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1.
Saudi Pharm J ; 26(3): 311-322, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29556122

RESUMO

Cancer is one of the biggest problems in public health worldwide. Plants have been shown important role in anticancer research. Viscum album L. (Santalaceae), commonly known as mistletoe, is a semi-parasitic plant that grows on different host trees. In complementary medicine, extracts from European mistletoe (Viscum album L.) have been used in the treatment of cancer. The study was conducted to identify chemical composition and antitumor potential of Viscum album tinctures. Chemical analysis performed by high resolution chromatography equipped with high resolution mass spectrometer identified caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, sakuranetin, isosakuranetin, syringenin 4-O-glucoside, syringenin 4-O-apiosyl-glucoside, alangilignoside C and ligalbumoside A compounds. Some of these compounds are probably responsible for the reduction of tumoral cellular growth in a dose-dependent manner. It was observed that melanoma murine cells (B16F10) were more sensitive to V. album tinctures than human leukaemic cells (K562), besides non-tumoral cells (MA-104) had a much lower cytotoxicity to them. Apoptotic-like cells were observed under light microscopy and were confirmed by a typical DNA fragmentation pattern. Additionally, flow cytometry results using Annexin-V/FITC permitted to quantify increased expression of early and late apoptotic markers on tumoral cells, confirming augmented Sub G0 population, which was probably associated with a consistent decrease in G1, and an increase in S or G2/M populations. Results indicate the chemical composition of V. album tinctures influences the mechanisms of in vitro tumoral cell death, suggesting a potential use in cancer pharmacotherapy research.

2.
Homeopathy ; 106(3): 160-170, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28844289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A series of different experimental approaches was applied in Zincum metallicum (Zinc met.) samples and lactose controls. Experiments were designed to elucidate the effect of zinc trituration and dynamization on physicochemical properties of homeopathic formulations, using lactose as excipient. METHODS: Zinc met. potencies (Zinc met 1-3c) were triturated and dynamized using lactose as excipient, according to Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia. Lactose samples (LAC 1-3c) were also prepared following the same protocol and used as controls. The samples were analyzed structurally by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and thermodynamically by Thermogravimetry (TG) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). RESULTS: AAS analysis detected 97.0 % of zinc in the raw material, 0.75 % (Zinc met 1c) and 0.02% (Zinc met 2c). XRD analysis showed that inter-atomic crystalline spacing of lactose was not modified by dynamization. Amorphous and crystalline lactose spheres and particles, respectively, were observed by TEM in all samples, with mean size from 200 to 800 nm. EDX obtained with TEM identified zinc presence throughout the amorphous matter but individualized zinc particles were not observed. SEM images obtained from dynamized samples (LAC 1c and Zinc met 1c) with electron backscattering could not identify zinc metal grains. The dynamization process induced Derivatives of Thermal Gravimetric (DTg) peak modification, which was previously centered near 158°C to lactose, to a range from 140 to 170°C, suggesting the dynamization process modifies the temperature range of water aggregation. Thermal phenomena were analyzed and visualized by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) statistics. Both indicated that fusion enthalpy of dynamized samples (DynLAC 1-3c; DynZn 1-3c) increased 30.68 J/g in comparison to non-dynamized lactose (LAC; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested no structural changes due to the trituration and dynamization process. However, TG and DSC analyses permit the differentiation of dynamized and non-dynamized groups, suggesting the dynamization process induced a significant increase in the degradation heat. These results call for further calorimetric studies with other homeopathic dilutions and other methodologies, to better understand the dynamics of these systems.


Assuntos
Análise Diferencial Térmica/métodos , Homeopatia/métodos , Lactose/análise , Zinco/análise , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/métodos , Espectrometria por Raios X/métodos
3.
Bioelectromagnetics ; 38(2): 95-108, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27783424

