a marked increase in caspase-3 activation and inhibits orthotopic tumour growth in a syngeneic mouse model of spontaneous breast cancer metastasis. Importantly, using both spontaneous and experimental metastasis assays, we show for the first time that [10]-gingerol significantly inhibits metastasis to multiple organs including lung, bone and brain. Remarkably, inhibition of brain metastasis was observed even when treatment was initiated after surgical removal of the primary tumour. Taken together, these results indicate that [10]-gingerol may be a safe and useful complementary therapy for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer and warrant further investigation of its efficacy, either alone or in combination with standard systemic therapies, in pre-clinical models of metastatic breast cancer and in patients.

Chem Biodivers ; 10(11): 1999-2006, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24243608


A series of chalcone derivatives, 1-15, were prepared by Claisen-Schmidt condensation and evaluated for their cytotoxicities on tumor cell lines and also against proteolytic enzymes such as cathepsins B and K. Of the compounds synthesized, (E)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-phenylprop-2-en-1-one (12), (E)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-phenylprop-2-en-1-one (13), (E)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenylprop-2-en-1-one (14), and (E)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-1-phenylprop-2-en-1-one (15) showed significant cytotoxicities. The most effective compound was 15, which showed high cytotoxic activity with an IC50 value lower than 1 µg/ml, and no selectivity on the tumor cells evaluated. Substituents at C(4) of ring B were found to be essential for cytotoxicity. In addition, it was also demonstrated that some of these chalcones are moderate inhibitors of cathepsin K and have no activity against cathepsin B.

Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Catepsina B/antagonistas & inibidores , Catepsina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Chalcona/análogos & derivados , Chalcona/farmacologia , Catepsina B/metabolismo , Catepsina K/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/enzimologia