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Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199457


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are chemical compounds comprised of carbon and hydrogen molecules in a cyclic arrangement. PAHs are associated with risks to human health, especially carcinogenesis. One form of exposure to these compounds is through ingestion of contaminated food, which can occur during preparation and processing involving high temperatures (e.g., grilling, smoking, toasting, roasting, and frying) as well as through PAHs present in the soil, air, and water (i.e., environmental pollution). Differently from changes caused by microbiological characteristics and lipid oxidation, consumers cannot sensorially perceive PAH contamination in food products, thereby hindering their ability to reject these foods. Herein, the occurrence and biological effects of PAHs were comprehensively explored, as well as analytical methods to monitor their levels, legislations, and strategies to reduce their generation in food products. This review updates the current knowledge and addresses recent regulation changes concerning the widespread PAHs contamination in several types of food, often surpassing the concentration limits deemed acceptable by current legislations. Therefore, effective measures involving different food processing strategies are needed to prevent and reduce PAHs contamination, thereby decreasing human exposure and detrimental health effects. Furthermore, gaps in literature have been addressed to provide a basis for future studies.

Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Benzopirenos/efeitos adversos , Carcinogênese/genética , Carvão Vegetal/efeitos adversos , Culinária , Adutos de DNA/efeitos adversos , Análise de Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 143(3): 823-835, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817656


BACKGROUND: The purposes of this study were to (1) assess complementary fat graft outcomes, (2) compare initial and complementary fat graft retention rates, and (3) evaluate the influence of different postoperative time points (3, 6, and 12 months after the initial procedure) for performing complementary fat grafting on fat graft outcomes. METHODS: A prospective analysis was conducted on patients with unilateral craniofacial contour deformities (n = 115) who underwent initial and complementary fat grafting. Complementary fat grafting was performed 3, 6, or 12 months after the initial fat grafts. Standardized ultrasonographic craniofacial soft-tissue thickness measurements were performed blindly to determine the initial and complementary fat graft retention rates at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. RESULTS: A significant (p < 0.05) reduction of fat graft retention was observed within the first 3 postoperative months, and a maintenance of retention (p > 0.05) was observed at 3 through 12 months after surgery for both initial and complementary procedures. No significant (p > 0.05) differences were observed in comparative analysis of the postoperative time points. Complementary retention rates were significantly (p < 0.05) superior to initial retention rates at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Complementary retention rates at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery were significantly (p < 0.05) superior to initial retention rates for patients aged 18 years or older, those with Parry-Romberg syndrome, those who had undergone previous craniofacial bone surgery, and those with a recipient site at the forehead unit. CONCLUSION: The complementary fat graft retention rates were superior to the initial retention rates, with no significant differences among the postoperative time points for performing complementary procedures. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, II.

Tecido Adiposo/transplante , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/cirurgia , Hemiatrofia Facial/cirurgia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Reoperação/métodos , Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Face/anormalidades , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Face/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
J Food Sci ; 83(8): 2028-2038, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30020548


Brazil is one of the world's largest food producers. Adulteration of foods is often reported and represent an important potential threat to food safety. Because of this, reduction of the vulnerability of foods to adulteration is of high priority to Brazil. This study analyzes economically motivated food fraud and adulterations in Brazil between 2007 and 2017, based on academic journal reports. In addition, alternatives are proposed to minimize these incidents through good practices, traceability systems and the development of methods to detect food fraud and adulteration. Complex supply chains for foods of animal origin, such as milk and dairy products, were the main targets of food fraud and adulterations. Other products prone to fraudulent activities were vegetable oils, especially olive oil, which are high value products. Meat and fish, as well as their respective by-products, were also involved in some food fraud and adulteration, especially substitution. Cases of extraneous ingredient addition were also reported in the coffee and tea sectors. Comprehensive food fraud and adulteration prevention requires the enforcement of regulatory systems, increased sampling and monitoring, training of food producers and handlers, and development of precise, rapid, and cost-effective methods of fraud detection. The availability of robust methods to identify the chemical constituents of foods could be a decisive step, both to detect and prevent fraud in producer countries and to open up new markets to these products. The results of this study can be used to analyze food safety risks and prioritize target areas for food research and policy-making in order to enforce food safety regulations in Brazil. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: A food fraud and adulteration review was conducted based on scientific literature in Brazil. Milk and its products were the main targets of food fraud and adulterations. Food fraud and adulteration causes and suggestions for good practice are presented. The results can be used to analyze food safety and protect consumer rights.

Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Fraude/economia , Animais , Brasil , Café , Laticínios , Carne , Azeite de Oliva , Chá
J Agric Food Chem ; 58(3): 1403-9, 2010 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20067270


An alternative method for determination of total trans fatty acids expressed as elaidic acid by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) under indirect UV detection at 224 nm within an analysis time of 7.5 min was developed. The optimized running electrolyte includes 15.0 mmol L(-1) KH(2)PO(4)/Na(2)HPO(4) buffer (pH approximately 7.0), 4.0 mmol L(-1) SDBS, 8.0 mmol L(-1) Brij35, 45%v/v ACN, 8% methanol, and 1.5% v/v n-octanol. Baseline separation of the critical pair C18-9cis/C18:1-9t with a resolution higher than 1.5 was achieved using C15:0 as the internal standard. The optimum capillary electrophoresis (CE) conditions for the background electrolyte were established with the aid of Raman spectroscopy and experiments of a 3(2) factorial design. After response factor (R(F)) calculations, the CE method was applied to total trans fatty acid (TTFA) analysis in a hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF) sample, and compared with the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) official method by gas chromatography (GC). The methods were compared with an independent sample t test, and no significant difference was found between CE and GC methods within the 95% confidence interval for six genuine replicates of TTFA analysis (p-value > 0.05). The CE method was applied to TTFA analysis in a spreadable cheese sample. Satisfactory results were obtained, indicating that the optimized methodology can be used for trans fatty acid determination for these samples.

Queijo/análise , Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Ácidos Graxos trans/análise