RESUMO

Available treatments against human fungal pathogens present high levels of resistance, motivating the development of new antifungal therapies. In this context, the present work aimed to analyze direct electric current (DC) antifungal action, using an in vitro apparatus equipped with platinum electrodes. Candida albicans yeast cells were submitted to three distinct conditions of DC treatment (anodic flow-AF; electroionic flow-EIF; and cathodic flow-CF), as well as different charges, ranging from 0.03 to 2.40 C. Our results indicated C. albicans presented distinct sensibility depending on the DC intensity and polarity applied. Both the colony-forming unit assay and the cytometry flow with propidium iodide indicated a drastic reduction on cellular viability after AF treatment with 0.15 C, while CF- and EIF-treated cells stayed alive when DC doses were increased up to 2.40 C. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy revealed important ultrastructural alterations in AF-treated yeasts, including cell structure disorganization, ruptures in plasmatic membrane, and cytoplasmic rarefaction. This work emphasizes the importance of physical parameters (polarity and doses) in cellular damage, and brings new evidence for using electrotherapy to treat C. albicans pathology process. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:95-108, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/citologia , Eletricidade , Candida albicans/metabolismo , Candida albicans/fisiologia , Candida albicans/ultraestrutura , Adesão Celular , Linhagem Celular , Eletrodos , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Humanos , Masculino , Viabilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Platina/química , Propídio/metabolismo
4.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 111: 83-92, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27243447

RESUMO

Electrochemical therapy (EChT) entails treatment of solid tumors with direct electric current (DC). This work evaluated the specific effects of anodic flow generated by DC on biochemical and metabolic features of the A549 human lung cancer cell line. Apoptosis was evaluated on the basis of caspase-3 activity and mitochondrial transmembrane potential dissipation. Cell morphology was analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, and lipid droplets were studied through morphometric analysis and X-ray qualitative elemental microanalysis. High-resolution respirometry was used to assess mitochondrial respiratory parameters. Results indicated A549 viability decreased in a dose-dependent manner with a prominent drop between 18 and 24h after treatment (p<0.001), together with a two-fold increase in caspase-3 activity. AF-treatment induced a significantly increase (p<0.01) in the cell number with disrupted mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Furthermore, treated cells demonstrated important ultrastructural mitochondria damage and a three-fold increase in the cytoplasmic lipid bodies' number, quantified by morphometrical analyses. Conversely, 24h after treatment, the cells presented a two-fold increase of residual oxygen consumption, accounting for 45.3% of basal oxygen consumption. These results show remarkable alterations promoted by anodic flow on human lung cancer cells which are possibly involved with the antitumoral effects of EChT.


Assuntos
Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Apoptose , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Eletrodos , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial
5.
Homeopathy ; 105(1): 71-7, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26828000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza and its complications are common at all ages, especially in children. Vaccines and anti-influenza drugs aim to prevent it. Preventative approaches with favorable risk profiles should be considered for flu, particularly since the evidence of the efficacy of anti-viral drugs is debated. METHODS: This pragmatic clinical trial was conducted in the Brazilian Public Health System in Petrópolis (BPHSP) with children aged from 1 to 5 years old. The medications used were mainly selected based on in vitro experiments (InfluBio), and in successful qualitative clinical experiences (Homeopathic Complex). Following informed parental consent, subjects were randomly distributed, in a blind manner, to three experimental groups: Homeopathic Complex, Placebo, and InfluBio. BPHSP health agents collected flu and acute respiratory infection symptomatic episodes monthly following the established protocol. The number of these episodes was registered in one year (2009-2010). RESULTS: Out of the 600 children recruited, 445 (74.17%) completed the study (149: Homeopathic complex; 151: Placebo; 145: InfluBio). The number of flu and acute respiratory infection symptomatic episodes detected in this clinical trial was low; however, it was different between homeopathic groups and placebo (p < 0.001). In the first year post-intervention, 46/151 (30.5%) of children in the placebo group developed 3 or more flu and acute respiratory infection episodes, while there was no episode in the group of 149 children who used Homeopathic Complex, and only 1 episode in the group of 145 (1%) children who received InfluBio. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that the use of homeopathic medicines minimized the number of flu and acute respiratory infection symptomatic episodes in children, signalizing that the homeopathic prophylactic potential should be investigated in further studies.


