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Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199457


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are chemical compounds comprised of carbon and hydrogen molecules in a cyclic arrangement. PAHs are associated with risks to human health, especially carcinogenesis. One form of exposure to these compounds is through ingestion of contaminated food, which can occur during preparation and processing involving high temperatures (e.g., grilling, smoking, toasting, roasting, and frying) as well as through PAHs present in the soil, air, and water (i.e., environmental pollution). Differently from changes caused by microbiological characteristics and lipid oxidation, consumers cannot sensorially perceive PAH contamination in food products, thereby hindering their ability to reject these foods. Herein, the occurrence and biological effects of PAHs were comprehensively explored, as well as analytical methods to monitor their levels, legislations, and strategies to reduce their generation in food products. This review updates the current knowledge and addresses recent regulation changes concerning the widespread PAHs contamination in several types of food, often surpassing the concentration limits deemed acceptable by current legislations. Therefore, effective measures involving different food processing strategies are needed to prevent and reduce PAHs contamination, thereby decreasing human exposure and detrimental health effects. Furthermore, gaps in literature have been addressed to provide a basis for future studies.

Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Benzopirenos/efeitos adversos , Carcinogênese/genética , Carvão Vegetal/efeitos adversos , Culinária , Adutos de DNA/efeitos adversos , Análise de Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 102(6): 687-92, 2007 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17923996


Aspergillus flavus is a very important toxigenic fungus that produces aflatoxins, a group of extremely toxic substances to man and animals. Toxigenic fungi can grow in feed crops, such as maize, peanuts, and soybeans, being thus of high concern for public health. There are toxigenic and non-toxigenic A. flavus variants, but the necessary conditions for expressing the toxigenic potential are not fully understood. Therefore, we have studied total-DNA polymorphism from toxigenic and non toxigenic A. flavus strains isolated from maize crops and soil at two geographic locations, 300 km apart, in the Southeast region of Brazil. Total DNA from each A. flavus isolate was extracted and subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification with five randomic primers through the RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) technique. Phenetic and cladistic analyses of the data, based on bootstrap analyses, led us to conclude that RAPD was not suitable to discriminate toxigenic from non toxigenic strains. But the present results support the use of RAPD for strain characterization, especially for preliminary evaluation over extensive collections.

Aspergillus flavus/genética , DNA Fúngico/análise , Variação Genética/genética , Aspergillus flavus/isolamento & purificação , Brasil , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico
Can J Microbiol ; 52(8): 798-804, 2006 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16917539


Fusarium verticillioides (Gibberella fujikuroi mating population A) is a producer of fumonisins and one of the main contaminants of corn grains. In Brazil, some studies analyzing strains isolated from corn have demonstrated high levels of fumonisins, whereas the levels for strains isolated from sorghum have been found to be low. In the present study, we investigated the genetic diversity of 22 F. verticillioides strains isolated from corn and 21 strains isolated from sorghum cultivated in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Differences in the genetic profile were observed between the strains isolated from the two substrates using single primer amplification reaction by polymerase chain reaction (SPAR-PCR). Fumonisins levels were higher in strains isolated from corn than in those isolated from sorghum. The MAT-1 and MAT-2 alleles were identified by PCR, and the isolates were subsequently crossed with Fusarium thapsinum (G. fujikuroi mating population F) reference strains because this species is morphologically similar to F. verticillioides and produces low levels of fumonisins. The SPAR haplotypes of some strains isolated from sorghum were similar to the F. thapsinum reference strain haplotypes, but there was no fertile mating between the strains isolated from the two substrates and the F. thapsinum references strains. The MAT-1:MAT-2 proportion was 5:17 and 14:7 for isolates from corn and sorghum, respectively.

Fumonisinas/metabolismo , Fusarium/classificação , Fusarium/genética , Sorghum/microbiologia , Zea mays/microbiologia , Brasil , Fumonisinas/toxicidade , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Fusarium/metabolismo , Genes Fúngicos Tipo Acasalamento , Haplótipos , Repetições de Microssatélites