Assuntos
Homeopatia/métodos , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Materia Medica/uso terapêutico , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda/terapia , Brasil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
6.
Bioelectromagnetics ; 33(4): 334-45, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22012884

RESUMO

The literature shows that the effects of direct electric currents on biological material are numerous, including bactericidal, fungicidal, parasiticidal, and anti-tumoral, among others. Non-pathogenic trypanosomatids, such as Herpetomonas samuelpessoai, have emerged as important models for the study of basic biological processes performed by a eukaryotic cell. The present study reports a dose-dependent anti-protozoan effect of direct electric treatment with both cathodic and anodic current flows on H. samuelpessoai cells. The damaging effects can be attributable to the electrolysis products generated during electric stimulation. The pH of the cell suspension was progressively augmented from 7.4 to 10.5 after the cathodic treatment. In contrast, the anodic treatment caused a pH decrease varying from 7.4 to 6.5. Transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed profound alterations in vital cellular structures (e.g., mitochondrion, kinetoplast, flagellum, flagellar pocket, nucleus, and plasma membrane) after exposure to both cathodic and anodic current flows. Specifically, cathodic current flow treatment induced the appearance of autophagic-like structures on parasite cells, while those submitted to an anodic current flow presented marked disorganization of plasma membrane and necrotic appearance. However, parasites treated in the intermediary chamber (without contact with the electrodes) did not present significant changes in viability or morphology, and no pH variation was detected in this system. The use of H. samuelpessoai as a biological model and the direct electric current experimental approach used in our study provide important information for understanding the mechanisms involved in the cytotoxic effects of this physical agent.


Assuntos
Condutividade Elétrica/efeitos adversos , Trypanosomatina/ultraestrutura , Sobrevivência Celular , Trypanosomatina/citologia
7.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 10(36): 172-173, september 30, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: hom-10709

RESUMO

Trabalhos prévios têm indicado que soluções homeopáticas modificam os aspectos celulares e bioquímicos de células mantidas em cultura. No presente estudo, os efeitos de Natrum muriaticum, medicamento usado na clínica homeopática para o tratamento de hipertensão, foram avaliados em células renais das linhagens MDCK e LLC-PK1. Os seguintes parâmetros celulares foram analisados: viabilidade, morfologia e expressão da (Na+-K+)-ATPase e dos receptores AT1 e AT2 da angiotensina II. As linhagens celulares foram plaqueadas (5,0 x 104 células/mL) em DMEM suplementado com 10% de soro fetal bovino (SFB). Após 24 horas a 37°C, o meio DMEM foi substituído com a adição de 10% (v/v) e 1% (v/v) das seguintes amostras: Natrum muriaticum 30CH, água dinamizada 30CH e água destilada estéril, para a medida de viabilidade celular por MTT. As absorbâncias quantificadas em leitor de ELISA (490 nm) foram comparadas entre si e com os valores obtidos com o grupo controle (células isentas de tratamento) Os valores obtidos de quatro experimentos independentes realizados em quintuplicata foram tabulados e analisados estatisticamente pelo Software Sigma Plot v.11 (Jandel Scientific). A morfologia das células MDCK foi avaliada por microscópio óptico após coloração de Giemsa e a expressão da (Na+-K+)-ATPase e AT1/AT2 de células LLC-PK1 por Western Blot (WB). Para ambos experimentos, 5,0 x 104 células/mL foram incubadas em DMEM suplementado com 10% SFB sendo o meio de cultura diariamente substituído por um novo, contendo 1% de Natrum muriaticum 30CH e água dinamizada 30CH, por 5, 10 e 15 dias. A quantificação de proteínas totais foi realizada pelo método de Lowry, após lise celular. As amostras foram analisadas por eletroforese em SDS-PAGE (12%) e transferidos para membrana de nitrocelulose. Esta membrana foi incubada com anticorpos específicos primário (anti-(Na+-K+)-ATPase, anti-AT1 e AT2 ou anti-anti-beta-actina). A detecção foi realizada utilizando o sistema ECL e Hyperfilm. Os ensaios de MTT mostraram uma redução estatisticamente significativa na atividade mitocondrial celular (p <0,001), indicando um efeito osmótico decorrente da incubação com as soluções teste na concentração de 10% (v/v) Não foram detectadas alterações morfológicas significativas quando ambas as linhagens foram submetidas aos diferentes tratamentos . A análise por WB indicou um aumento proporcional da quantidade (Na+-K+)-ATPase expressa na linhagem LLC-PK1 em função do número de estímulos homeopáticos aplicado. Embora preliminares estes resultados evidenciam, pela primeira vez, que o estímulo homeopático parece modificar a expressão de importantes marcadores fisiológicos da linhagem LLC-PK1 que estão diretamente envolvidos na gênese da hipertensão arterial.(AU)


Previous papers have indicated that homeopathic solutions modify the cellular and biochemical aspects of cells maintained in culture. In this study, the effects of Natrum muriaticum, a medicine used in the homeopathic clinic for the treatment of hypertension, were evaluated in kidney MDCK and LLC-PK1 cell lines. The following cellular parameters were analyzed: viability, morphology and expression of the (Na+-K+)-ATPase and the angiotensin II receptors AT1 and AT2. The cell lines were plated (5.0 x 104 cells/mL) in DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS). After 24 hours at 37°C, DMEM was re-fed with the addition of 10% (V/V) and 1% (V/V) of the following samples: Natrum muriaticum 30CH, water 30CH and non-dynamized sterile distilled water to do the MTT assay. The results obtained from these groups were compared to those obtained by incubation of the cells in culture medium free of these solutions (Control). Cell viability was assessed by a colorimetric MTT ELISA assay (490nm). The values from four independent experiments performed in quintuplicate were plotted and statistically analyzed by Sigma Plot v.11 (Jandel Scientific). The morphology of MDCK cells was evaluated by optical microscope after Giemsa?s staining. The expression of the (Na++K+)-ATPase and AT1/AT2 of LLC-PK1 cells was evaluated by Western Blot (WB) analysis. For this experimental set, 5.0x104 cells/mL were incubated in DMEM supplemented with 10% FCS and daily culture medium was replaced by a new one, containing: Natrum muriaticum 30CH and water 30CH. Additionally, cells were treated for 5, 10 and 15 days with 1% of specific solutions and the total protein was measured by the Lowry method, after cell lysis. The samples were analyzed by electrophoresis in SDS-PAGE (12% gel) and transferred to nitrocellulose membrane. This membrane was incubated with specific primary antibodies (anti-(Na++K+)-ATPase, anti-AT1 and AT2 or anti-anti-beta-actin). The detection was performed using ECL system and Hyperfilm. MTT assays showed a statistically significant reduction in cellular mitochondrial activity (p<0.001) probably attributed to an osmotic effect due to the use of 10% (V/V) concentration rather than 1% (V/V). The optical microscopy analysis revealed no significant morphological changes in MDCK and LLC-PK1 cells submitted to the different treatments when compared to controls groups. The WB analysis indicated a proportional increase in (Na++K+)-ATPase content according to an increase in the homeopathic stimuli. Although preliminary, these results show for the first time, that the homeopathic medicine is able to modify the expression of important physiological markers for LLC-PK1 cells, which are directly involved in the genesis of hypertension.(AU)


Assuntos
Natrium Muriaticum , Hipertensão
8.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 10(36): 170-171, september 30, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: hom-10710

RESUMO

Biotherapics are homeopathic remedies prepared from organic products that are chemically undefined and can be used for treatment of diseases like influenza. There are several classes of biotherapics and, among these, there are some called "living biotherapics" or "Roberto Costa?s Biotherapics". This study aimed to compare the cellular and biochemical effects of biotherapics prepared from intact influenza virus diluted in water and the one obtained from the same viral sample inactivated by ethanol 70% (v / v), both in the potencies of 12x and 30x. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses were performed on both preparations to assess the integrity of viral particles, which showed that ethanol 70% (v/v) induced a complete denaturation of viral particles. In contrast, the integrity of virus particles was preserved when water was used as the biotherapic solvent. Cellular and biochemical alterations induced by the preparations on MDCK cells were analyzed and compared with those induced by respective controls (water 30x-treated and untreated cells). Cellular viability analyzed by MTT method showed statistically significant differences (p <0.05) in MDCK cells treated with intact biotherapic for 5 (3 stimuli) and 30 (18 stimuli) days in comparison with untreated control. TEM analysis did not show significant cellular changes when the different experimental groups were compared. The enzymatic activity of phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK), an important enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, presented a statistically significant increase (p <0.05) after 30 days of treatment when compared to control groups. The results obtained suggest that inactivation of viral sample with ethanol 70% induces lysis and disruption of viral particles. In addition, preliminary results indicated that treatment with intact biotherapic seems to induce higher variations on MDCK cells responses when compared to inactivated-biotherapic-treated cells. Further analyses are ongoing, including scanning electron microscopy and quantification of the number of mitosis, in order to elucidate the mechanisms involved with biochemical and cellular responses induced by theses biotherapics.(AU)


Assuntos
Influenzavirus A , Bioterápicos
9.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 10(36): 152-154, september 30, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: hom-10715

RESUMO

Oral candidiasis is an opportunist fungal infection in humans, mainly caused by Candida albicans. It occurs when the host presents an imbalance in the immune system and Candida spp., normally found in human flora, become able to develop the infection [1]. This disease is very common in HIV patients, and in all individuals that present immunossupression, such as patients treated with chemotherapy. Considering this scenario, the development of new medicines to treat oral candidiasis is mandatory.These results showed that the biotherapic did not present any citotoxicity, but was able to modify the morphological aspects of Ma-104 cells. Additionally, the interaction between host cells and ethilogic agent is directly influenced by biotherapic treatment, suggesting a promising antifungal potential of this medicine.(AU)


Assuntos
Candida albicans , Bioterápicos
10.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 5: 961-71, 2010 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21187948

RESUMO

Inhibition of tumor growth induced by treatment with direct electric current (DC) has been reported in several models. One of the mechanisms responsible for the antitumoral activity of DC is the generation of oxidative species, known as chloramines. With the aim of increasing chloramine production in the electrolytic medium and optimizing the antitumoral effects of DC, poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with the amino acid tyrosine were obtained. The physical-chemical characterization showed that the NPs presented size in nanometric range and monomodal distribution. A slightly negative electrokinetic potential was also found in both blank NPs and L-tyrosine-loaded PCL NPs. The yield of the loading process was approximately 50%. Within 3 h of dissolution assay, a burst release of about 80% L-tyrosine was obtained. The in vitro cytotoxicity of DC was significantly increased when associated with L-tyrosine-loaded NPs, using a murine multidrug-resistant melanoma cell line model. This study showed that the use of the combination of nanotechnology and DC has a promising antineoplastic potential and opens a new perspective in cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Melanoma Experimental/terapia , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Tirosina/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Terapia Combinada , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Poliésteres/química , Azul Tripano , Tirosina/química
11.
Nutr J ; 8: 51, 2009 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19857269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm infants need high amounts of calcium and phosphorus for bone mineralization, which is difficult to obtain with parenteral feeding due to the low solubility of these salts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical compatibility of high concentrations of calcium associated with organic phosphate and its influence on the stability of AIO admixtures for neonatal use. METHODS: Three TPN admixture formulas were prepared in multilayered bags. The calcium content of the admixtures was adjusted to 0, 46.5 or 93 mg/100 ml in the presence of a fixed organic phosphate concentration as well as lipids, amino acids, inorganic salts, glucose, vitamins and oligoelements at pH 5.5. Each admixture was stored at 4 degrees C, 25 degrees C or 37 degrees C and evaluated over a period of 7 days. The physicochemical stability parameters evaluated were visual aspect, pH, sterility, osmolality, peroxide formation, precipitation, and the size of lipid globules. RESULTS: Color alterations occurred from the first day on, and reversible lipid film formation from the third day of study for the admixtures stored at 25 degrees C and 37 degrees C. According to the parameters evaluated, the admixtures were stable at 4 degrees C; and none of them presented precipitated particles due to calcium/phosphate incompatibility or lipid globules larger than 5 mum, which is the main parameter currently used to evaluate lipid emulsion stability. The admixtures maintained low peroxide levels and osmolarity was appropriate for parenteral administration. CONCLUSION: The total calcium and calcium/phosphorus ratios studied appeared not to influence the physicochemical compatibility and stability of AIO admixtures.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cálcio/química , Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas/química , Compostos Organofosforados/química , Nutrição Parenteral Total , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Precipitação Química , Temperatura Baixa , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Concentração Osmolar , Tamanho da Partícula , Pigmentação , Esterilização , Fatores de Tempo
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